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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Corkscrew Esophagus.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A 74-year-old man presented with a 30-year history of intermittent dysphagia and regurgitation, which his doctor had initially referred to as a "hysterical reaction." Barium swallow showed two diverticula proximal to the marked corkscrew appearance of the distal esophagus.
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Electrosprayed nanoparticles and electrospun nanofibers based on natural materials: applications in tissue regeneration, drug delivery and pharmaceuticals.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Nanotechnology refers to the fabrication, characterization, and application of substances in nanometer scale dimensions for various ends. The influence of nanotechnology on the healthcare industry is substantial, particularly in the areas of disease diagnosis and treatment. Recent investigations in nanotechnology for drug delivery and tissue engineering have delivered high-impact contributions in translational research, with associated pharmaceutical products and applications. Over the past decade, the synthesis of nanofibers or nanoparticles via electrostatic spinning or spraying, respectively, has emerged as an important nanostructuring methodology. This is due to both the versatility of the electrospinning/electrospraying process and the ensuing control of nanofiber/nanoparticle surface parameters. Electrosprayed nanoparticles and electrospun nanofibers are both employed as natural or synthetic carriers for the delivery of entrapped drugs, growth factors, health supplements, vitamins, and so on. The role of nanofiber/nanoparticle carriers is substantiated by the programmed, tailored, or targeted release of their contents in the guise of tissue engineering scaffolds or medical devices for drug delivery. This review focuses on the nanoformulation of natural materials via the electrospraying or electrospinning of nanoparticles or nanofibers for tissue engineering or drug delivery/pharmaceutical purposes. Here, we classify the natural materials with respect to their animal/plant origin and macrocyclic, small molecule or herbal active constituents, and further categorize the materials according to their proteinaceous or saccharide nature.
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Effect of deoxycholic acid on Ca(2+) movement, cell viability and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.
Toxicol. Mech. Methods
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Abstract Deoxycholic acid (DOA) is one of the secondary bile acids used as a mild detergent for the isolation of membrane associated proteins. This study examined whether the secondary bile acid, DOA, altered Ca(2+) movement, cell viability and apoptosis in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells. The Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was used to measure [Ca(2+)]i. DOA evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises concentration-dependently. The response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+). DOA-evoked Ca(2+) entry was inhibited by store-operated Ca(2+) channel inhibitors (nifedipine, econazole and SKF96365), the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA) and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. In Ca(2+)-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin (TG) abolished DOA-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises. Conversely, treatment with DOA abolished TG-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 abolished DOA-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises. At 100-500 ?M, DOA decreased cell viability, which was not changed by chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM). DOA between 100 ?M and 300 ?M also induced apoptosis. Collectively, in SCM1 cells, DOA induced [Ca(2+)]i rises by evoking phospholipase C-dependent Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) entry via store-operated Ca(2+) channels. DOA also caused Ca(2+)-independent apoptosis.
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Correlation Between Static Radiographic Measurements and Intersegmental Angles Measurements During Gait Using a Multisegment Foot Model With a 15-Marker Set.
Foot Ankle Int
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Radiographic examination is a widely used evaluation method in the orthopedic clinic. However, conventional radiography alone does not reflect the dynamic changes between foot and ankle segments during gait. Multiple 3-dimensional multisegment foot models (3D MFMs) have been introduced to evaluate intersegmental motion of the foot. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between static radiographic indices and intersegmental foot motion indices.
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Resistin promotes tumor metastasis by down-regulation of miR-519d through the AMPK/p38 signaling pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Resistin is a recently discovered adipocyte-secreting adipokine, which may play a critical role in modulating cancer pathogenesis. Chondrosarcoma is a highly malignant tumor known to frequently metastasize; however, the role of resistin in the metastasis of human chondrosarcoma is largely unknown. Here, we found that the expression of resistin was higher in chondrosarcoma biopsy tissues than in normal cartilage. Moreover, treatment with resistin increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression and promoted cell migration in human chondrosarcoma cells. Co-transfection with microRNA (miR)-519d mimic resulted in reversed resistin-mediated cell migration and MMP-2 expression. Additionally, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 inhibitors or siRNAs reduced the resistin-increased cell migration and miR-519d suppression, and inhibition of resistin expression resulted in suppression of MMP-2 expression and lung metastasis in vivo. Taken together, our results indicate that resistin promotes chondrosarcoma metastasis and MMP-2 expression through activation of the AMPK/p38 signaling pathway and down-regulation of miR-519d expression. Therefore, resistin may represent a potential novel molecular therapeutic target in chondrosarcoma metastasis.
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CCL5 promotes VEGF-dependent angiogenesis by down-regulating miR-200b through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone cancer, with potential for local invasion and distant metastasis. Chemokine CCL5 (formerly RANTES) of the CC-chemokine family plays a crucial role in metastasis. Angiogenesis is essential for the cancer metastasis. However, correlation of CCL5 with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma is still unknown. CCL5-mediated VEGF expression was assessed by qPCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. CCL5-induced angiogenesis was examined by migration and tube formation in endothelial progenitor cells in vitro. CCL5 increased VEGF expression and also promoted chondrosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Stimulation of chondrosarcoma with CCL5 augmented PI3K and Akt phosphorylation, while PI3K and Akt inhibitor or siRNA abolished CCL5-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. We also demonstrated CCL5 inhibiting miR-200b expression and miR-200b mimic reversing the CCL5-enhanced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. Moreover, in chondrosarcoma patients showed the positive correlation between CCL5 and VEGF; negative correlation between CCL5 and miR-200b. Taken together, results demonstrate CCL5 promoting VEGF-dependent angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells by down-regulating miR-200b through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
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Chaotic Extension Neural Network Theory-Based XXY Stage Collision Fault Detection Using a Single Accelerometer Sensor.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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The collision fault detection of a XXY stage is proposed for the first time in this paper. The stage characteristic signals are extracted and imported into the master and slave chaos error systems by signal filtering from the vibratory magnitude of the stage. The trajectory diagram is made from the chaos synchronization dynamic error signals E1 and E2. The distance between characteristic positive and negative centers of gravity, as well as the maximum and minimum distances of trajectory diagram, are captured as the characteristics of fault recognition by observing the variation in various signal trajectory diagrams. The matter-element model of normal status and collision status is built by an extension neural network. The correlation grade of various fault statuses of the XXY stage was calculated for diagnosis. The dSPACE is used for real-time analysis of stage fault status with an accelerometer sensor. Three stage fault statuses are detected in this study, including normal status, Y collision fault and X collision fault. It is shown that the scheme can have at least 75% diagnosis rate for collision faults of the XXY stage. As a result, the fault diagnosis system can be implemented using just one sensor, and consequently the hardware cost is significantly reduced.
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Dovitinib : rationale, preclinical and early clinical data in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Bladder cancer (BC) is the third and fifth cancer in men in terms of incidence and mortality in the US. Overexpression and mutations of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) are frequently found in BC and can represent a very interesting therapeutic target. Different FGFR3-targeted strategies have been investigated through in vitro and in vivo settings, including FGFR3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as dovitinib .
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Recurrence of hip instability after reconstructive surgery in patients with cerebral palsy.
J Bone Joint Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Hip instability can cause major problems in children with cerebral palsy, although good outcomes of hip reconstructive surgery for hip instability have been reported. In the present study, we investigated the recurrence of hip instability after reconstructive surgery and the factors influencing this recurrence in patients with cerebral palsy.
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Anatomical Predisposition of the Ankle Joint for Lateral Sprain or Lateral Malleolar Fracture Evaluated by Radiographic Measurements.
Foot Ankle Int
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Injury mechanism and the amount of force are important factors determining whether a fracture or sprain occurs at the time of an ankle inversion injury. However, the anatomical differences between the ankle fracture and sprain have not been investigated sufficiently. This study was performed to investigate whether an anatomical predisposition of the ankle joint results in a lateral malleolar fracture or lateral ankle sprain.
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Primary epiphyseal osteomyelitis caused by mycobacterium species in otherwise healthy toddlers.
J Bone Joint Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Mycobacterial osteomyelitis involving only the epiphysis of a long bone is extremely rare, and its clinical and radiographic features remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to characterize mycobacterial epiphyseal osteomyelitis and to identify differences between its features and those reported for epiphyseal osteomyelitis caused by bacteria or unidentified pathogens.
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Bone mineral density is not associated with musculoskeletal pain in postmenopausal Korean women aged ?50 years.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Although many studies reported improvement of back pain after osteoporosis treatment, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether osteoporosis is painful. We investigated whether bone mineral density correlated with musculoskeletal pain in postmenopausal Korean women aged ?50 years. Data for postmenopausal women aged ?50 years were obtained from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database. Demographics, Kellgren-Lawrence grade, and numeric rating scale for pain in the hip and knee joints, presence of back pain, and activity level were analyzed. Only subjects with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and hip and knee radiographs were included. Those with malignancy, pain medication use, or a history of fragility fractures were excluded. After univariate analysis, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the significant factors correlated with the degree of hip and knee pain. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors significantly associated with the presence of back pain. In total, 387 women were included in the data analysis. Age (p?=?0.005) was the only significant factor correlated with the intensity of hip pain, while Kellgren-Lawrence grade (p?
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Factors associated with bone mineral density and risk of fall in korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 50 years and older.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Osteoporotic fractures in subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM) carry higher mortality and morbidity. Because bone strength and minor trauma, such as a falls, are considered to be significant factors contributing to osteoporotic fractures, it is important to elucidate the associated factors with these.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor increases vascular endothelial growth factor expression and enhances angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Chondrosarcomas are a type of primary malignant bone cancer, with a potent capacity for local invasion and distant metastasis. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is commonly upregulated during neurogenesis. The aim of the present study was to examine the mechanism involved in BDNF-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells. Here, we knocked down BDNF expression in chondrosarcoma cells and assessed their capacity to control VEGF expression and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We found knockdown of BDNF decreased VEGF expression and abolished chondrosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro as well as angiogenesis effects in vivo in the chick chorioallantoic membrane and Matrigel plug nude mouse models. In addition, in the xenograft tumor angiogenesis model, the knockdown of BDNF significantly reduced tumor growth and tumor-associated angiogenesis. BDNF increased VEGF expression and angiogenesis through the TrkB receptor, PLC?, PKC?, and the HIF-1? signaling pathway. Finally, we analyzed samples from chondrosarcoma patients by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of BDNF and VEGF protein in 56 chondrosarcoma patients was significantly higher than in normal cartilage. In addition, the high level of BDNF expression correlated strongly with VEGF expression and tumor stage. Taken together, our results indicate that BDNF increases VEGF expression and enhances angiogenesis through a signal transduction pathway that involves the TrkB receptor, PLC?, PKC?, and the HIF-1?. Therefore, BDNF may represent a novel target for anti-angiogenic therapy for human chondrosarcoma.
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The status of men's health in Asia.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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This study aims to compare health status and its risk factors between men and women who are from countries of different income status in Asia.
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Incidental findings on knee radiographs in children and adolescents.
Clin Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Despite the wide use of knee radiography in children and adolescent patients visiting the outpatient clinic, there has been no analysis about the prevalence and type of incidental findings yet. This study was performed to investigate the incidental findings on knee radiographs in children and adolescents according to age.
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Men's Health Index: A Pragmatic Approach to Stratifying and Optimizing Men's Health.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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The proposed Men's Health Index (MHI) aims to provide a practical and systematic framework for comprehensively assessing and stratifying older men with the intention of optimising their health and functional status.
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Leptin induces oncostatin M production in osteoblasts by downregulating miR-93 through the Akt signaling pathway.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Inflammatory response and articular destruction are common symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Leptin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone that centrally regulates weight control, may exert proinflammatory effects in the joint, depending on the immune response. Yet, the mechanism of leptin interacting with the arthritic inflammatory response is unclear. This study finds that leptin increased expression of oncostatin M (OSM) in human osteoblasts in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, OBRl, but not OBRs receptor antisense oligonucleotide, abolished the leptin-mediated increase of OSM expression. On the other hand, leptin inhibited miR-93 expression; an miR-93 mimic reversed leptin-increased OSM expression. Stimulation of osteoblasts with leptin promoted Akt phosphorylation, while pretreatment of cells with Akt inhibitor or siRNA reversed leptin-inhibited miR-93 expression. Our results showed that leptin heightened OSM expression by downregulating miR-93 through the Akt signaling pathway in osteoblasts, suggesting leptin as a novel target in arthritis treatment.
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Recurrence of Equinus Foot Deformity After Tendo-Achilles Lengthening in Patients With Cerebral Palsy.
J Pediatr Orthop
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Recurrence of equinus deformity after surgery is common in patients with cerebral palsy. This retrospective study was undertaken to estimate the recurrence rate of the equinus deformity after tendo-Achilles lengthening (TAL) in patients with cerebral palsy and to investigate the risk factors associated with the recurrence.
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Unshielded asymmetric transmit-only and endorectal receive-only radiofrequency coil for (23) Na MRI of the prostate at 3 tesla.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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To develop and optimize radiofrequency (RF) hardware for the detection of endogenous sodium ((23) Na) by 3.0 Tesla (T) MRI in the human prostate.
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Risk factors associated with amputation-free survival in patient with diabetic foot ulcers.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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To determine the 1-year survival rate, 1-year amputation-free survival rate and the risk factors of amputation for patients with diabetic foot ulcers.
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Underdetermination in evidence-based medicine.
J Eval Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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This article explores the philosophical implications of evidence-based medicine's (EBM's) epistemology in terms of the problem of underdetermination of theory by evidence as expounded by the Duhem-Quine thesis. EBM hierarchies of evidence privilege clinical research over basic science, exacerbating the problem of underdetermination. Because of severe underdetermination, EBM is unable to meaningfully test core medical beliefs that form the basis of our understanding of disease and therapeutics. As a result, EBM adopts an epistemic attitude that is sceptical of explanations from the basic biological sciences, and is relegated to a view of disease at a population level. EBM's epistemic attitude provides a limited research heuristic by preventing the development of a theoretical framework required for understanding disease mechanism and integrating knowledge to develop new therapies. Medical epistemology should remain pluralistic and include complementary approaches of basic science and clinical research, thus avoiding the limited epistemic attitude entailed by EBM hierarchies.
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Preoperative Radiographic and CT Findings Predicting Syndesmotic Injuries in Supination-External Rotation-Type Ankle Fractures.
J Bone Joint Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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The Lauge-Hansen classification system does not provide sufficient data related to syndesmotic injuries in supination-external rotation (SER)-type ankle fractures. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors helpful for the preoperative detection of syndesmotic injuries in SER-type ankle fractures using radiographs and computed tomography (CT).METHODS: A cohort of 191 consecutive patients (104 male and eighty-seven female patients with a mean age [and standard deviation] of 50.7 ± 16.4 years) with SER-type ankle fractures who had undergone operative treatment were included. Preoperative ankle radiographs and CT imaging scans were made for all patients, and clinical data, including age, sex, and mechanism of injury (high or low-energy trauma), were collected. Patients were divided into two groups: the stable syndesmotic group and the unstable syndesmotic group, with a positive intraoperative lateral stress test leading to syndesmotic screw fixation. Fracture height, fracture length, medial joint space, extent of fracture, and bone attenuation were measured on radiographs and CT images and were compared between the groups. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors that significantly contributed to unstable syndesmotic injuries. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated, and cutoff values were suggested to predict unstable syndesmotic injuries on preoperative imaging measurements.RESULTS: Of the 191 patents with a SER-type ankle fracture, thirty-eight (19.9%) had a concurrent unstable syndesmotic injury. Age, sex, mechanism of injury, fracture height, medial joint space, and bone attenuation were significantly different between the two groups. In the binary logistic analysis, fracture height, medial joint space, and bone attenuation were found to be significant factors contributing to unstable syndesmotic injuries. The cutoff values for predicting unstable syndesmotic injuries were a fracture height of >3 mm and a medial joint space of >4.9 mm on CT scans, and a fracture height of >7 mm and medial joint space of >4.5 mm on radiographs.CONCLUSIONS: Fracture height, medial joint space, and bone attenuation were useful factors for the preoperative detection of unstable syndesmotic injuries in SER-type ankle fractures.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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Incidence and Risk Factors of Allograft Bone Failure After Calcaneal Lengthening.
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Calcaneal lengthening with allograft is frequently used for the treatment of patients with symptomatic planovalgus deformity; however, the behavior of allograft bone after calcaneal lengthening and the risk factors for graft failure are not well documented.
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CTGF increases matrix metalloproteinases expression and subsequently promotes tumor metastasis in human osteosarcoma through down-regulating miR-519d.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Osteosarcoma, the most common primary malignant bone tumor, shows potent capacity for local invasion and distant metastasis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), a secreted protein, binds to integrins, modulates invasive behavior of certain human cancer cells. Effect of CTGF in metastasis of human osteosarcoma is unknown. We found overexpression of CTGF increasing matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and MMP-3 expression as well as promoting cell migration. MicroRNA (miRNA) analysis of CTGF-overexpressed osteosarcoma versus control cells probed mechanisms of CTGF-mediated promotion of migration. Among miRNAs regulated by CTGF, miR-519d was most downregulated after CTGF treatment. Co-transfection with miR-519d mimic reversed CTGF-mediated MMPs expression and cell migration. Also, MEK and ERK inhibitors or mutants reduced CTGF-increased cell migration and miR-519d suppression. By contrast, knockdown of CTGF diminished lung metastasis in vivo. Clinical samples indicate CTGF expression as linked with clinical stage and tumor metastasis. Taken together, data show CTGF elevating MMPs expression and subsequently promoting tumor metastasis in human osteosarcoma, down-regulating miR-519d via MEK and ERK pathways, making CTGF a new molecular therapeutic target in osteosarcoma metastasis.
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Percutaneous Epiphysiodesis Using Transphyseal Screws in the Management of Leg Length Discrepancy: Optimal Operation Timing and Techniques to Avoid Complications.
J Pediatr Orthop
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Percutaneous epiphysiodesis using transphyseal screws (PETS) has been used to manage leg length discrepancy (LLD) in growing children. The purposes of this study were to analyze effects of PETS on LLD, its associated complications, to determine optimal operation timing, and find ways of preventing complications.
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Transcultural adaptation and validation of the Korean version of Caregiver Priorities & Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities (CPCHILD).
Disabil Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Abstract Purpose: The aim of this study was to translate and transculturally adapt the Caregiver Priorities & Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities (CPCHILD) questionnaire into Korean language, and to test the reliability and validity, including the internal consistency, known-group validity and factor analysis of the Korean version of the CPCHILD. Methods: A Korean version of CPCHILD was produced according to internationally accepted guidelines. For validity testing, 194 consecutive parents or caregivers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were recruited and completed the questionnaire. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and known-groups validity were evaluated and factor analysis was performed to validate the Korean version of the CPCHILD. Results: In terms of internal consistency, a Cronbach's alpha was above 0.90 in all domains of the CPCHILD (range 0.921 to 0.966), except the 5th domain (0.628). In terms of known-groups validity, the total score of the CPCHILD was significantly different according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level (p?
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Proximal Migration of Femoral Telescopic Rod in Children With Osteogenesis Imperfecta.
J Pediatr Orthop
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Intramedullary telescopic rod fixation has been used for stabilization of the long bones in growing children who have osteogenesis imperfecta. Proximal migration of the rod is the most common complication of telescopic rodding in the femur. The purposes of this study were to evaluate incidence and temporal pattern of proximal migration of the femoral rod, and to investigate factors related to it.
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Determining the best treatment for coronal angular deformity of the knee joint in growing children: a decision analysis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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This study aimed to determine the best treatment modality for coronal angular deformity of the knee joint in growing children using decision analysis. A decision tree was created to evaluate 3 treatment modalities for coronal angular deformity in growing children: temporary hemiepiphysiodesis using staples, percutaneous screws, or a tension band plate. A decision analysis model was constructed containing the final outcome score, probability of metal failure, and incomplete correction of deformity. The final outcome was defined as health-related quality of life and was used as a utility in the decision tree. The probabilities associated with each case were obtained by literature review, and health-related quality of life was evaluated by a questionnaire completed by 25 pediatric orthopedic experts. Our decision analysis model favored temporary hemiepiphysiodesis using a tension band plate over temporary hemiepiphysiodesis using percutaneous screws or stapling, with utilities of 0.969, 0.957, and 0.962, respectively. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that hemiepiphysiodesis using a tension band plate was better than temporary hemiepiphysiodesis using percutaneous screws, when the overall complication rate of hemiepiphysiodesis using a tension band plate was lower than 15.7%. Two-way sensitivity analysis showed that hemiepiphysiodesis using a tension band plate was more beneficial than temporary hemiepiphysiodesis using percutaneous screws.
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Curcumin- and natural extract-loaded nanofibres for potential treatment of lung and breast cancer: in vitro efficacy evaluation.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Drug-eluting medical implants are more common, particularly for fighting against cancers. FDA and other drug regulatory bodies have approved many nanoformulated devices eluting active pharmaceutical ingredients and thus there is growing demand for further value- added devices. Nanofibre membranes are known for its versatility of drug incorporation and sustained drug release. We intend to fabricate natural ingredient or extract, and their combination loaded polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibre for usage as drug-eluting stents or implants for anticancer activity against lung and breast cancers. The fabricated nanofibre membranes were characterised by scanning electron microscope for morphology, FT-IR for chemical nature and tensile testing for mechanical strengths. Release of curcumin was studied with time to find the applicability of the device as drug-eluting implant. The activity of the nanofibre membranes was tested against human breast cancer (MCF7) and lung cancer (A459) cell lines in vitro. In both the cell lines tested, 1% aloe vera and 5% curcumin-loaded PCL nanofibre exhibited 15% more cytotoxicity in comparison with the commercial drug 1% cis-Platin-loaded PCL nanofibre after 24?h incubation.
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Modification of DBC1 by SUMO2/3 is crucial for p53-mediated apoptosis in response to DNA damage.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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DBC1 is a major inhibitor of SIRT1, which plays critical roles in the control of diverse cellular processes, including stress response and energy metabolism. Therefore, the DBC1-SIRT1 interaction should finely be regulated. Here we report that DBC1 modification by Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier 2/3 (SUMO 2/3), but not by SUMO1, is crucial for p53 transactivation under genotoxic stress. Whereas etoposide treatment reduced the interaction of DBC1 with SENP1, it promoted that with PIAS3, resulting in an increase in DBC1 sumoylation. Remarkably, the switching from SENP1 to PIAS3 for DBC1 binding was achieved by ATM/ATR-mediated phosphorylation of DBC1. Furthermore, DBC1 sumoylation caused an increase in the DBC1-SIRT1 interaction, leading to the release of p53 from SIRT1 for transcriptional activation. Consistently, SENP1 knockdown promoted etoposide-induced apoptosis, whereas knockdown of PIAS3 or SUMO2/3 and overexpression of sumoylation-deficient DBC1 mutant inhibited it. These results establish the role of DBC1 sumoylation in the promotion of p53-mediated apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress.
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The Mechanism of NPC-14686-Induced [Ca²?]i Rises and Non-Ca²?-Triggered Cell Death in MG63 Human Osteosarcoma Cells.
Chin J Physiol
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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NPC-14686 has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effect in previous studies, but the mechanisms are unclear. The effect of NPC-14686 on cytosolic Ca²? concentrations ([Ca²?]i) and viability in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells was explored. The Ca²?-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was applied to measure [Ca²?]i. NPC-14686 at concentrations of 100-500 ?M induced a [Ca²?]i rise in a concentrationdependent manner. The response was reduced by 80% by removing Ca²?. NPC-14686 induced Mn²? influx leading to quenching of fura-2 fluorescence. NPC-14686-evoked Ca²? entry was suppressed by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365, and protein kinase C inhibitor. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 abolished NPC-14686-induced [Ca²?]i rise. At 20-50 ?M, NPC-14686 decreased cell viability, which was not reversed by chelating cytosolic Ca²? with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/acetoxy methyl (BAPTA/AM). Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data suggest that NPC-14686 (30-50 ?M) induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. NPC-14686 also increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Together, in human osteosarcoma cells, NPC-14686 induced a [Ca²?]i rise by inducing phospholipase C-dependent Ca²? release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca²? entry via protein kinase C-sensitive store-operated Ca²? channels. NPC-14686 induced cell death that might involve apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways.
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Unexpected angular or rotational deformity after corrective osteotomy.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Codman's paradox reveals a misunderstanding of geometry in orthopedic practice. Physicians often encounter situations that cannot be understood intuitively during orthopedic interventions such as corrective osteotomy. Occasionally, unexpected angular or rotational deformity occurs during surgery.This study aimed to draw the attention of orthopedic surgeons toward the concepts of orientation and rotation and demonstrate the potential for unexpected deformity after orthopedic interventions. This study focused on three situations: shoulder arthrodesis, femoral varization derotational osteotomy, and femoral derotation osteotomy.
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Modification of ASC1 by UFM1 Is Crucial for ER? Transactivation and Breast Cancer Development.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Biological roles for UFM1, a ubiquitin-like protein, are largely unknown, and therefore we screened for targets of ufmylation. Here we show that ufmylation of the nuclear receptor coactivator ASC1 is a key step for ER? transactivation in response to 17?-estradiol (E2). In the absence of E2, the UFM1-specific protease UfSP2 was bound to ASC1, which maintains ASC1 in a nonufmylated state. In the presence of E2, ER? bound ASC1 and displaced UfSP2, leading to ASC1 ufmylation. Polyufmylation of ASC1 enhanced association of p300, SRC1, and ASC1 at promoters of ER? target genes. ASC1 overexpression or UfSP2 knockdown promoted ER?-mediated tumor formation in vivo, which could be abrogated by treatment with the anti-breast cancer drug tamoxifen. In contrast, expression of ufmylation-deficient ASC1 mutant or knockdown of the UFM1-activating E1 enzyme UBA5 prevented tumor growth. These findings establish a role for ASC1 ufmylation in breast cancer development by promoting ER? transactivation.
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Gender- and body-site-specific factors associated with bone mineral density in a non-institutionalized Korean population aged ?50 years.
J. Bone Miner. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the gender- and body-site-specific factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and lumbar spine in a non-institutionalized population aged ?50 years characterized by low average calcium intake. The comprehensive data utilized were from the 2010 Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which included health behavior questionnaire, blood and urine tests, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and nutrition intake. The factors associated with BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine in both genders were analyzed separately using multiple regression analysis with a stepwise selection. The average daily calcium intake in the male subjects was 565.8 mg and in the female subjects was 443.7 mg. In multiple regression analysis, age, body mass index (BMI), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lead, daily calcium intake, and cadmium were the significant factors associated with femoral neck BMD in male subjects. BMI, creatinine (Cr), total body fat percentile, lead, ALP, and hypertension were found to be the significant factors associated with lumbar spine BMD in male subjects. In the female subjects, the significant factors associated with femoral neck BMD were age, BMI, ALP, house income, and total body fat percentile, while menopause, Cr, mercury, house income, BMI, and ALP were found to be the significant factors associated with lumbar spine BMD. In conclusion, different factors were associated with BMD depending on gender and the body site tested (femoral neck or lumbar spine). These gender- and body-site-specific factors need to be considered for the prevention and management of osteoporosis.
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Naringin suppress chondrosarcoma migration through inhibition vascular adhesion molecule-1 expression by modulating miR-126.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Chondrosarcoma, a primary malignant bone cancer, has a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis, especially to the lungs. Patients diagnosed with it have poor prognosis. Naringin, polymethoxylated flavonoid commonly found in citrus fruits, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity; whether naringin regulates migration of chondrosarcoma is largely unknown. Here we report that naringin does not expedite apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma. By contrast, at noncytotoxic concentrations, naringin suppressed migration and invasion of chondrosarcoma cells. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) of the immunoglobulin superfamily is linked with metastasis; we found incubation of chondrosarcoma cells with naringin reducing mRNA transcription for, and cell surface expression of, VCAM-1. We also observed that naringin enhancing miR-126 expression, and miR-126 inhibitor reversed the naringin-inhibited cell motility and VCAM-1 expression. Therefore, naringin inhibits migration and invasion of human chondrosarcoma via down-regulation of VCAM-1 by increasing miR-126. Thus, naringin may be a novel anti-migration agent for the treatment of migration in chondrosarcoma.
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Fibular lengthening for the management of translational talus instability in hereditary multiple exostoses patients.
J Pediatr Orthop
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) patients frequently present with ankle valgus deformity and marked fibular shortening. Loss of the lateral buttress may cause translational talus instability (TTI) that manifests as ankle pain after physical exercise, medial clear space widening on plain radiographs, and gross translational movement of the talus within the mortise. Among 123 HME patients examined and/or surgically treated, 10 patients (14 ankles) with symptomatic TTI underwent fibular lengthening with osteochondroma excision. Twelve ankles of 9 patients were followed for >1 year after surgery. Total fibular length gain averaged 15.3 mm and distal migration of the distal fibular fragment averaged 5.5 mm. The mean medial clear space decreased from preoperative 6.7 mm to postlengthening 3.5 mm. Gross instability of the talus within the ankle mortise disappeared in all cases. AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score improved from preoperative 80.3 to 97.3 at the latest follow-up. The current study showed the fibular lengthening improved lateral ankle stability by providing lateral buttress on the talus and providing favorable short-term result by ameliorating exercise-induced ankle pain in TTI of HME. The authors carefully conclude that TTI is a rare but potentially disabling condition in HME patients, requiring special attention during follow-up of HME patients.
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Associations between MRI findings and symptoms in patients with chronic ankle sprain.
J Foot Ankle Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an accurate method of observing and diagnosing injuries of the ligament complex of the ankle. However, the association between ankle symptoms and MRI findings has been unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between ankle pain and MRI findings. This prospective study included 40 patients with ankle pain after inversion injury and 10 healthy volunteers. Correlations among the ankle symptoms (tenderness on the anterior talofibular ligament, pain during varus stress in a neutral and plantarflexed ankle), and MRI findings were analyzed. A complete tear of the anterior talofibular ligament correlated with ankle pain during varus stress in the neutral position (r = 0.365, p = .031) and tenderness at the anterior talofibular ligament (r = 0.362, p = .032). The results of our study suggest that a complete tear of the anterior talofibular ligament will correlate with lateral ankle pain.
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Effects of Thymol on Ca²? Homeostasis and Apoptosis in MDCK Renal Tubular Cells.
Chin J Physiol
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Thymol is a natural essential oil present in many plants and has many different effects in various cell types. However, the effect of thymol on the physiology of MDCK renal tubular cells is unknown. The action of the phytochemical thymol on cytosolic Ca²? concentrations ([Ca²?]i) and apoptosis in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) renal tubular cells was explored. Fura-2, a Ca²?-sensitive fluorescent dye, was used to assess [Ca²?]i. Thymol at concentrations of 200-500 ?M caused a [Ca²?]i rise in a concentration-dependent manner. Removal of extracellular Ca²? partially reduced the effects of thymol. Thymol-induced Ca²? entry was inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365 and protein kinase C modulators. In a Ca²?-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²? pump inhibitor thapsigargin inhibited thymol-induced [Ca²?]i increases. Treatment with thymol also inhibited thapsigargin-induced [Ca²?]i rise. Thymol killed cells at concentrations of 300-500 ?M in a concentrationdependent fashion. Chelating cytosolic Ca²? with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/AM (BAPTA/AM) did not prevent thymol cytotoxicity. Thymol (400 and 500 ?M) induced apoptosis detected by using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. At 400 or 500 ?M, thymol increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Together, in MDCK cells, thymol induced a [Ca²?]i rise by inducing Ca²? release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca²? entry via protein kinase C-sensitive store-operated Ca²? channels. Our data suggest that thymol-induced apoptosis might involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.
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Comparison of orthopaedic manifestations of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia caused by MATN3 versus COMP mutations: a case control study.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a relatively common skeletal dysplasia mainly involving the epiphyses of the long bones. However, it is a genetically heterogeneous group of diseases sharing certain aspects of the radiologic phenotype. In surveys conducted in East Asia, MATN3 was the most common causative gene, followed by COMP. In this study, the authors compared clinical manifestation of MED patients caused by MATN3 and COMP gene mutations, as well as subsequent orthopaedic interventions.
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Growth kinetics of small renal masses: A prospective analysis from the Renal Cell Carcinoma Consortium of Canada.
Can Urol Assoc J
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Most small renal masses (SRMs) are diagnosed incidentally and have a low malignant potential. As more elderly patients and infirm patients are diagnosed with SRMs, there is an increased interest in active surveillance (AS) with delayed intervention. Patient and tumour characteristics relating to aggressive disease have not been well-studied. The objective was to determine predictors of growth of SRMs treated with AS.
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Rectus femoris transfer in cerebral palsy patients with stiff knee gait.
Gait Posture
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Although several studies have reported on the outcomes of rectus femoris transfer (RFT), few have investigated the multiple factors that could affect the results. Therefore, we evaluated the outcomes of RFT and analyzed factors that influence improvement and annual change in knee motion after surgery in patients with cerebral palsy (CP).
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A randomized phase II efficacy and safety study of vandetanib (ZD6474) in combination with bicalutamide versus bicalutamide alone in patients with chemotherapy naïve castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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To investigate the efficacy and safety of combining vandetanib, an orally available multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with bicalutamide in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).
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Determining the best treatment for simple bone cyst: a decision analysis.
Clin Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The treatment of simple bone cysts (SBC) in children varies significantly among physicians. This study examined which procedure is better for the treatment of SBC, using a decision analysis based on current published evidence.
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Buddy taping: is it a safe method for treatment of finger and toe injuries?
Clin Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Buddy taping is a well known and useful method for treating sprains, dislocations, and other injuries of the fingers or toes. However, the authors have often seen complications associated with buddy taping such as necrosis of the skin, infections, loss of fixation, and limited joint motion. To our knowledge, there are no studies regarding the complications of buddy taping. The purpose of this study was to report the current consensus on treating finger and toe injuries and complications of buddy taping by using a specifically designed questionnaire.
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Curative use of forequarter amputation for recurrent breast cancer over an axillary area: a case report and literature review.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Axillary recurrence of breast cancer that involves the brachial neurovascular bundle is uncommon. However, for many patients with such recurrence, forequarter amputation can play a palliative role in relieving excruciating pain and paralysis of the upper limb. Further, for those patients who do not have distant metastasis or other local-regional recurrence, forequarter amputation provides a chance for a cure. Only a few case reports of curative amputations for recurrent breast cancer are present in the literature. Here, we report a case of forequarter amputation for curative treatment of axillary recurrent breast cancer, together with a literature review. To date, we have followed the patient for three years after amputation, during which there has been no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Although radical resection is feasible, it can be accompanied by surgical wound complications and psychosocial stress. Therefore, an organized multidisciplinary approach is needed to ensure the success of radical resection.
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Early results of anterior elbow release with and without biceps lengthening in patients with cerebral palsy.
J Hand Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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To investigate the effect of partial biceps lengthening on elbow flexion posture and active elbow flexion and extension in patients with cerebral palsy.
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Effects of reduction in the alpha-gal antigen on bony union: a model of xenobone graft using GalT knockout mouse.
Xenotransplantation
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Among the bone graft sources used currently, the availability of autografts is limited and allografts are expensive. Therefore, xenobone grafts have drawn attention as a new source of bone grafts, although immunologic rejection issues are unresolved. This study used a GalT knockout mouse model to investigate the effects of reducing the alpha-gal epitope using alpha-galactosidase on the union of porcine xenobone grafts.
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Modification of PCNA by ISG15 plays a crucial role in termination of error-prone translesion DNA synthesis.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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In response to DNA damage, PCNA is mono-ubiquitinated and triggers translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) by recruiting polymerase-?. However, it remained unknown how error-prone TLS is turned off after DNA lesion bypass to prevent mutagenesis. Here we showed that ISG15 modification (ISGylation) of PCNA plays a key role in TLS termination. Upon UV irradiation, EFP, an ISG15 E3 ligase, bound to mono-ubiquitinated PCNA and promoted its ISGylation. ISGylated PCNA then tethered USP10 for deubiquitination and in turn the release of polymerase-? from PCNA. Eventually, PCNA was deISGylated by UBP43 for reloading of replicative DNA polymerases and resuming normal DNA replication. However, ISGylation-defective Lys-to-Arg mutations in PCNA or knockdown of any of ISG15, EFP, or USP10 led to persistent recruitment of mono-ubiquitinated PCNA and polymerase-? to nuclear foci, causing an increase in mutation frequency. These findings establish a crucial role of PCNA ISGylation in termination of error-prone TLS for preventing excessive mutagenesis.
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Repeatability of a multi-segment foot model with a 15-marker set in healthy adults.
J Foot Ankle Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Several 3D multi-segment foot models (MFMs) have been introduced for the in vivo analysis of dynamic foot kinematics. However, reproducibility of a model should be checked and ascertained before clinical utilization of a MFM. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of recently introduced MFM with a 15-marker set by assessing the participant's stride-to-stride (intra-session) and visit-to-revisit (inter-session) repeatability.
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Spontaneous improvement of radiographic indices for idiopathic planovalgus with age.
J Bone Joint Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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The prevalence of idiopathic planovalgus decreases with age among children and adolescents. Previous studies have provided averages of radiographic indices for different age groups but not information about the rate of spontaneous correction and the affecting factors. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of spontaneous improvement of radiographic indices of idiopathic planovalgus through the application of a linear mixed model.
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Slipped capital femoral epiphysis caused by neurogenic heterotopic ossification.
J Pediatr Orthop B
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is rare in nonambulatory patients, as mechanical factors play important roles in the development of the disease. We report a case of SCFE, which occurred in a 12-year-old girl with a nonambulatory status after cerebral infarction. SCFE occurred after she received passive range of motion exercise and extracorporeal shock wave treatment for neurogenic heterotopic ossification around the hip joint. The patient was successfully managed by a stepwise approach, with radiological and clinical improvements.
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Types and arrangement of thyroid shields to reduce exposure of surgeons to ionizing radiation during intraoperative use of C-arm fluoroscopy.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Measurement of radiation dose from C-arm fluoroscopy during a simulated intraoperative use in spine surgery.
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Development of digital dashboard system for medical practice: maximizing efficiency of medical information retrieval and communication.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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It is reported that digital dashboard systems in hospitals provide a user interface (UI) that can centrally manage and retrieve various information related to patients in a single screen, support the decision-making of medical professionals on a real time basis by integrating the scattered medical information systems and core work flows, enhance the competence and decision-making ability of medical professionals, and reduce the probability of misdiagnosis. However, the digital dashboard systems of hospitals reported to date have some limitations when medical professionals use them to generally treat inpatients, because those were limitedly used for the work process of certain departments or developed to improve specific disease-related indicators. Seoul National University Bundang Hospital developed a new concept of EMR system to overcome such limitations. The system allows medical professionals to easily access all information on inpatients and effectively retrieve important information from any part of the hospital by displaying inpatient information in the form of digital dashboard. In this study, we would like to introduce the structure, development methodology and the usage of our new concept.
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USP47 and C terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) antagonistically regulate katanin-p60-mediated axonal growth.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Katanin is a heterodimeric enzyme that severs and disassembles microtubules. While the p60 subunit has the enzyme activity, the p80 subunit regulates the p60 activity. The microtubule-severing activity of katanin plays an essential role in axonal growth. However, the mechanisms by which neuronal cells regulate the expression of katanin-p60 remains unknown. Here we showed that USP47 and C terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) antagonistically regulate the stability of katanin-p60 and thereby axonal growth. USP47 was identified as a katanin-p60-specific deubiquitinating enzyme for its stabilization. We also identified CHIP as a ubiquitin E3 ligase that promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of katanin-p60. Moreover, USP47 promoted axonal growth of cultured rat hippocampal neurons, whereas CHIP inhibited it. Significantly, treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), an inducer of axonal growth, increased the levels of USP47 and katanin-p60, but not CHIP. Consistently, bFGF treatment resulted in a marked decrease in the level of ubiquitinated katanin-p60 and thereby in the promotion of axonal growth. On the other hand, the level of USP47, but not CHIP, decreased concurrently with that of katanin-p60 as axons reached their target cells. These results indicate that USP47 plays a crucial role in the control of axonal growth during neuronal development by antagonizing CHIP-mediated katanin-p60 degradation.
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Ras activation mediates WISP-1-induced increases in cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase expression in human osteosarcoma.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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WISP-1 is a cysteine-rich protein that belongs to the CCN (Cyr61, CTGF, Nov) family of matrix cellular proteins. Osteosarcoma is a type of highly malignant tumor with a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis. However, the effect of WISP-1 on migration activity in human osteosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. In this study, we first found that the expression of WISP-1 in osteosarcoma patients was significantly higher than that in normal bone and corrected with tumor stage. Exogenous treatment of osteosarcoma cells with WISP-1 promoted cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression. In addition, the Ras and Raf-1 inhibitor or siRNA abolished WISP-1-induced cell migration and MMP expression. On the other hand, activation of the Ras, Raf-1, MEK, ERK, and NF-?B signaling pathway after WISP-1 treatment was demonstrated, and WISP-1-induced expression of MMPs and migration activity were inhibited by the specific inhibitor, and mutant of MEK, ERK, and NF-?B cascades. Taken together, our results indicated that WISP-1 enhances the migration of osteosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression through the integrin receptor, Ras, Raf-1, MEK, ERK, and NF-?B signal transduction pathway.
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Valgus femoral osteotomy for noncontainable Perthes hips: prognostic factors of remodeling.
J Pediatr Orthop
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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The authors have performed valgus femoral osteotomy (VFO) with rotational and sagittal components for Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease hips with hinge abduction. We analyzed skeletally mature patients to determine: (1) whether VFO improved hip function; (2) whether favorable radiographic remodeling of the hip occurred; and (3) whether any clinical or radiographic factors were associated with remodeling of femoral head deformity.
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Si-Wu-tang extract stimulates bone formation through PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB signaling pathways in osteoblasts.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula, is widely used for the treatment of gynopathies diseases such as menstrual discomfort, climacteric syndrome, dysmenorrhea, and other estrogen-related diseases. Recent studies have shown that SWT can treat primary dysmenorrhea, have anti-pruritic anti-inflammatory effects, and protect against radiation-induced bone marrow damage in an animal model. It has been reported that anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents have the potential to treat osteoporosis by increasing bone formation and/or suppressing bone resorption. However, the effect of SWT on bone cell function has not yet been reported.
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Conflict of interest in the assessment of botulinum toxin A injections in patients with cerebral palsy: a systematic review.
J Pediatr Orthop
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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The efficacy of using botulinum toxin A injections in cerebral palsy (CP) is controversial. The financial conflict of interest related to medical research can affect the conclusion of an evidence-based review. This study was performed to determine as to what proportion of studies on botulinum toxin A injections in patients with CP was sponsored by the industry and whether the assessments of botulinum toxin injection in CP were associated with industry support.
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Femoral anteversion and tibial torsion only explain 25% of variance in regression analysis of foot progression angle in children with diplegic cerebral palsy.
J Neuroeng Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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The relationship between torsional bony deformities and rotational gait parameters has not been sufficiently investigated. This study was to investigate the degree of contribution of torsional bony deformities to rotational gait parameters in patients with diplegic cerebral palsy (CP).
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Berberine Reduces the Metastasis of Chondrosarcoma by Modulating the ? v ? 3 Integrin and the PKC ? , c-Src, and AP-1 Signaling Pathways.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Chondrosarcoma is a primary malignant bone cancer, with a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis, especially to the lungs. Patients diagnosed with chondrosarcoma have poor prognosis. Berberine, an active component of the Ranunculaceae and Papaveraceae families of plant, has been proven to induce tumor apoptosis and to prevent the metastasis of cancer cells. However, the effects of berberine in human chondrosarcoma are largely unknown. In this study, we found that berberine did not induce cell apoptosis in human primary chondrocytes and chondrosarcoma cells. However, at noncytotoxic concentrations, berberine reduced the migration and invasion of chondrosarcoma cancer cells. Integrins are the major adhesive molecules in mammalian cells and have been associated with the metastasis of cancer cells. We also found that incubation of chondrosarcoma cells with berberine reduced mRNA transcription for, and cell surface expression of, the ? v ? 3 integrin, with additional inhibitory effects on PKC ? , c-Src, and NF- ? B activation. Thus, berberine may be a novel antimetastasis agent for the treatment of metastatic chondrosarcoma.
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Relationship between stress ankle radiographs and injured ligaments on MRI.
Skeletal Radiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the injured lateral ankle ligaments on MRI and stress ankle radiographs.
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Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 is involved in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-enhanced cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase 1 expression in human chondrosarcoma cells.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Chondrosarcoma is the primary malignancy of bone that is characterized by a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis, and is therefore associated with poor prognoses. Chondrosarcoma further shows a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small molecule in the neurotrophin family of growth factors that is associated with the disease status and outcome of cancers. However, the effect of BDNF on cell motility in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here, we found that human chondrosarcoma cell lines had significantly higher cell motility and BDNF expression compared to normal chondrocytes. We also found that BDNF increased cell motility and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in human chondrosarcoma cells. BDNF-mediated cell motility and MMP-1 up-regulation were attenuated by Trk inhibitor (K252a), ASK1 inhibitor (thioredoxin), JNK inhibitor (SP600125), and p38 inhibitor (SB203580). Furthermore, BDNF also promoted Sp1 activation. Our results indicate that BDNF enhances the migration and invasion activity of chondrosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-1 expression through a signal transduction pathway that involves the TrkB receptor, ASK1, JNK/p38, and Sp1. BDNF thus represents a promising new target for treating chondrosarcoma metastasis.
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Incidence patterns of pediatric and adolescent orthopaedic fractures according to age groups and seasons in South Korea: a population-based study.
Clin Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Fractures which need urgent or emergency treatment are common in children and adolescents. This study investigated the incidence patterns of pediatric and adolescent orthopaedic fractures according to age groups and seasons in South Korea based on population data.
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Structural alteration in the pore motif of the bacterial 20S proteasome homolog HslV leads to uncontrolled protein degradation.
J. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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In all cells, ATP-dependent proteases play central roles in the controlled degradation of short-lived regulatory or misfolded proteins. A hallmark of these enzymes is that proteolytic active sites are sequestered within a compartmentalized space, which is accessible to substrates only when they are fed into the cavity by protein-unfolding ATPases. HslVU is a prototype of such enzymes, consisting of the hexameric HslU ATPase and the dodecameric HslV protease. HslV forms a barrel-shaped proteolytic chamber with two constricted axial pores. Here, we report that structural alterations of HslVs pore motif dramatically affect the proteolytic activities of both HslV and HslVU complexes. Mutations of a conserved pore residue in HslV (Leu88 to Ala, Gly, or Ser) led to a tighter binding between HslV and HslU and a dramatic stimulation of both the proteolytic and ATPase activities. Furthermore, the HslV mutants alone showed a marked increase of basal hydrolytic activities toward small peptides and unstructured proteins. A synthetic peptide of the HslU C-terminal tail further stimulated the proteolytic activities of these mutants, even allowing degradation of certain folded proteins in the absence of HslU. Moreover, expression of the L88A mutant in Escherichia coli inhibited cell growth, suggesting that HslV pore mutations dysregulate the protease through relaxing the pore constriction, which normally prevents essential cellular proteins from random degradation. Consistent with these observations, an X-ray crystal structure shows that the pore loop of L88A-HslV is largely disordered. Collectively, these results suggest that substrate degradation by HslV is controlled by gating of its pores.
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Multifocality rather than tumor location is a prognostic factor in upper tract urothelial carcinoma.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Whether a patient has urothelial carcinoma located within the renal pelvis or ureter remains a controversial prognostic indicator in clinical urology. We wished to evaluate whether tumor location is associated with recurrence in patients undergoing nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial cancer in a large volume patient cohort.
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Adjacent tissue involvement of acute inflammatory ankle arthritis on magnetic resonance imaging findings.
Int Orthop
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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The ankle joint and surrounding subtalar joint have several tendons in close proximity. This study was performed to investigate the concurrent adjacent tissue involvement on MRI findings when the surgical treatment is considered for an acute inflammatory arthritis of the ankle joint.
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HGF and c-Met interaction promotes migration in human chondrosarcoma cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Chondrosarcoma is a type of highly malignant tumor with a potent capacity for local invasion and causing distant metastasis. Chondrosarcoma shows a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been demonstrated to stimulate cancer proliferation, migration, and metastasis. However, the effect of HGF on migration activity of human chondrosarcoma cells is not well known. Here, we found that human chondrosarcoma tissues demonstrated significant expression of HGF, which was higher than that in normal cartilage. We also found that HGF increased the migration and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in human chondrosarcoma cells. c-Met inhibitor and siRNA reduced HGF-increased cell migration and MMP-2 expression. HGF treatment resulted in activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/PKC?/NF-?B pathway, and HGF-induced expression of MMP-2 and cell migration was inhibited by specific inhibitors or siRNA-knockdown of PI3K, Akt, PKC?, and NF-?B cascades. Taken together, our results indicated that HGF enhances migration of chondrosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-2 expression through the c-Met receptor/PI3K/Akt/PKC?/NF-?B signal transduction pathway.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.