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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Distinct aetiopathogenesis in subgroups of functional dyspepsia according to the Rome III criteria.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Whether there is distinct pathogenesis in subgroups of functional dyspepsia (FD), the postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) remains controversial. We aimed to identify the risk factors of FD and its subgroups in the Chinese population.
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Osteoporosis increases subsequent risk of gallstone: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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BackgroundOsteopontin (OPN) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which is expressed in various tissues. It participates in the bone remodeling process and stimulates bone resorption by osteoclasts. It is also a core protein of cholesterol gallstones. We hypothesized osteoporotic patients might have higher risk in developing gallstones and conducted a population-based study to examine the risk of developing gallstone in osteoporotic patients in Taiwan.MethodsA total of 1,638 patients diagnosed with osteoporosis between 2003 and 2005 were identified in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort without osteoporosis (n =6,552) was randomly matched to each osteoporosis patient at a ratio of 4: 1 based on age and sex. A Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis was performed to evaluate the 5-year gallstone-free survival rates for the 2 cohorts.ResultsDuring the 5-year follow-up period, 114 and 311 cases of gallstone occurred in the osteoporosis and comparison cohorts, respectively. After adjusting for the confounders, the Cox regression analysis of the risk of gallstone in the osteoporosis and comparison cohorts yielded a hazard ratio of 1.35 (95% confidence interval: 1.07 - 1.69; p < 0 .01).ConclusionPatients with osteoporosis in Taiwan have a higher risk of developing gallstone than the general population.
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Nonsensory target-dependent organization of piriform cortex.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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The piriform cortex (PCX) is the largest component of the olfactory cortex and is hypothesized to be the locus of odor object formation. The distributed odorant representation found in PCX contrasts sharply with the topographical representation seen in other primary sensory cortices, making it difficult to test this view. Recent work in PCX has focused on functional characteristics of these distributed afferent and association fiber systems. However, information regarding the efferent projections of PCX and how those may be involved in odor representation and object recognition has been largely ignored. To investigate this aspect of PCX, we have used the efferent pathway from mouse PCX to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Using double fluorescent retrograde tracing, we identified the output neurons (OPNs) of the PCX that project to two subdivisions of the OFC, the agranular insula and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (AI-OPNs and LO-OPNs, respectively). We found that both AI-OPNs and LO-OPNs showed a distinct spatial topography within the PCX and fewer than 10% projected to both the AI and the LO as judged by double-labeling. These data revealed that the efferent component of the PCX may be topographically organized. Further, these data suggest a model for functional organization of the PCX in which the OPNs are grouped into parallel output circuits that provide olfactory information to different higher centers. The distributed afferent input from the olfactory bulb and the local PCX association circuits would then ensure a complete olfactory representation, pattern recognition capability, and neuroplasticity in each efferent circuit.
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Dendritic cells respond to nasopharygeal carcinoma cells through annexin A2-recognizing DC-SIGN.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Dendritic cells (DCs) play an essential role in immunity and are used in cancer immunotherapy. However, these cells can be tuned by tumors with immunosuppressive responses. DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-Grabbing Nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), a C-type lectin expressed on DCs, recognizes certain carbohydrate structures which can be found on cancer cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial cell-derived malignant tumor, in which immune response remains unclear. This research is to reveal the molecular link on NPC cells that induces the immunosuppressive responses in DCs. In this article, we report identification of annexin A2 (ANXA2) on NPC cells as a ligand for DC-SIGN on DCs. N-linked mannose-rich glycan on ANXA2 may mediate the interaction. ANXA2 was abundantly expressed in NPC, and knockdown of ANXA2 suppressed NPC xenograft in mice, suggesting a crucial role of ANXA2 in NPC growth. Interaction with NPC cells caused DC-SIGN activation in DCs. Consequently DC maturation and the proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-12 production were inhibited, and the immunosuppressive IL-10 production was promoted. Blockage of either DC-SIGN or ANXA2 eliminated the production of IL-10 from DCs. This report suggests that suppression of ANXA2 at its expression or glycosylation on NPC may improve DC-mediated immunotherapy for the tumor.
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Immunogenicity study of Globo H analogues with modification at the reducing or non-reducing end of the tumor antigen.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Globo H-based therapeutic cancer vaccines have been tested in clinical trials for the treatment of late stage breast, ovarian and prostate cancers. In this study, we explored Globo H analogue antigens with an attempt to enhance the antigenic properties in vaccine design. The Globo H analogues with modification at the reducing or non-reducing end were synthesized using chemoenzymatic methods, and these modified Globo H antigens were then conjugated with the carrier protein diphtheria toxoid cross-reactive material (CRM) 197 (DT), and combined with a glycolipid C34 as an adjuvant designed to induce a class switch to form the vaccine candidates. After Balb/c mice injection, the immune response was studied by a glycan array and the results showed that modification at the C-6 position of reducing end glucose of Globo H with the fluoro, azido or phenyl group elicited IgG antibody response to specifically recognize Globo H (GH) and the GH-related epitopes, stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 (SSEA3) (also called Gb5) and stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 (SSEA4). However, only the modification of Globo H with the azido group at the C-6 position of the non-reducing end fucose could elicit a strong IgG immune response. Moreover, the antibodies induced by these vaccines were shown to recognize GH expressing tumor cells (MCF-7) and mediate the complement-dependent cell cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Our data suggest a new potential approach to cancer vaccine development.
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Benzydamine hydrochloride on postoperative sore throat: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Can J Anaesth
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Sore throat is a common postoperative complaint. The etiology of postoperative sore throat (POST) is considered the result of damage to airway mucosa after insertion of a laryngeal mask airway device or endotracheal tube. This paper proposes benzydamine hydrochloride (BH), a topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with additional analgesic and local anesthetic properties, for POST prevention.
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Draft Genome Sequences of Four Strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Three of Which Cause Early Mortality Syndrome/Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease in Shrimp in China and Thailand.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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We sequenced four Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains, three of which caused serious acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease. Sequence analysis of the virulent strains revealed not only genes related to cholera toxin and the type IV pilus/type IV secretion system but also a unique, previously unreported, large extrachromosomal plasmid that encodes a homolog to the insecticidal Photorhabdus insect-related binary toxin PirAB.
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Down-regulation of LXR/RXR activation and negative acute phase response pathways in colon adenocarcinoma revealed by proteomics and bioinformatics analysis.
Cancer Biomark
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Deficiency of vitamin D could be a major cause of colon cancer as suggested as early as 1980 by Drs. Cedric and Frank Garland of the University of California and has recently been underscored by a large European case control study. Whether vitamin D deficiency is because of inadequate intake (food and sunshine) or because of vitamin D metabolism disorder in the patient body is unknown. A proteomics approach to identify protein pathways associated with vitamin D transportation and metabolism pathways will help us understand better the pathology of the colon cancer.
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Design of Portable Mass Spectrometers with Handheld Probes: Aspects of the Sampling and Miniature Pumping Systems.
J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Miniature mass spectrometry analytical systems of backpack configuration fitted with sampling probes could potentially be of significant interest for in-field, real-time chemical analysis. In this study, various configurations were explored in which a long narrow tube was used to connect the turbo and backing pumps used to create and maintain vacuum. Also, for the first time we introduced two new types of pumps for miniature mass spectrometers, the Creare 130 g drag pump and Creare 350 g scroll backing pump. These pumps, along with another Creare 550 turbo pump and the commercially available Pfeiffer HiPace 10 turbo and KnF diaphragm backing pumps, were tested with the backpack configurations. The system performance, especially the scan time, was characterized when used with a discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) for ion introduction. The pumping performance in the pressure region above 1 mtorr is critical for DAPI operation. The 550 g turbo pump was shown to have a relatively higher pumping speed above 1 mtorr and gave a scan time of 300 ms, almost half the value obtained with the larger, heavier HiPace 10 often used with miniature mass spectrometers. The 350 g scroll pump was also found to be an improvement over the diaphragm pumps generally used as backing pumps. With a coaxial low temperature plasma ion source, direct analysis of low volatility compounds glass slides was demonstrated, including 1 ng DNP (2,4-Dinitrophenol) and 10 ng TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) with Creare 550 g turbo pump as well as 10 ng cocaine and 20 ng DNP with Creare 130 g drag pump.
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Healthcare Resource Utilization in Patients Receiving Omalizumab for Allergic Asthma in a Real-World Setting.
Biol Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Inadequately controlled asthma is associated with increased healthcare resource utilization. The eXpeRience registry was initiated to evaluate real-world outcomes in patients receiving omalizumab for uncontrolled persistent allergic asthma. The current analysis of data from the eXpeRience registry focuses on healthcare resource utilization and on absences from work or school.
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Genetic variants of CD209 associated with Kawasaki disease susceptibility.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis with unknown etiology mainly affecting children in Asian countries. Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN, CD209) in humans was showed to trigger an anti-inflammatory cascade and associated with KD susceptibility. This study was conducted to investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms of CD209 and the risk KD.
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Highly efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices utilizing the connecting structure based on n-doped electron-transport layer/HATCN/hole-transport layer.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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In this work, we conducted studies of tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on the connecting structure consisting of n-doped electron-transport layer (n-ETL)/1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN)/hole-transport layer. We investigated effects of different n-ETL materials and different HATCN thicknesses on characteristics of tandem OLEDs. Results show that the tandem OLEDs with n-BPhen and a 20 nm layer of HATCN in the connecting structure exhibited the best performance. With these, highly efficient and bright green phosphorescent two-emitting-unit tandem OLEDs, with drive voltages significantly lower than twice that of the single-unit benchmark device and current efficiencies higher than twice that of the single-unit benchmark device, were demonstrated.
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Open-label dose optimization of methylphenidate modified release long acting (MPH-LA): a post hoc analysis of real-life titration from a 40-week randomized trial.
Clin Drug Investig
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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In the management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults it is important to recognize that individual patients respond to a wide range of methylphenidate doses. Studies with methylphenidate modified release long acting (MPH-LA) in children have reported the need for treatment optimization for improved outcomes. We report the results from a post hoc analysis of a 5-week dose optimization phase from a large randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter 40-week study (9-week double-blind dose confirmation phase, 5-week open-label dose optimization phase, and 26-week double-blind maintenance of effect phase).
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Identification of cucurbitacins and assembly of a draft genome for Aquilaria agallocha.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Agarwood is derived from Aquilaria trees, the trade of which has come under strict control with a listing in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Many secondary metabolites of agarwood are known to have medicinal value to humans, including compounds that have been shown to elicit sedative effects and exhibit anti-cancer properties. However, little is known about the genome, transcriptome, and the biosynthetic pathways responsible for producing such secondary metabolites in agarwood.
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Light-scattering effectiveness of two-dimensional disordered surface textures in thin-film silicon solar cells.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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To compare the light-scattering effectiveness of surface-textured solar cells of various design parameters such as density, diameter, refractive index, and location, this study used a new parameter, optical path length gain (OPLG), that is more sensitive than Haze. By modeling two-dimensional disordered textures as a structure that comprises many randomly distributed, small, spherical scatterers, ray-tracing simulations of surface-textured thin-film silicon solar cells were performed. The simulation results suggest that: (1) the optimal scatterer diameter for hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells is ~50 nm, producing an average OPLG of 3.5; and (2) the optimal scatterer diameter for a-Si:H/?c-Si:H (hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon) tandem cells is ~75 nm, producing an average OPLG of 3.4 and an increase in the bandwidth of the absorption spectrum of 14.5%.
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Development of a universal metabolome-standard method for long-term LC-MS metabolome profiling and its application for bladder cancer urine-metabolite-biomarker discovery.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Large-scale metabolomics study requires a quantitative method to generate metabolome data over an extended period with high technical reproducibility. We report a universal metabolome-standard (UMS) method, in conjunction with chemical isotope labeling liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), to provide long-term analytical reproducibility and facilitate metabolome comparison among different data sets. In this method, UMS of a specific type of sample labeled by an isotope reagent is prepared a priori. The UMS is spiked into any individual samples labeled by another form of the isotope reagent in a metabolomics study. The resultant mixture is analyzed by LC-MS to provide relative quantification of the individual sample metabolome to UMS. UMS is independent of a study undertaking as well as the time of analysis and useful for profiling the same type of samples in multiple studies. In this work, the UMS method was developed and applied for a urine metabolomics study of bladder cancer. UMS of human urine was prepared by (13)C2-dansyl labeling of a pooled sample from 20 healthy individuals. This method was first used to profile the discovery samples to generate a list of putative biomarkers potentially useful for bladder cancer detection and then used to analyze the verification samples about one year later. Within the discovery sample set, three-month technical reproducibility was examined using a quality control sample and found a mean CV of 13.9% and median CV of 9.4% for all the quantified metabolites. Statistical analysis of the urine metabolome data showed a clear separation between the bladder cancer group and the control group from the discovery samples, which was confirmed by the verification samples. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) test showed that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.956 in the discovery data set and 0.935 in the verification data set. These results demonstrated the utility of the UMS method for long-term metabolomics and discovering potential metabolite biomarkers for diagnosis of bladder cancer.
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MicroRNA-205 targets tight junction-related proteins during urothelial cellular differentiation.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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The mammalian bladder urothelium classified as basal, intermediate, and terminally differentiated umbrella cells offers one of the most effective permeability barrier functions known to exist in nature because of the formation of apical uroplakin plaques and tight junctions. To improve our understanding of urothelial differentiation, we analyzed the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of mouse urinary tissues and by TaqMan miRNA analysis of microdissected urothelial layers and in situ miRNA-specific hybridization to determine the dependence of these miRNAs on the differentiation stage. Our in situ hybridization studies revealed that miR-205 was enriched in the undifferentiated basal and intermediate cell layers. We then used a quantitative proteomics approach to identify miR-205 target genes in primary cultured urothelial cells subjected to antagomir-mediated knockdown of specific miRNAs. Twenty-four genes were reproducibly regulated by miR-205; eleven of them were annotated as cell junction- and tight junction-related molecules. Western blot analysis demonstrated that antagomir-induced silencing of miR-205 in primary cultured urothelial cells elevated the expression levels of Tjp1, Cgnl1, and Cdc42. Ectopic expression of miR-205 in MDCK cells inhibited the expression of tight junction proteins and the formation of tight junctions. miR-205- knockdown urothelial cells showed alterations in keratin synthesis and increases of uroplakin Ia and Ib, which are the urothelial differentiation products. These results suggest that miR-205 may contribute a role in regulation of urothelial differentiation by modulating the expression of tight junction-related molecules.
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Chylothorax following endovascular aortic repair with subclavian revascularization ¿ a case report.
J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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BackgroundThoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is becoming increasingly popular due to reduced perioperative morbidity and mortality compared with open surgical repair. However, complications can occur when the left subclavian artery is involved. When performing TEVAR with left carotid-subclavian artery bypass the stent graft will extend to the left common carotid artery. We herein present the case of a patient with a type B aortic dissection with an acute intramural hematoma. Chylothorax was noted after TEVAR with left carotid-subclavian artery bypass.Case reportA 66-year-old female with descending aortic dissection that was treated conservatively developed the sudden onset of back pain. Aortic computed tomography (CT) showed a type B intramural aortic dissection. TEVAR with left carotid-subclavian artery bypass was performed. Left chylothorax was noted after surgery with drainage of up to 1000 mL per day. Conservative management was ineffective. Thoracoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct was performed with resolution of the chyle leakage.ConclusionChylothorax can occur after TEVAR with carotid-subclavian artery bypass and likely results from thoracic duct injury. When conservative treatments fail, ligation of the thoracic duct cephalad to aortic hiatus can resolve the chyle leakage.
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A phase 3 trial of armodafinil for the treatment of cancer-related fatigue for patients with multiple myeloma.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Fatigue is a common problem among multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Armodafinil is a drug known to promote wakefulness, which is related to modafinil, a compound that improves fatigue in some cancer patients treated with chemotherapeutic agents. We investigated whether armodafinil could reduce cancer-related fatigue in MM patients.
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Differential activation of sporamin expression in response to abiotic mechanical wounding and biotic herbivore attack in the sweet potato.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Plants respond differently to mechanical wounding and herbivore attack, using distinct pathways for defense. The versatile sweet potato sporamin possesses multiple biological functions in response to stress. However, the regulation of sporamin gene expression that is activated upon mechanical damage or herbivore attack has not been well studied.
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A Chinese herbal medicine, jia-wei-xiao-yao-san, prevents dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (JWXYS) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is widely used to treat neuropsychological disorders. Only a few of the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS have been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS on dimethylnitrosamine- (DMN-) induced chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis in rats and to clarify the mechanism through which JWXYS exerts these effects. After the rats were treated with DMN for 3 weeks, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) levels were significantly elevated, whereas the albumin level decreased. Although DMN was continually administered, after the 3 doses of JWXYS were orally administered, the SGOT and SGPT levels significantly decreased and the albumin level was significantly elevated. In addition, JWXYS treatment prevented liver fibrosis induced by DMN. JWXYS exhibited superoxide-dismutase-like activity and dose-dependently inhibited DMN-induced lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in the liver of rats. Our findings suggest that JWXYS exerts antifibrotic effects against DMN-induced chronic hepatic injury. The possible mechanism is at least partially attributable to the ability of JWXYS to inhibit reactive-oxygen-species-induced membrane lipid peroxidation.
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Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases in lung tissue of patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax.
Respiration
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Although blebs and bullae are frequently found in the apexes of lungs of patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP), its pathogens remain unclear.
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Fas/Fas ligand mediates keratinocyte death in sunitinib-induced hand-foot skin reaction.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Sunitinib, a multitargeted receptor Y kinase inhibitor (TKI) used for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), is notorious for cutaneous adverse effects, such as hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR). To explore the underlying mechanism of HFSR, we enrolled 53 sunitinib-treated GIST patients, including 23 HFSR cases, and 30 tolerant controls. Among the 29 biomarkers examined, soluble FasL (sFasL) showed significant increase in the plasma, blister fluids, and skin lesions of HFSR patients. The plasma levels of sFasL were significantly correlated with those of sunitinib in HFSR patients. In addition to FasL, augmented expression of Fas and active caspase 3 was also detected in the epidermis of HFSR patients. The increased FasL caused keratinocyte death, as the use of anti-FasL antibody specifically blocked cell apoptosis. Oral administration of sunitinib to mice increased skin susceptibility to mechanical injuries in a dose/time-dependent manner. The administration of sunitinib (40?mg?kg(-1) per day) for 4 weeks to mice caused the maximally affected skin area with an erosion-to-ulceration response to tape-stripping. The skin biopsies of mice administered sunitinib exhibited increased expression of Fas and FasL in the apoptotic keratinocytes in the epidermis. Our data revealed that Fas/FasL interaction mediates keratinocyte death in sunitinib-induced HFSR.
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Phase II study of bortezomib in combination with rituximab, cyclophosphamide and prednisone with or without doxorubicin followed by rituximab maintenance in patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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This non-comparative phase II study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00715208) evaluated bortezomib in place of vincristine in established rituximab-chemotherapy regimens in relapsed/refractory follicular (FL) or marginal zone lymphoma (MZL). Patients were allocated (physician/patient preference) to receive six 21-d cycles of: bortezomib 1·6 mg/m(2) (days 1, 8), rituximab 375 mg/m(2) (day 1), cyclophosphamide 1000 mg/m(2) (day 1) and prednisone 100 mg (days 1-5; VR-CP; 47 FL, 1 MZL patients); or bortezomib, rituximab, prednisone per VR-CP, cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m(2) and doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2) (day 1; VR-CAP; 4 FL, 2 MZL, 1 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients). With VR-CP, the response rate was 77%, with a 27% complete response rate. After a median follow-up of 10·9 months, 40% of patients had relapsed/progressed or died. Median duration of response and progression-free survival was 21·9 and 14·9 months, respectively. Common drug-related grade ?3 adverse events were neutropenia (25%), thrombocytopenia (6%) and lymphopenia (6%). Thirteen (27%) patients reported peripheral neuropathy (one grade 3). With VR-CAP, one FL patient achieved complete response and three FL and two MZL patients achieved partial responses. Three patients reported drug-related grade 1/2 peripheral neuropathy. Weekly bortezomib and rituximab represents an active, feasible treatment platform in FL. VR-CP was active and well tolerated in patients with relapsed/refractory FL.
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Aberrant expression of annexin A10 is closely related to gastric phenotype in serrated pathway to colorectal carcinoma.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Annexin A10 (ANXA10) is a member of the ANX family that is normally expressed in gastric mucosa. ANXA10 was recently observed to be upregulated in sessile serrated adenoma, a precursor to microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancer. We investigated the use of ANXA10 in diagnosing colorectal carcinoma. In an immunohistochemical analysis, the intensity and quantity of ANXA10, MUC5AC, MUC6 and CDX2 in 123 colorectal carcinomas were graded. We determined the molecular status of BRAF and KRAS mutations, as well as the microsatellite instability status and the CpG island methylator phenotype in all colorectal carcinomas, and subcategorized into four molecular subgroups according to the molecular derangements. Nuclear ANXA10 staining was present in 36 colorectal carcinomas, exhibiting a strong significant association with the BRAF mutation status (P<0.0001) and positive CpG island methylator phenotype (P<0.0001), and a borderline significant association with high levels of microsatellite instability (P=0.072). The ANXA10-positive colorectal carcinomas were frequently positive for MUC5AC and MUC6, and were associated with absent or reduced CDX2 expression (all P<0.0001). According to a classification and regression tree analysis, ANXA10 is a superior marker for the molecular subtyping of colorectal carcinomas and represents a specific marker for colorectal cancers of the serrated pathway. Our results indicated that ANXA10 expression is implicated in gastric programming in serrated-pathway-associated colorectal carcinoma. ANXA10-positive colorectal carcinoma is highly associated with the molecular features of the serrated neoplasia pathway.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 1 August 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.96.
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Metabolites of antroquinonol found in rat urine following oral administration.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Four metabolites (1-4) of antroquinonol from rat urine, collected within 24 h after oral administration of antroquinonol, were characterized by HPLC-SPE-NMR. Compounds 1-4 were further isolated by semipreparative HPLC for structure confirmation. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses and HRESIMS data.
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Autonomous in situ analysis and real-time chemical detection using a backpack miniature mass spectrometer: concept, instrumentation development, and performance.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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A major design objective of portable mass spectrometers is the ability to perform in situ chemical analysis on target samples in their native states in the undisturbed environment. The miniature instrument described here is fully contained in a wearable backpack (10 kg) with a geometry-independent low-temperature plasma (LTP) ion source integrated into a hand-held head unit (2 kg) to allow direct surface sampling and analysis. Detection of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants, illicit drugs, and explosives is demonstrated at nanogram levels directly from surfaces in near real time including those that have complex geometries, those that are heat-sensitive, and those bearing complex sample matrices. The instrument consumes an average of 65 W of power and can be operated autonomously under battery power for ca. 1.5 h, including the initial pump-down of the manifold. The maximum mass-to-charge ratio is 925 Th with mass resolution of 1-2 amu full width at half-maximun (fwhm) across the mass range. Multiple stages of tandem analysis can be performed to identify individual compounds in complex mixtures. Both positive and negative ion modes are available. A graphical user interface (GUI) is available for novice users to facilitate data acquisition and real-time spectral matching.
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Genetic polymorphisms of ORAI1 and chronic kidney disease in Taiwanese population.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Taiwan has very high incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which easily progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The association between inflammation and CKD has been explored in several studies. ORAI1 functions as a pore-forming subunit of the store-operated calcium channels which are involved in the regulation of immune system. Hence, we conducted a case-control study to determine whether the genetic polymorphisms of ORAI1 gene is a susceptibility factor to CKD and its clinical features in a Taiwanese population. Five hundred seventy-nine CKD patients from a hospital-based CKD care program were included in the study. Five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) of ORAI1 were selected from the genotyping data of the Han Chinese population from the HapMap project. Among these polymorphisms, rs12313273 was found to be significantly associated with elevated serum calcium levels, which has been linked to increased risk of death in CKD patients. To have a better management of serum calcium, we suggest that ORAI1 polymorphisms might be used as a potential biomarker for initiating non-calcium-based phosphate binder in CKD patients in the future.
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Facial nerve schwannoma: A case report and review of the literature.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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A vestibular schwannoma, often termed an acoustic neuroma, is a type of benign primary intracranial tumor of the myelin-forming cells of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The typical clinical presentation often includes ipsilateral sensorineural hearing loss/deafness, vertigo and tinnitus. In the present study, the case of a young male patient who presented with recurrent unilateral facial palsy without hearing impairment is presented. The patient was diagnosed with vestibular schwannoma and received steroidal treatment with prednisolone for two weeks. The patient's facial weakness recovered three weeks following treatment, however, the tumor subsequently grew. The patient then underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery with a margin dose of 13 Gy. Six months after the radiosurgery, the tumor was stable without progression, and the patient's facial nerve function and hearing remained intact.
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Strangulation of chronic transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernia.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernia (TIH) caused by violent coughing is a rare clinical diagnosis. Most patients diagnosed with TIH have a chronic condition consisting of a hernia that can be reduced completely by surgical intervention. Our patient presented with acute abdomen resulting from mechanical bowel obstruction secondary to an incarcerated hernia. Acute TIH presents a diagnostic challenge because of its rarity and lack of specific signs or symptoms in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. We recommend performing diagnostic computed tomography (CT) early if there is suspicion of TIH. Surgical intervention is always needed. Surgical intervention was complicated in this case, necessitating both transthoracic and abdominal exposure to resect the ischemic bowel segment. Nonetheless, the patient recovered uneventfully.
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Linifanib (ABT-869), enhances cytotoxicity with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, veliparib (ABT-888), in head and neck carcinoma cells.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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PARP inhibitors (PARPi) may provide an opportunity to gain selective killing of tumor cells which have deficiencies in cellular DNA repair systems. We previously demonstrated linifanib (ABT-869), a multi-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of VEGF and PDGF receptor families, radiosensitized Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma cells (HNSCC) via inhibiting STAT3 activation. Given that STAT3 can modulate DNA damage response (DDR) pathway, in this study, we evaluate the effects of linifanib to enhance cytotoxicity with the PARPi, veliparib (ABT-888), in HNSCC.
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Dexamethasone, ondansetron, and their combination and postoperative nausea and vomiting in children undergoing strabismus surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Paediatr Anaesth
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complication after pediatric strabismus surgery. Steroids and ondansetron (a 5-HT3 antagonist) can effectively reduce nausea, vomiting, and pain and thus might be useful agents for the prevention of PONV in pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the prophylactic effects of dexamethasone and ondansetron on PONV after strabismus surgery in pediatric patients.
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Fast multipoint immobilized MOF bioreactor.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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An enzyme-NBD@MOF bioreactor with exemplary proteolytic performance, even after successive reuse and storage, was produced through a novel, rapid and simple multipoint immobilization technique without chemical modification of the solid support. Enzyme loading and distribution could be directly monitored from the fluorescence emission of the bioreactor. The dye molecular dimension plays a role in its overall performance.
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Down-regulation of MSH2 expression by an Hsp90 inhibitor enhances pemetrexed-induced cytotoxicity in human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Elevated heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expression has been linked to poor prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The multitargeted antifolate pemetrexed has demonstrated certain clinical activities against NSCLC. However, the efficacy of the combination of pemtrexed and Hsp90 inhibitor to prolong the survival of patients with NSCLC still remains unclear. Human MutS homolog 2 (MSH2), a crucial element of the highly conserved DNA mismatch repair system, and defects or polymorphisms of MSH2 have been found in lung cancer. In this study, we evaluated the effects of pemetrexed on NSCLC cell lines (H520 and H1703) and found that treatment with this drug at 20-50 µM increased the MSH2 mRNA and protein levels in a MKK3/6-p38 MAPK signal activation-dependent manner. Furthermore, the knockdown of MSH2 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of MSH2 or the blockage of p38 MAPK activation by SB202190 enhanced the cytotoxicity of pemetrexed. Combining the drug treatment with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in an enhanced pemetrexed-induced cytotoxic effect, accompanied with the reduction of MSH2 protein and mRNA levels. The expression of constitutively active MKK6 (MKK6E) or HA-p38 MAPK vectors significantly rescued the decreased p38 MAPK activity, and restored the MSH2 protein levels and cell survival in NSCLC cells co-treated with pemetrexed and Hsp90 inhibitor. In this study, we have demonstrated that down-regulation of the MKK3/6-p38 MAPK signal with the subsequent reduction of MSH2 enhanced the cytotoxic effect of pemetrexed in H520 and H1703 cells. The results suggest a potential future benefit of combining pemetrexed and the Hsp90 inhibitor to treat lung cancer.
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Tamoxifen enhances erlotinib-induced cytotoxicity through down-regulating AKT-mediated thymidine phosphorylase expression in human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Tamoxifen is a triphenylethylene nonsteroidal estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist used worldwide as an adjuvant hormone therapeutic agent in the treatment of breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of tamoxifen-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is an enzyme of the pyrimidine salvage pathway which is upregulated in cancers. In this study, tamoxifen treatment inhibited cell survival in two NSCLC cells, H520 and H1975. Treatment with tamoxifen decreased TP mRNA and protein levels through AKT inactivation. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active AKT (AKT-CA) vectors significantly rescued the decreased TP protein and mRNA levels in tamoxifen-treated NSCLC cells. In contrast, combination treatment with PI3K inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin) and tamoxifen further decreased the TP expression and cell viability of NSCLC cells. Knocking down TP expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of TP enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of tamoxifen. Erlotinib (Tarceva, OSI-774), an orally available small molecular inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase, is approved for clinical treatment of NSCLC. Compared to a single agent alone, tamoxifen combined with erlotinib resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced activation of phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK1/2, and reduced TP protein levels. These findings may have implications for the rational design of future drug regimens incorporating tamoxifen and erlotinib for the treatment of NSCLC.
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Occurrence of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists and genotoxic compounds in the river systems in Southern Taiwan.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Water and sediment samples from river systems located in Southern Taiwan were investigated for the presence of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists and genotoxicants by a combination of recombinant cell assays and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. AhR agonist activity and genotoxic response were frequently detected in samples collected during different seasons. In particular, dry-season water and sediment samples from Erren River showed strong AhR agonist activity (201-1423 ng L(-1) and 1374-5631 ng g(-1) ?-naphthoflavone equivalents) and high genotoxic potential. Although no significant correlation was found between AhR agonist activity and genotoxicity, potential genotoxicants in sample extracts were suggested to be causative agents for yeast growth inhibition in the AhR-responsive reporter gene assay. After high performance liquid chromatography fractionation, AhR agonist candidates were detected in several fractions of Erren River water and sediment extracts, while possible genotoxicants were only found in water extracts. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the typical contaminants showing high AhR binding affinity, were only minor contributors to the AhR agonist activity detected in Erren River sediment extracts. Our findings displayed the usefulness of bioassays in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination, which may be helpful in reducing the chances of false-negative results obtained from chemical analysis of conventional contaminants. Further research will be undertaken to identify major candidates for xenobiotic AhR agonists and genotoxicants to better protect the aquatic environments in Taiwan.
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Occurrence of xenobiotic ligands for retinoid X receptors and thyroid hormone receptors in the aquatic environment of Taiwan.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Various synthetic compounds are frequently discharged into the environment via human activities. Among them, certain contaminants may disrupt normal physiological functions of wildlife and humans via interactions with nuclear receptors. To protect human health and the environment, it is important to detect environmental ligands for human nuclear receptors. In this study, yeast-based reporter gene assays were used to investigate the occurrence of xenobiotic ligands for retinoid X receptors (RXR) and thyroid hormone receptors (TR) in the aquatic environment of Taiwan. Experimental results revealed that RXR agonist/antagonist activity was detected in river water and sediment samples. In particular, high RXR agonist/antagonist activity was found in the samples collected near river mouths. Additionally, few samples also elicited significant TR antagonist activity. Our findings show that the aquatic environment of Taiwan was contaminated with RXR and TR ligands. Further study is necessary to identify these xenobiotic RXR and TR agonists and antagonists.
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Adjunctive traditional Chinese medicine therapy improves survival in patients with advanced breast cancer: a population-based study.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the most common complementary and alternative medicines used in the treatment of patients with breast cancer. However, the clinical effect of TCM on survival, which is a major concern in these individuals, lacks evidence from large-scale clinical studies.
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Risk factors associated with ineligibility of adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy after nephroureterectomy.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) is a standard treatment for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. However, RNU can result in decreased renal function and cannot be treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. We performed a risk group stratification analysis to determine the preoperative factors that are predictive of diminished renal function after RNU.
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The expression sequence tag is an effective method for screening DNA segments that predict urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma prognosis.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We validated the use of expression sequence tags (ESTs) as an effective method of screening for DNA segments that could predict urothelial cell carcinoma and for identifying ESTs with such predictive value.
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Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Natural Killer Cells following the Acquisition of Chimeric Antigen Receptors through Trogocytosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Natural killer (NK) cells have the capacity to target tumors and are ideal candidates for immunotherapy. Viral vectors have been used to genetically modify in vitro expanded NK cells to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), which confer cytotoxicity against tumors. However, use of viral transduction methods raises the safety concern of viral integration into the NK cell genome. In this study, we used trogocytosis as a non-viral method to modify NK cells for immunotherapy. A K562 cell line expressing high levels of anti-CD19 CARs was generated as a donor cell to transfer the anti-CD19 CARs onto NK cells via trogocytosis. Anti-CD19 CAR expression was observed in expanded NK cells after these cells were co-cultured for one hour with freeze/thaw-treated donor cells expressing anti-CD19 CARs. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the localization of the anti-CD19 CARs on the NK cell surface. Acquisition of anti-CD19 CARs via trogocytosis enhanced NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against the B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cell lines and primary B-ALL cells derived from patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the increased cytotoxicity of NK cells following the acquisition of CARs via trogocytosis. This novel strategy could be a potential valuable therapeutic approach for the treatment of B-cell tumors.
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Prostatic urethral angle might be a predictor of treatment efficacy of ?-blockers in men with lower urinary tract symptoms.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We investigated the association of the prostatic urethral angle (PUA) with peak urinary flow rate (Qmax) and the severity of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on the aging male. We also evaluated the effect of the PUA on the treatment efficacy of tamsulosin on men with LUTS.
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Single-nucleotide polymorphism rs7251246 in ITPKC is associated with susceptibility and coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is a multi-systemic vasculitis that preferentially affects children. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC) has been identified to be an important polymorphism in the risk of KD. This study was conducted to comprehensively investigate the associations between all tagging SNPs of ITPKC in the risk of KD in a Taiwanese population. A total of 950 subjects (381 KD patients and 569 controls) were recruited. Seven tagging SNPs (rs11673492, rs7257602, rs7251246, rs890934, rs10420685, rs2607420, rs2290692) were selected for TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Clinical data of coronary artery lesions (CAL) and aneurysms were collected for analysis. A significant association was found between rs7251246 in ITPKC and CAL formation. Haplotype analysis for ITPKC polymorphisms also confirmed this association in the patients with CAL and aneurysm formation. This is the first study to identify that SNP rs7251246 in ITPKC is associated with the severity of KD.
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Folic acid supplementation in end-stage renal disease patients reduces total mortality rate.
J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Background: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at high risk of cardiovascular disease and elevated serum homocysteine levels. Although folic acid supplementation has been documented to reduce serum homocysteine levels in ESRD patients, most trials of folic acid therapy for reducing cardiovascular diseases in ESRD patients have failed, mainly because of limited patient numbers.?Methods: We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to conduct a matched-pair retrospective cohort study to clarify whether folic acid supplementation benefits ESRD patient survival. Patients were divided into a folic acid supplementation group and a control group. All-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality rates between groups were compared.?Results: In total, 55,636 stable incident hemodialysis patients were identified from the database. Using a propensity score-matched method and intention-to-treat analysis, the survival rate of 17,000 patients with folic acid supplementation was compared with a 1:1 matched control group. The baseline demographic data and comorbid disease incidence between the 2 groups were comparable. During the study period, the mortality rate in the matched pair cohort was 35.5% (n = 6,030) over a mean follow-up period of ?3.0 years, corresponding to a mortality rate of 12.8/100 patient-years. The all-cause mortality rates were 12.3 and 13.4/100 patient-years in the folic acid group and control group, respectively (p = 0.005). ?Conclusions: In adult hemodialysis patients, folic acid supplementation improves cardiovascular and all-cause mortality rates.
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Development of a mass spectrometry sampling probe for chemical analysis in surgical and endoscopic procedures.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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A sampling probe based on ambient desorption ionization was designed for in vivo chemical analysis by mass spectrometry in surgical and endoscopic procedures. Sampling ionization of analytes directly from tissue was achieved by sealing the sampling tip against the tissue surface without allowing leakage of the auxiliary gas used for desorption ionization. The desorbed charged species were transferred over a long distance (up to 4 m) through a flexible tube of internal diameter as small as 1/16 in. to the inlet of the mass spectrometer used for analysis. The conditions used for desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) were optimized to achieve biocompatibility for clinical applications while obtaining adequate efficiency for the analysis. This optimization involved the removal of high voltage and use of pure water as a spray solvent instead of the organic solvents or aqueous mixtures normally used. Improved sensitivity was achieved under these conditions by increasing the gas flow rate in the transfer tube. The destructive effect on tissue surfaces associated with typical desorption ionization was avoided by altering the local gas dynamics in the sample area without compromising the overall analysis efficiency.
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Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Modified-Release in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.
Adv Ther
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Treatment options for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are limited. The study was conducted to confirm the clinically effective and safe dose of methylphenidate hydrochloride modified-release (MPH-LA) in adults with ADHD and evaluate the maintenance of effect of MPH-LA.
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Accuracy of faecal occult blood test and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test for detection of upper gastrointestinal lesions.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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Highly sensitive guaiac-based faecal occult blood (Hemoccult SENSA) and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen testing might help detect upper gastrointestinal lesions when appended to a colorectal cancer screening programme with faecal immunochemical testing. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracies of two stool tests in detecting upper gastrointestinal lesions.
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Improved silicon nanowire field-effect transistors for fast protein-protein interaction screening.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Understanding how proteins interact with each other is the basis for studying the biological mechanisms behind various physiological activities. Silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (SiNW-FETs) are sensitive sensors used to detect biomolecular interactions in real-time. However, the majority of the applications that use SiNW-FETs are for known interactions between different molecules. To explore the capability of SiNW-FETs as fast screening devices to identify unknown interacting molecules, we applied mass spectrometry (MS) to analyze molecules reversibly bound to the SiNW-FETs. Calmodulin (CaM) is a Ca(2+)-sensing protein that is ubiquitously expressed in cells and its interaction with target molecules is Ca(2+)-dependent. By modifying the SiNW-FET surface with glutathione, glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged CaM binds reversibly to the SiNW-FET. We first verified the Ca(2+)-dependent interaction between GST-CaM and purified troponin I, which is involved in muscle contraction, through the conductance changes of the SiNW-FET. Furthermore, the cell lysate containing overexpressed Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase II? induced a conductance change in the GST-CaM-modified SiNW-FET. The bound proteins were eluted and subsequently identified by MS as CaM and kinase. In another example, candidate proteins from neuronal cell lysates interacting with calneuron I (CalnI), a CaM-like protein, were captured with a GST-CalnI-modified SiNW-FET. The proteins that interacted with CalnI were eluted and verified by MS. The Ca(2+)-dependent interaction between GST-CalnI and one of the candidates, heat shock protein 70, was re-confirmed via the SiNW-FET measurement. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining MS with SiNW-FETs to quickly screen interacting molecules from cell lysates.
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Comparison of feature selection methods for cross-laboratory microarray analysis.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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The amount of gene expression data of microarray has grown exponentially. To apply them for extensive studies, integrated analysis of cross-laboratory (cross-lab) data becomes a trend, and thus, choosing an appropriate feature selection method is an essential issue. This paper focuses on feature selection for Affymetrix (Affy) microarray studies across different labs. We investigate four feature selection methods: $(t)$-test, significance analysis of microarrays (SAM), rank products (RP), and random forest (RF). The four methods are applied to acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, breast cancer, and lung cancer Affy data which consist of three cross-lab data sets each. We utilize a rank-based normalization method to reduce the bias from cross-lab data sets. Training on one data set or two combined data sets to test the remaining data set(s) are both considered. Balanced accuracy is used for prediction evaluation. This study provides comprehensive comparisons of the four feature selection methods in cross-lab microarray analysis. Results show that SAM has the best classification performance. RF also gets high classification accuracy, but it is not as stable as SAM. The most naive method is $(t)$-test, but its performance is the worst among the four methods. In this study, we further discuss the influence from the number of training samples, the number of selected genes, and the issue of unbalanced data sets.
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Combination antiangiogenic therapy and radiation in head and neck cancers.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Tumor angiogenesis is a hallmark of advanced cancers and promotes invasion and metastasis. Over 90% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) express angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Several preclinical studies support the prognostic implications of angiogenic markers for HNSCC and currently this is an attractive treatment target in solid tumors. Since radiotherapy is one of the most commonly used treatments for HNSCC, it is imperative to identify the interactions between antiangiogenic therapy and radiotherapy, and to develop combination therapy to improve clinical outcome. The mechanisms between antiangiogenic agents and ionizing radiation are complicated and involve many interactions between the vasculature, tumor stroma and tumor cells. The proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells rely on angiogenesis/blood vessel formation. Rapid growing tumors will cause hypoxia, which up-regulates tumor cell survival factors, such as hypoxia-inducing factor-1? (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), giving rise to more tumor proliferation, angiogenesis and increased radioresistance. Thus, agents that target tumor vasculature and new tumor vessel formation can modulate the tumor microenvironment to improve tumor blood flow and oxygenation, leading to enhanced radiosensitivity. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of how antiangiogenic therapies improve tumor response to radiation and data that support this combination strategy as a promising method for the treatment of HNSCC in the future.
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Reduction in oral corticosteroid use in patients receiving omalizumab for allergic asthma in the real-world setting.
Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Oral corticosteroids (OCS) are commonly administered in patients with severe persistent allergic asthma. Despite their efficacy, they are associated with a wide variety of adverse events. The eXpeRience registry was set up to investigate real-world outcomes among patients receiving omalizumab for the treatment of uncontrolled allergic asthma. Here, we present the effect of omalizumab treatment on OCS use.
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Effects of quality assurance regulatory enforcement on performance of mammography systems: evidence from large-scale surveys in Taiwan.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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The Standards for Medical Exposure Quality Assurance in mammography systems were enacted on July 1, 2008, in Taiwan. This study aimed to evaluate the trends in performance of mammography units before and after the regulation started on the basis of annual on-site surveys from 2008 to 2010.
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De novo transcriptome sequencing of axolotl blastema for identification of differentially expressed genes during limb regeneration.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Salamanders are unique among vertebrates in their ability to completely regenerate amputated limbs through the mediation of blastema cells located at the stump ends. This regeneration is nerve-dependent because blastema formation and regeneration does not occur after limb denervation. To obtain the genomic information of blastema tissues, de novo transcriptomes from both blastema tissues and denervated stump ends of Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotls) 14 days post-amputation were sequenced and compared using Solexa DNA sequencing.
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Comparison of Feature Selection Methods for Cross-Laboratory Microarray Analysis.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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The amount of gene expression data of microarray has grown exponentially. To apply them for extensive studies, integrated analysis of cross-laboratory (cross-lab) data becomes a trend and thus choosing an appropriate feature selection method is an essential issue. This paper focuses on feature selection for Affymetrix (Affy) microarray studies across different labs. We investigate four feature selection methods: t-test, Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM), Rank Products (RP) and Random Forest (RF). The four methods are conducted in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, breast cancer and lung cancer Affy data which consists of three cross-lab data sets individually. We utilize a ranked-based normalization method to reduce the bias from cross-lab data sets. Balanced accuracy and true positive rate are used for prediction evaluation. This study provides comprehensive comparisons of four feature selection methods in cross-lab microarray analysis. Results show that SAM has the best classification performance. RF also gets high classification accuracy, but it is not as stable as SAM. The most naive method is t-test but its performance is the worst among the four methods. In this study, we further discuss the influence of the number of samples and selected genes and the issue of unbalanced data sets.
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PiDNA: Predicting protein-DNA interactions with structural models.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Predicting binding sites of a transcription factor in the genome is an important, but challenging, issue in studying gene regulation. In the past decade, a large number of protein-DNA co-crystallized structures available in the Protein Data Bank have facilitated the understanding of interacting mechanisms between transcription factors and their binding sites. Recent studies have shown that both physics-based and knowledge-based potential functions can be applied to protein-DNA complex structures to deliver position weight matrices (PWMs) that are consistent with the experimental data. To further use the available structural models, the proposed Web server, PiDNA, aims at first constructing reliable PWMs by applying an atomic-level knowledge-based scoring function on numerous in silico mutated complex structures, and then using the PWM constructed by the structure models with small energy changes to predict the interaction between proteins and DNA sequences. With PiDNA, the users can easily predict the relative preference of all the DNA sequences with limited mutations from the native sequence co-crystallized in the model in a single run. More predictions on sequences with unlimited mutations can be realized by additional requests or file uploading. Three types of information can be downloaded after prediction: (i) the ranked list of mutated sequences, (ii) the PWM constructed by the favourable mutated structures, and (iii) any mutated protein-DNA complex structure models specified by the user. This study first shows that the constructed PWMs are similar to the annotated PWMs collected from databases or literature. Second, the prediction accuracy of PiDNA in detecting relatively high-specificity sites is evaluated by comparing the ranked lists against in vitro experiments from protein-binding microarrays. Finally, PiDNA is shown to be able to select the experimentally validated binding sites from 10,000 random sites with high accuracy. With PiDNA, the users can design biological experiments based on the predicted sequence specificity and/or request mutated structure models for further protein design. As well, it is expected that PiDNA can be incorporated with chromatin immunoprecipitation data to refine large-scale inference of in vivo protein-DNA interactions. PiDNA is available at: http://dna.bime.ntu.edu.tw/pidna.
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Inhibition of p38 MAPK-dependent MutS homologue-2 (MSH2) expression by metformin enhances gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity in human squamous lung cancer cells.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Gefitinib, a quinazoline-derived tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has anti-tumor activity in vivo and in vitro. Human MutS homologue-2 (MSH2) plays a central role in promoting genetic stability by correcting DNA replication errors. The present study investigated the effects of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal on gefitinib-induced MSH2 expression in two human non-small cell lung squamous cancer cell lines.
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Concurrent sunitinib and stereotactic body radiotherapy for patients with oligometastases : Final report of a prospective clinical trial.
Target Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Preliminary results demonstrated that concurrent sunitinib and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an active regimen for metastases limited in number and extent. This analysis was conducted to determine the long-term survival and cancer control outcomes for this novel regimen. Forty-six patients with oligometastases, defined as five or fewer clinical detectable metastases from any primary site, were treated on a phase I/II trial from February 2007 to September 2010. The majority of patients were treated with 37.5 mg sunitinib (days 1-28) and SBRT 50 Gy (days 8-12 and 15-19) and maintenance sunitinib was used in 39 % of patients. Median follow up for surviving patients is 3.6 years. The 4-year estimates for local control, distant control, progression-free and overall survival were 75 %, 40 %, 34 % and 29 %, respectively. At last follow-up, 26 % of patients were alive without evidence of disease, 7 % were alive with distant metastases, 48 % died from distant metastases, 2 % died from local progression, 13 % died from comorbid illness, and 4 % died from treatment-related toxicities. Patients with kidney and prostate primary tumors were associated with a significantly improved overall survival (hazard ratio?=?0.25, p?=?0.04). Concurrent sunitinib and SBRT is a promising approach for the treatment of oligometastases and further study of this novel combination is warranted.
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Discovery of indeno[1, 2 - c] quinoline derivatives as dual topoisomerases I/II inhibitors: part 3.
Mol. Divers.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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(E) -6-Hydroxy-9-methoxy-6-(piperazin-1-yl)-11H -indeno[1,2-c ]quinolin-11-one O-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl oxime (2c) was identified as a potential dual topo I/II inhibitor in our previous paper. In continuation for the search of more potent compounds, we describe herein the preparation of certain indeno[1,2-c ]quinoline derivatives and evaluation of their antiproliferation, DNA binding affinity, and topoisomerases (topo I and topo II) inhibitory activities. Among them, (E) -9-[3-(dimethylamino)propoxy]-11H -indeno[1,2-c ]quinolin-11-one O-3-(dimethylamino)propyl oxime (11b) and its analog 11c exhibited approximately equal activity to the lead compound 2c against the growth of HeLa and A549 cancer cells. Both compounds 11b and 11c were more active than 2c in the inhibition of topo I and topo II. However, none of them exhibited significant DNA binding affinity while 2c was a very strong DNA binding agent. Compound 11b exhibited a high oral bioavailability of 39.8 % while the oral bioavailability of 2c and 11c was only 10.9 and 8.6 %, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor evaluation of 11b in nude mice bearing subcutaneous breast cancer tumors revealed that treatment with low (10 mg/kg) or high (30 mg/kg) doses of 11b dramatically diminished tumor growth. Therefore, compound 11b is identified as a potential non-DNA intercalating dual topo I/II inhibitor.
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Genotyping and molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus in liver disease patients in Kenya.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes are important in both the clinical manifestation of disease and treatment response. Although Kenya belongs to the African Region (AFR-E) characterized by high mortality and hyperendemicity of HBV, there is a paucity of HBV genotyping data. The aim of this study was to molecularly characterize the basic core promoter/precore (BCP/PC) and complete surface (S) regions of HBV isolated from 61 HBsAg-positive liver disease patients attending Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi. HBsAg, HBeAg and viral loads were determined. HBV DNA was amplified and sequenced from 58/61 patients. In addition to the complete genome of two isolates, the BCP/PC and the complete S regions of 43 and 38 isolates, respectively were sequenced. Following phylogenetic analysis of the S region, 38 isolates clustered with subgenotype A1, whereas two isolates clustered with genotype D, one with subgenotype D1 and another as an outlier of the clade containing subgenotype D6 and the D/E recombinant. When the complete genome of the latter isolate was sequenced it clustered with D6. The majority of isolates belonged to serological subtype adw2 and only four to ayw2. Three distinct groups of subgenotype A1, distinguished by different amino acid motifs, circulate in Kenya: two in the African cluster and a monophyletic clade in the "Asian" cluster. HBeAg-negativity was a result of G1896A in genotype D isolates, whereas in subgenotype A1, the HBeAg-negativity was a result of mutations in the Kozak region (1809-1812) or precore start codon (1814-1816). Mutations at positions 1762 and 1764 occurred more frequently in HCC patients (p<0.05). In conclusion, subgenotypes A1, D1 and D6 circulate in liver disease patients in Kenya, with A1 predominating.
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Identification of potential bladder cancer markers in urine by abundant-protein depletion coupled with quantitative proteomics.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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In this study, we evaluated the reproducibility of abundant urine protein depletion by hexapeptide-based library beads and an antibody-based affinity column using the iTRAQ technique. The antibody-based affinity-depletion approach, which proved superior, was then applied in conjunction with iTRAQ to discover proteins that were differentially expressed between pooled urine samples from hernia and bladder cancer patients. Several proteins, including seven apolipoproteins, TIM, SAA4, and proEGF were further verified in 111 to 203 individual urine samples from patients with hernia, bladder cancer, or kidney cancer. Six apolipoproteins (APOA1, APOA2, APOB, APOC2, APOC3, and APOE) were able to differentiate bladder cancer from hernia. SAA4 was significantly increased in bladder cancer subgroups, whereas ProEGF was significantly decreased in bladder cancer subgroups. Additionally, the combination of SAA4 and ProEGF exhibited higher diagnostic capacity (AUC=0.80 and p<0.001) in discriminating bladder cancer from hernia than either marker alone. Using MetaCore software to interpret global changes of the urine proteome caused by bladder cancer, we found that the most notable alterations were in immune-response/alternative complement and blood-coagulation pathways. This study confirmed the clinical significance of the urine proteome in the development of non-invasive biomarkers for the detection of bladder cancer.
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Hansen solubility parameter analysis on the dispersion of zirconia nanocrystals.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Nanoparticle dispersible in a broad range of solvents is desirable when preparing an organic/inorganic nanocomposite. In this report, the dispersion behavior of carboxylate-grafted zirconia nanoparticle in 25 solvents covering a wide range of polarity was analyzed based on their Hansen solubility parameters (HSP). Particles grafted with alkyl-chain longer than four carbons could only be dispersed in non-polar solvents, while that grafted with acetic acid was dispersible in polar ones. However, particle modified with methacrylic acid (MA) was compatible with both types of solvents, which was rather unexpected. Further NMR analysis showed that the carboxylate-grafted samples contained a trace amount of triethanolamine (TEA) due to the particular ZrO2 synthesis process employed. The combination of the hydrophilic TEA ligand with the short hydrophobic tail of methacrylate broadened the range of compatible solvents from benzene to methanol. Such an extended solvent compatibility was observed previously only for nanoparticles covered with large polymer surfactants having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. Achieving this with two small molecules having separate functional groups is crucial when one needs to maximize the inorganic content in a composite.
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Clinico-pathologic relevance of Survivin splice variant expression in cancer.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family and has multifunctional properties that include aspects of proliferation, invasion and cell survival control. Survivin is a promising candidate for targeted cancer therapy as its expression is associated with poor clinical outcome, more aggressive clinico-pathologic features, and resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. In the present review the different properties of the Survivin splice variants are discussed and their activities correlated with different aspects of cancer cell biology, to include subcellular location. Special emphasis is placed on our current understanding of these Survivin splice variants influence on each other and on the phenotypic responses to therapy that they may control.
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Apoptotic toxicity of destruxin B in human non-Hodgkin lymphoma cells.
Toxicol In Vitro
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Destruxins are fungal toxins used as insecticides. Recent reports demonstrated the potential anti-cancer activities of destruxin B (DB). This study is to discover the effects of DB in lymphoma. Flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to analyze apoptosis and protein expression, respectively, in Toledo human non-Hodgkin lymphoma cells in response to DB. Administration of DB, induced apoptosis via death receptor pathway activating Fas associated death domain (FADD), caspase 8 and caspase 3, and suppressed the cell growth. In addition, DB alterated mitochondrial membrane potential by increasing the expressions of tBid and Bax, but decreasing the levels of Bcl-2, resulting in the release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). In conclusion, apoptosis of human non-Hodgkin lymphoma cells in response to DB is induced through the death receptor pathway and involves an alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential. These findings may aid the development of novel treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
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Biomolecular recognition with a sensitivity-enhanced nanowire transistor biosensor.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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In applications of silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (SiNW-FETs) as biosensors, the SiNW-FETs conventionally are all area modified (AAM), with receptors covering not only the minute SiNW surface area but also the relatively large surrounding substrate area. In this study, using a bottom-up technique, we successfully fabricated selective surface modified (SSM) SiNW-FETs with the receptors on the SiNW sensing surface only. In this approach, the strategy was to modify the SiNWs with a chemical linker of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) prior to photolithographic fabrication of the device. The APTMS molecules modifying the SiNWs survived the harsh photolithographic processes, including coating with photoresist, washing with organic solvent, and thermal annealing. These SSM SiNW-FETs also exhibited desirable electrical characteristics such as ohmic contact and high transconductance. Using the biotin-avidin binding system, we showed that the faster response time and smaller sample requirements of the SSM SiNW-FETs, relative to the conventional AAM SiNW-FETs, clearly show that restricting the surface modification of the SiNW-FETs substantially improves their detection sensitivity. Detection with a SSM boronic acid-modified SiNW-FET of the dopamine released under high-K(+) buffer stimulation from living PC12 cells also demonstrates that SiNW-FETs can serve as highly sensitive biosensors for biomedical diagnosis. In binding affinity measurements with SiNW-FETs, the dissociation constants (Kd) of the biotin-avidin and dopamine-boronic acid complexes were determined to be 15 ± 1 fM and 33 ± 8 fM, respectively.
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Linifanib (ABT-869) enhances radiosensitivity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Novel targeted therapeutic strategies to overcome radio-resistance of cancer cells traditionally treated with radiation may improve patient survival with the added benefit of reduced systemic toxicity. Herein, we tested the feasibility of Linifanib (ABT-869), a multi-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of members of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor families, on radio-sensitization of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC).
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Use of transnasal endoscopy for screening of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in high-risk patients: Yield rate, completion rate, and safety.
Dig Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma are at high risk for synchronous and/or metachronous esophageal cancer. The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of unsedated transnasal endoscopy (TNE) for screening these high-risk patients.
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Injectable hyaluronic-acid-doxycycline hydrogel therapy in experimental rabbit osteoarthritis.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease that causes disabilities in elderly adults. However, few long-lasting pharmacotherapeutic agents with low side effects have been developed to treat OA. We evaluated the therapeutic effects of intra-articular injections of hydrogels containing hyaluronic acid (HA) and doxycycline (DOX) in a rabbit OA model.
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Aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death of inner ear organs causes functional deficits in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Aminoglycoside antibiotics, like gentamicin, kill inner ear sensory hair cells in a variety of species including chickens, mice, and humans. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been used to study hair cell cytotoxicity in the lateral line organs of larval and adult animals. Little is known about whether aminoglycosides kill the hair cells within the inner ear of adult zebrafish. We report here the ototoxic effects of gentamicin on hair cells in the saccule, the putative hearing organ, and utricle of zebrafish. First, adult zebrafish received a single 30 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of fluorescently-tagged gentamicin (GTTR) to determine the distribution of gentamicin within inner ear sensory epithelia. After 4 hours, GTTR was observed in hair cells throughout the saccular and utriclar sensory epithelia. To assess the ototoxic effects of gentamicin, adult zebrafish received a single 250 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin and, 24 hours later, auditory evoked potential recordings (AEPs) revealed significant shifts in auditory thresholds compared to untreated controls. Zebrafish were then euthanized, the inner ear fixed, and labeled for apoptotic cells (TUNEL reaction), and the stereociliary bundles of hair cells labeled with fluorescently-tagged phalloidin. Whole mounts of the saccule and utricle were imaged and cells counted. There were significantly more TUNEL-labeled cells found in both organs 4 hours after gentamicin injection compared to vehicle-injected controls. As expected, significantly fewer hair cell bundles were found along the rostral-caudal axis of the saccule and in the extrastriolar and striolar regions of the utricle in gentamicin-treated animals compared to untreated controls. Therefore, as in other species, gentamicin causes significant inner ear sensory hair cell death and auditory dysfunction in zebrafish.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.