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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Combining TNFSF15 and ASCA IgA can be used as a predictor for the stenosis/perforating phenotype of Crohn's disease.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Focusing on TNFSF15 instead of NOD2, we set out to evaluate whether combining serologic and genetic markers could distinguish between Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), and whether they could be used to stratify the disease behavior of Taiwanese CD patients.
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Cooperative roles of biological flow and surface topography in guiding sperm migration revealed by a microfluidic model.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Successful reproduction in mammals requires sperm to swim against a fluid flow and through the long and complex female reproductive tract before reaching the egg in the oviduct. Millions of them do not make it. Despite their clinical importance, the roles played in sperm migration by the diverse biophysical and biochemical microenvironments within the reproductive tract are largely unknown. In this article, we present the development of a double layer microfluidic device that recreates two important biophysical environments within the female reproductive tract: fluid flow and surface topography. The unique feature of the device is that it enables one to study the cooperative roles of fluid flow and surface topography in guiding sperm migration. Using bull sperm as a model system, we found that microfluidic grooves embedded on a channel surface facilitate sperm migration against fluid flow. These findings suggest ways to design in vitro fertilization devices to treat infertility and to develop non-invasive contraceptives that use a microarchitectural design to entrap sperm.
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SLCO3A1, a Novel Crohn's Disease-Associated Gene, Regulates NF-?B Activity and Associates with Intestinal Perforation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To date, only one gene (TNFSF15) has been identified and validated as a Crohn's disease (CD)-associated gene in non-Caucasian populations. This study was designed to identify novel CD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/genes and to validate candidate genes using a functional assay.
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SENSING DNA WITH ALTERNATING CURRENTS USING A NANOGAP SENSOR EMBEDDED IN A NANOCHANNEL DEVICE.
Nano Life
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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We report an integrated nanochannel/nanoelectrode sensor for the detection of DNA using alternating currents. We find that DNA can be detected using platinum as the metal for the detecting electrodes, with a signal to noise ratio exceeding 10. We argue that the signal is at least in part electrochemical in nature, thus holds the promise to yield a sequence-dependent signal. However, we also find that for large voltages, DNA attaches irreversibly to the driving electrodes.
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A contact line pinning based microfluidic platform for modelling physiological flows.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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This work introduces a contact line pinning based microfluidic platform for the generation of interstitial and intramural flows within a three dimensional (3D) microenvironment for cellular behaviour studies. A contact line pinning method was used to confine a natively derived biomatrix, collagen, in microfluidic channels without walls. By patterning collagen in designated wall-less channels, we demonstrated and validated the intramural flows through a microfluidic channel bounded by a monolayer of endothelial cells (mimic of a vascular vessel), as well as slow interstitial flows within a cell laden collagen matrix using the same microfluidic platform. The contact line pinning method ensured the generation of an engineered endothelial tube with straight walls, and spatially uniform interstitial fluid flows through the cell embedded 3D collagen matrix. Using this device, we demonstrated that the breast tumour cells (MDA-MB-231 cell line) morphology and motility were modulated by the interstitial flows, and the motility of a sub-population of the cells was enhanced by the presence of the flow. The presented microfluidic platform provides a basic framework for studies of cellular behaviour including cell transmigration, growth, and adhesion under well controlled interstitial and intramural flows, and within a physiologically realistic 3D co-culture setting.
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A nationwide population-based study of the inflammatory bowel diseases between 1998 and 2008 in Taiwan.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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The incidence of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohns disease (CD), has been increasing in Asia. We probed the nationwide registered database to assess the incidence, prevalence, gender distribution, age of diagnosis and the survival status of IBD patients in Taiwan.
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Fast incorporation of primary amine group into polylactide surface for improving C2 C12 cell proliferation using nitrogen-based atmospheric-pressure plasma jets.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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In this article, we report the development of the fast incorporation of primary amine functional groups into a polylactide (PLA) surface using the post-discharge jet region of an atmospheric-pressure nitrogen-based dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Plasma treatments were carried out in two sequential steps: (1) nitrogen with 0.1% oxygen addition, and (2) nitrogen with 5% ammonia addition. The analyses show that the concentration of N/C ratio, surface energy, contact angle, and surface roughness of the treated PLA surface can reach 19.1%, 70.5 mJ/m(2) , 38° and 73.22 nm, respectively. In addition, the proposed two-step plasma treatment procedure can produce a PLA surface exhibiting almost the same C2 C12 cell attachment and proliferation performance as that of the conventional gelatin coating method. Most importantly, the processing/preparation time is reduced from 13-15 h (gelatin coating method) to 5-15 min (two-step plasma treatment), which is very useful in practical applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
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Multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) populations in rice: progress and potential for genetics research and breeding.
Rice (N Y)
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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This article describes the development of Multi-parent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross populations (MAGIC) in rice and discusses potential applications for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and for rice varietal development. We have developed 4 multi-parent populations: indica MAGIC (8 indica parents); MAGIC plus (8 indica parents with two additional rounds of 8-way F1 inter-crossing); japonica MAGIC (8 japonica parents); and Global MAGIC (16 parents - 8 indica and 8 japonica). The parents used in creating these populations are improved varieties with desirable traits for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, yield, and grain quality. The purpose is to fine map QTLs for multiple traits and to directly and indirectly use the highly recombined lines in breeding programs. These MAGIC populations provide a useful germplasm resource with diverse allelic combinations to be exploited by the rice community.
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A comparison of telbivudine and entecavir for chronic hepatitis B in real-world clinical practice.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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To evaluate the efficacy of telbivudine and entecavir in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients over a 1 year period.
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Acceleration of emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistance in connected microenvironments.
Science
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2011
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The emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistance is a growing problem, yet the variables that influence the rate of emergence of resistance are not well understood. In a microfluidic device designed to mimic naturally occurring bacterial niches, resistance of Escherichia coli to the antibiotic ciprofloxacin developed within 10 hours. Resistance emerged with as few as 100 bacteria in the initial inoculation. Whole-genome sequencing of the resistant organisms revealed that four functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms attained fixation. Knowledge about the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in the heterogeneous conditions within the mammalian body may be helpful in understanding the emergence of drug resistance during cancer chemotherapy.
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Genetic architecture of aluminum tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) determined through genome-wide association analysis and QTL mapping.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a primary limitation to crop productivity on acid soils, and rice has been demonstrated to be significantly more Al tolerant than other cereal crops. However, the mechanisms of rice Al tolerance are largely unknown, and no genes underlying natural variation have been reported. We screened 383 diverse rice accessions, conducted a genome-wide association (GWA) study, and conducted QTL mapping in two bi-parental populations using three estimates of Al tolerance based on root growth. Subpopulation structure explained 57% of the phenotypic variation, and the mean Al tolerance in Japonica was twice that of Indica. Forty-eight regions associated with Al tolerance were identified by GWA analysis, most of which were subpopulation-specific. Four of these regions co-localized with a priori candidate genes, and two highly significant regions co-localized with previously identified QTLs. Three regions corresponding to induced Al-sensitive rice mutants (ART1, STAR2, Nrat1) were identified through bi-parental QTL mapping or GWA to be involved in natural variation for Al tolerance. Haplotype analysis around the Nrat1 gene identified susceptible and tolerant haplotypes explaining 40% of the Al tolerance variation within the aus subpopulation, and sequence analysis of Nrat1 identified a trio of non-synonymous mutations predictive of Al sensitivity in our diversity panel. GWA analysis discovered more phenotype-genotype associations and provided higher resolution, but QTL mapping identified critical rare and/or subpopulation-specific alleles not detected by GWA analysis. Mapping using Indica/Japonica populations identified QTLs associated with transgressive variation where alleles from a susceptible aus or indica parent enhanced Al tolerance in a tolerant Japonica background. This work supports the hypothesis that selectively introgressing alleles across subpopulations is an efficient approach for trait enhancement in plant breeding programs and demonstrates the fundamental importance of subpopulation in interpreting and manipulating the genetics of complex traits in rice.
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Genome-wide association mapping reveals a rich genetic architecture of complex traits in Oryza sativa.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Asian rice, Oryza sativa is a cultivated, inbreeding species that feeds over half of the worlds population. Understanding the genetic basis of diverse physiological, developmental, and morphological traits provides the basis for improving yield, quality and sustainability of rice. Here we show the results of a genome-wide association study based on genotyping 44,100 SNP variants across 413 diverse accessions of O. sativa collected from 82 countries that were systematically phenotyped for 34 traits. Using cross-population-based mapping strategies, we identified dozens of common variants influencing numerous complex traits. Significant heterogeneity was observed in the genetic architecture associated with subpopulation structure and response to environment. This work establishes an open-source translational research platform for genome-wide association studies in rice that directly links molecular variation in genes and metabolic pathways with the germplasm resources needed to accelerate varietal development and crop improvement.
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ALCHEMY: a reliable method for automated SNP genotype calling for small batch sizes and highly homozygous populations.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
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The development of new high-throughput genotyping products requires a significant investment in testing and training samples to evaluate and optimize the product before it can be used reliably on new samples. One reason for this is current methods for automated calling of genotypes are based on clustering approaches which require a large number of samples to be analyzed simultaneously, or an extensive training dataset to seed clusters. In systems where inbred samples are of primary interest, current clustering approaches perform poorly due to the inability to clearly identify a heterozygote cluster.
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Liver stiffness decrease after effective antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C: Longitudinal study using FibroScan.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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The aim of the present study was to assess the changes of liver stiffness (LS) and its associated factors in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) after interferon (IFN)-based therapy.
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Genomic diversity and introgression in O. sativa reveal the impact of domestication and breeding on the rice genome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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The domestication of Asian rice (Oryza sativa) was a complex process punctuated by episodes of introgressive hybridization among and between subpopulations. Deep genetic divergence between the two main varietal groups (Indica and Japonica) suggests domestication from at least two distinct wild populations. However, genetic uniformity surrounding key domestication genes across divergent subpopulations suggests cultural exchange of genetic material among ancient farmers.
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An introduction to micro-ecology patches.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
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Bacterial systems offer excellent tests of how well the general theoretical predictions of ecology dynamics do or do not in fact conform to reality. We believe that the basic rules that govern the cohabitation of competing species for limited resources are the same from bacteria to man, we just dont know the rules, and that fundamental studies of the games bacteria play will give fundamental insight into the vastly more complex systems we hope to attack later. In this tutorial review we discuss how simplified micro-ecologies constructed using tools of micro and nanofabrication techniques offer some idea of how physical principles and analysis can address the issue of complex ecology dynamics.
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Evolution of full-length HBV sequences in chronic hepatitis B patients with sequential lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil resistance.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of full-length hepatitis B virus (HBV) sequences in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with sequential lamivudine (LAM) and adefovir (ADV) resistance.
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Upconverting nanophosphors for bioimaging.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2009
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Upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) when excited in the near-infrared (NIR) region display anti-Stokes emission whereby the emitted photon is higher in energy than the excitation energy. The material system achieves that by converting two or more infrared photons into visible photons. The use of the infrared confers benefits to bioimaging because of its deeper penetrating power in biological tissues and the lack of autofluorescence. We demonstrate here sub-10 nm, upconverting rare earth oxide UCNPs synthesized by a combustion method that can be stably suspended in water when amine modified. The amine modified UCNPs show specific surface immobilization onto patterned gold surfaces. Finally, the low toxicity of the UCNPs is verified by testing on the multi-cellular C. elegans nematode.
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Morphology and pH Sensing Characteristics of New Luminescent Electrospun Fibers Prepared from Poly(phenylquinoline)-block-Polystyrene/Polystyrene Blends.
Macromol Rapid Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2009
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New luminescent electrospun (ES) fibers for pH-tunable colorimetric sensors were prepared from binary blends of poly(phenylquinoline)-block-polystyrene (PPQ-b-PS)/polystyrene (PS) with a single-capillary spinneret. The PPQ-b-PS aggregated domain sizes in the ES fibers prepared from dichloromethane (CH(2) Cl(2) ), chlorobenzene (CB) and chloroform (CHCl(3) ) were 1.5?±?0.5, 2.2?±?0.4 and 4.1?±?1.1?µm, respectively. Such variation on the aggregation size led to the red-shifting photoluminescence spectra changing from green, to yellow, and orange. ES fibers prepared from CH(2) Cl(2) exhibited pH-tunable photoluminescence and the emission maximum varied from 532 to 560?nm as the pH value changed from 7 to 1. The study demonstrated that the ES fibers prepared could have potential applications for sensory devices.
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Complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible fabrication and characterization of parylene-C covered nanofluidic channels with integrated nanoelectrodes.
Biomicrofluidics
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Nanochannels offer a way to align and analyze long biopolymer molecules such as DNA with high precision at potentially single basepair resolution, especially if a means to detect biomolecules in nanochannels electronically can be developed. Integration of nanochannels with electronics will require the development of nanochannel fabrication procedures that will not damage sensitive electronics previously constructed on the device. We present here a near-room-temperature fabrication technology involving parylene-C conformal deposition that is compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronic devices and present an analysis of the initial impedance measurements of conformally parylene-C coated nanochannels with integrated gold nanoelectrodes.
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The study on the outsourcing of Taiwans hospitals: a questionnaire survey research.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
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The aim of this study was to assess the outsourcing situation in Taiwanese hospitals and compares the differences in hospital ownership and in accreditation levels.
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A study on sequence variations in pre-S/surface, X and enhancer II/core promoter/precore regions of occult hepatitis B virus in non-B, non-C hepatocellular carcinoma patients in Taiwan.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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This study was to investigate the clinical significance and virologic factors of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients without hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or anti-hepatitis C virus (non-B, non-C) in Taiwan. Serum HBV DNA (occult HBV) was detected in 90 of 222 non-B, non-C HCC patients and 24 of 300 non-B, non-C controls without HCC. Of 90 occult HBV-infected HCC patients, the sequences of HBV pre-S/surface, X and enhancer II/core promoter/precore genes were analyzed from 40 patients. Direct sequencing of such genes was also performed in 24 non-B, non-C controls without HCC and 40 HBsAg-positive HCC controls. Compared with non-B, non-C controls without HCC, non-B, non-C subjects with HCC had significantly higher prevalence of occult HBV (p < 0.0001). Moreover, M1I and Q2K in pre-S2 gene and G1721A were more common in occult HBV-infected patients with HCC than in those without HCC. Compared with the HBsAg-positive HCC controls, occult HBV-infected HCC patients had higher frequencies of M1I and Q2K in pre-S2 gene, G185R and S210N in surface gene, A36T and A44L in X gene, and G1721A in enhancer II gene, and had lower rates of pre-S deletions and A1762T/G1764A, A1846T, G1896A and G1899A in core promoter/precore genes. Multivariate analysis showed Q2K in pre-S2 gene, G1721A and A1846T were independent factors for occult HBV-infected HCC. Our study suggested that the virological factors of HBV related to HCC were different between occult HBV-infected and HBsAg-positive patients. The G1721A, M1I and Q2K in pre-S2 gene may be useful viral markers for HCC in occult HBV carriers.
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Augmentation of tendon-bone interface healing with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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The capacity of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound to accelerate the integration of grafted tendon-within-bone tunnel was evaluated. The extensor digitorum longus tendons of 20 New Zealand white rabbits were transplanted into bone tunnels in both proximal tibias. One side was chosen randomly to receive low-intensity pulsed ultrasound. The other side served as control. Six rabbits each were sacrificed at 2 and 3 weeks postoperatively for biomechanical testing, and 2 rabbits each were sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively for histological study. At 2 weeks postoperatively, the mean maximal tensile strength in the ultrasound-treated group (30.676 N) was significantly stronger (P<.05) than the control group (17.924 N). There was no significant difference of the maximal tensile strength (33.674 vs 33.340 N; P=.753) between the ultrasound-treated and control groups at 3 weeks postoperatively. In the ultrasound-treated group, the histological study revealed the interface filled with denser granulation tissue and diffuse perpendicular anchored fibers in the 1- and 3-week specimens, and interface new bone formation in the 6- and 12-week specimens. The biomechanical and histological studies demonstrated that the low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhanced the healing of grafted tendon-to-bone tunnel in the early stages. Our findings indicate that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound is a potentially promising mechanical tool to accelerate early tendon healing to bone tunnel.
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FibroScan and ultrasonography in the prediction of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performances of liver stiffness measurement (LSM), ultrasonography (US) and their combined use in predicting the extent of hepatic fibrosis.
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Gramene QTL database: development, content and applications.
Database (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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Gramene is a comparative information resource for plants that integrates data across diverse data domains. In this article, we describe the development of a quantitative trait loci (QTL) database and illustrate how it can be used to facilitate both the forward and reverse genetics research. The QTL database contains the largest online collection of rice QTL data in the world. Using flanking markers as anchors, QTLs originally reported on individual genetic maps have been systematically aligned to the rice sequence where they can be searched as standard genomic features. Researchers can determine whether a QTL co-localizes with other QTLs detected in independent experiments and can combine data from multiple studies to improve the resolution of a QTL position. Candidate genes falling within a QTL interval can be identified and their relationship to particular phenotypes can be inferred based on functional annotations provided by ontology terms. Mutations identified in functional genomics populations and association mapping panels can be aligned with QTL regions to facilitate fine mapping and validation of gene-phenotype associations. By assembling and integrating diverse types of data and information across species and levels of biological complexity, the QTL database enhances the potential to understand and utilize QTL information in biological research.
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Combined effects of terazosin and genistein on a metastatic, hormone-independent human prostate cancer cell line.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2009
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Metastatic prostate cancer progresses from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent. Terazosin, a long-acting selective alpha1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, induces apoptosis of prostate cancer cells in an alpha1-adrenoreceptor-independent manner, while genistein, a major soy isoflavone, inhibits the growth of several types of cancer cells. The present study was designed to test the therapeutic potential of a combination of terazosin and genistein using a metastatic, hormone-independent prostatic cancer cell line, DU-145. Terazosin or genistein treatment inhibited the growth of DU-145 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas had no effect on normal prostate epithelial cells. Addition of 1 microg/ml of terazosin, which was inactive alone, augmented the growth inhibitory effect of 5 microg/ml of genistein. Co-treatment with terazosin resulted in the genistein-induced arrest of DU-145 cells in G2/M phase being overridden and an increase in apoptotic cells, as evidenced by procaspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. The combination also caused a greater decrease in the levels of the apoptosis-regulating protein, Bcl-XL, and of VEGF165 and VEGF121 than genistein alone. In conclusion, the terazosin/genistein combination was more effective in inhibiting cell growth and VEGF expression as well as inducing apoptosis of the metastatic, androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line, DU-145, than either alone. The doses used in this study are in lower and nontoxic anticancer dosage range, suggesting this combination has potential for therapeutic use.
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Universal protein fluctuations in populations of microorganisms.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
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The copy number of any protein fluctuates among cells in a population; characterizing and understanding these fluctuations is a fundamental problem in biophysics. We show here that protein distributions measured under a broad range of biological realizations collapse to a single non-gaussian curve under scaling by the first two moments. Moreover, in all experiments the variance is found to depend quadratically on the mean, showing that a single degree of freedom determines the entire distribution. Our results imply that protein fluctuations do not reflect any specific molecular or cellular mechanism, and suggest that some buffering process masks these details and induces universality.
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Levels and values of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, soluble angiogenic factors, and mononuclear cell apoptosis in liver cirrhosis patients.
J. Biomed. Sci.
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The roles of circulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) and mononuclear cell apoptosis (MCA) in liver cirrhosis (LC) patients are unknown. Moreover, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1? are powerful endogenous substances enhancing EPC migration into circulation. We assessed the level and function of EPCs [CD31/CD34 (E(1)), KDR/CD34 (E(2)), CXCR4/CD34 (E(3))], levels of MCA, VEGF and SDF-1? in circulation of LC patients.
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Perceived service quality, perceived value, overall satisfaction and happiness of outlook for long-term care institution residents.
Health Expect
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Objective? To investigate the psychometric properties and relationships of perceived service quality, perceived value and overall satisfaction for residents with respect to their long-term care institutions. Design? The five-point Likert scale questionnaire administered through facetoface interviews. Setting? Fourteen long-term care institutions located in central and southern Taiwan stratified according to services and accommodation population. Participants? One hundred and eighty long-term institutional care residents. Main outcome measures? Perceived service quality (the SERVPERF model), perceived value and overall satisfaction (models based on the literature on perceived value and satisfaction). Results? Students t-test on institutional location shows a significant difference between overall satisfaction for central and southern institution long-term care recipients. The correlation test revealed that the higher a residents level of education, the higher the scores for perceived value. The factor loading results of confirmation factor analysis show acceptable levels of reliability and index-of-model fits for perceived service, perceived value and overall satisfaction. In addition, the results suggest that an additional construct, a positive attitude (happiness of outlook) towards long-term care institutions, is also an important factor in residents overall satisfaction. Conclusion? The primary goal of long-term institutional care policy in Taiwan, as in other countries, is to provide residents with practical, cost-effective but high-quality care. On the basis of the results of in-depth interviews with long-term institutional care residents, this study suggests long-term care institutions arrange more family visit days to increase the accessibility and interaction of family and residents and thereby increase the happiness of outlook of the residents.
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Clinicopathological and Prognostic Significances of EGFR , KRAS and BRAF Mutations in Biliary Tract Carcinomas in Taiwan.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
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Biliary tract carcinomas (BTCs) are difficult to diagnose and treat. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) represents a therapeutic target for the BTCs. Mutations of the EGFR gene and the activation of its downstream pathways, including KRAS and BRAF, predict the sensitivity to anti-EGFR treatment. The aims of this study are to analyze the EGFR, KRAS and BRAF mutations in BTCs and their association with clinical outcomes.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.