This case study describes early phase purification process development for a recombinant anticancer minibody produced in mammalian cell culture. The minibody did not bind to protein A. Cation-exchange, anion-exchange, hydrophobic-interaction, and hydroxyapatite (eluted by phosphate gradient) chromatographic methods were scouted, but the minibody coeluted with BSA to a substantial degree on each. Hydroxyapatite eluted with a sodium chloride gradient separated BSA and also removed a dimeric contaminant, but BSA consumed so much binding capacity that this proved impractical as a capture tool. Capto MMC media proved capable of supporting adequate capture and significant dimer removal, although both loading and elution selectivity varied dramatically with the amount of supernatant applied to the column. An anion-exchange step was included to fortify overall virus and DNA removal. These results illustrate the value of multimodal chromatography methods when affinity chromatography methods are lacking and conventional alternatives prove inadequate.
Retention mapping of chimeric monoclonal IgG(1), Fc, Fab, F(ab)(2), and aggregated antibody was conducted on hydroxyapatite (HA) by systematically varying phosphate and chloride concentrations during gradient elution in order to characterize the interactions of each solute with calcium and phosphate residues on the solid phase. Lysozyme was used as a control to model cation exchange-dominant interactions. Bovine serum albumin was used as a control for calcium affinity-dominant interactions. Calcium affinity and phosphoryl cation exchange were positively cooperative for IgG-related species. Fc retention was dominated by calcium affinity, while retention of Fab was dominated by cation exchange. F(ab)(2) exhibited a curve shape similar to Fab, but stronger retention. The retention curve for intact IgG incorporated the distinctive elements of its fragments but stronger retention than that predicted by their addition to one another. Aggregate retention paralleled the curve for non-aggregated antibody, with stronger retention by both binding mechanisms. Experimental data revealed evidence of charge repulsion between IgG carboxyls and HA phosphate at low conductivity values. Electrostatic repulsion of amino residues and attraction of carboxyls by HA calcium appeared to be blocked by strong complexation of calcium with mobile phase phosphate.
Recombinant monoclonal antibodies have emerged as important tools for cancer therapy. Despite the promise shown by antibody-based therapies, the large molecular size of antibodies limits their ability to efficiently penetrate solid tumors and precludes efficient crossing of the blood-brain-barrier into the central nervous system (CNS). Consequently, poorly vascularized solid tumors and CNS metastases cannot be effectively treated by intravenously-injected antibodies. The inherent tumor-tropic properties of human neural stem cells (NSCs) can potentially be harnessed to overcome these obstacles and significantly improve cancer immunotherapy. Intravenously-delivered NSCs preferentially migrate to primary and metastatic tumor sites within and outside the CNS. Therefore, we hypothesized that NSCs could serve as an ideal cellular delivery platform for targeting antibodies to malignant tumors.
This study introduces the application of calcium-derivatized hydroxyapatite for purification of Fab. Fab binds to native hydroxyapatite but fails to bind to the calcium derivatized form. IgG, Fc, and most other protein contaminants bind to the calcium form. This supports Fab purification by a simple flow-through method that achieves greater than 95% purity from papain digests and mammalian cell culture supernatants. Alternatively, Fab can be concentrated on native hydroxyapatite then eluted selectively by conversion to the calcium-derivatized form.
A series of anti-tumor/anti-chelate bispecific antibody formats were developed for pre-targeted radioimmunotherapy. Based on the anti-carcinoembryonic antigen humanized hT84.66-M5A monoclonal antibody and the anti-DOTA C8.2.5 scFv antibody fragment, this cognate series of bispecific antibodies were radioiodinated to determine their tumor targeting, biodistribution and pharmacokinetic properties in a mouse xenograft tumor model. The in vivo biodistribution studies showed that all the bispecific antibodies exhibited specific high tumor uptake but the tumor targeting was approximately one-half of the parental anti-CEA mAb due to faster blood clearance. Serum stability and FcRn studies showed no apparent reason for the faster blood clearance. A dual radiolabel biodistribution study revealed that the (111)In-DOTA bispecific antibody had increased liver and spleen uptake, not seen for the (125)I-version due to metabolism and release of the radioiodine from the cells. These data suggest increased clearance of the antibody fusion formats by the mononuclear phagocyte system. Importantly, a pre-targeted study showed specific tumor uptake of (177)Lu-DOTA and a tumor : blood ratio of 199 : 1. This pre-targeted radiotherapeutic and substantial reduction in the radioactive exposure to the bone marrow should enhance the therapeutic potential of RIT.
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