JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Selection of aptamers specific for glycated hemoglobin and total hemoglobin using on-chip SELEX.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels reflecting average glucose concentrations over the past three months are fundamental for the diagnosis, monitoring, and risk assessment of diabetes. It has been hypothesized that aptamers, which are single-stranded DNAs or RNAs that demonstrate high affinity to a large variety of molecules ranging from small drugs, metabolites, or proteins, could be used for the measurement of HbA1c. Aptamers are selected through an in vitro process called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), and they can be chemically synthesized with high reproducibility at relatively low costs. This study therefore aimed to select HbA1c- and hemoglobin (Hb)-specific single-stranded DNA aptamers using an on-chip SELEX protocol. A microfluidic SELEX chip was developed to continuously and automatically carry out multiple rounds of SELEX to screen specific aptamers for HbA1c and Hb. HbA1c and Hb were first coated onto magnetic beads. Following several rounds of selection and enrichment with a randomized 40-mer DNA library, specific oligonucleotides were selected. The binding specificity and affinity were assessed by competitive and binding assays. Using the developed microfluidic system, the incubation and partitioning times were greatly decreased, and the entire process was shortened dramatically. Both HbA1c- and Hb-specific aptamers selected by the microfluidic system showed high specificity and affinity (dissociation constant, Kd = 7.6 ± 3.0 nM and 7.3 ± 2.2 nM for HbA1c and Hb, respectively). With further refinements in the assay, these aptamers may replace the conventional antibodies for in vitro diagnostics applications in the near future.
Related JoVE Video
Outcomes of primary surgical evacuation during the first trimester in different types of implantation in women with cesarean scar pregnancy.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the efficacy and safety of primary surgical evacuation therapy for cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) of the first trimester, and to evaluate its possible prognostic factors.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic variation in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 (PGC1) gene families and type 2 diabetes.
Ann. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We used a two-stage study design to evaluate whether variations in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and the PPAR gamma co-activator 1 (PGC1) gene families (PPARA, PPARG, PPARD, PPARGC1A, and PPARGC1B) are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Stage I used data from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) from Shanghai, China (1019 T2D cases and 1709 controls) and from a meta-analysis of data from the Asian Genetic Epidemiology Network for T2D (AGEN-T2D). Criteria for selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for stage II were: (1) P < 0.05 in single marker analysis in Shanghai GWAS and P < 0.05 in the meta-analysis or (2) P < 10(-3) in the meta-analysis alone and (3) minor allele frequency ? 0.10. Nine SNPs from the PGC1 family were assessed in stage II (an independent set of middle-aged men and women from Shanghai with 1700 T2D cases and 1647 controls). One SNP in PPARGC1B, rs251464, was replicated in stage II (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77-0.99). Gene-body mass index (BMI) and gene-exercise interactions and T2D risk were evaluated in a combined dataset (Shanghai GWAS and stage II data: 2719 cases and 3356 controls). One SNP in PPARGC1A, rs12640088, had a significant interaction with BMI. No interactions between the PPARGC1B gene and BMI or exercise were observed.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular extraction in single live cells by sneaking in and out magnetic nanomaterials.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Extraction of intracellular molecules is crucial to the study of cellular signal pathways. Disruption of the cellular membrane remains the established method to release intracellular contents, which inevitably terminates the time course of biological processes. Also, conventional laboratory extractions mostly use bulky materials that ignore the heterogeneity of each cell. In this work, we developed magnetized carbon nanotubes that can be sneaked into and out of cell bodies under a magnetic force. Using a testing model with overexpression of GFP, the nanotubes successfully transported the intracellular GFP out at the single-cell level. The confined nanoscale invasiveness did not change cell viability or proliferation. This study presents the proof of concept of a previously unidentified real-time and single-cell approach to investigate cellular biology, signal messengers, and therapeutic effects with nanomaterials.
Related JoVE Video
0318?An epidemiologic study of acute coronary syndrome in the working population.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Some of cardiovascular diseases, like stroke and acute coronary syndrome (ACS), are compensable diseases in Taiwan as well as Japan and Korea. The number of compensated cases in the disease has increased from 13 in 2006 to 92 in 2012. The information on workplace risk factors before onset of disease is rare, and this aim of this study is to conduct a case control study for analysing the association between ACS and work stress, using hospital-based study.
Related JoVE Video
Determination of exogenous epigallocatechin gallate peracetate in mouse plasma using liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A robust method for the quantitation of epigallocatechin gallate peracetate in plasma for pharmacokinetic studies is lacking. We have developed a validated method to quantify this compound using liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with isopropanol and tert-butyl methyl ether (3:10) extraction and thin-layer chromatography purification. The epigallocatechin gallate peracetate-1-(13) C8 isotope was used as an internal standard. The linear range (r(2) > 0.9950) was from 0.05 to 100.00 ?g/mL. The lower limit of quantification of the method was 0.05 ?g/mL. Reproducibility, coefficient of variation, was between 0.7 and 12.6% (n = 6), accuracy between 83.7 and 104.6% (n = 5), and recovery ranged from 82.4 to 109.0% (n = 4). Ion suppression was approximately 40%. No mass spectral peaks were found to interfere between the standard and internal standard or the blank plasma extracts. Epigallocatechin gallate peracetate in plasma was stably stored at -80°C over three months even after three freeze-thaw cycles. Extracts were stable in the sampler at 4°C for over 48 h. Plasma levels were maintained at 1.36 ?g/mL for 360 min after intraorbital intravenous injection at 50 mg/kg in mice. This method can be used to reliably measure epigallocatechin gallate peracetate in plasma for pharmacokinetic studies.
Related JoVE Video
Psychiatric disorders after occupational injury among National Health Insurance enrollees in Taiwan.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to determine the incidence rates of psychiatric disorders within 1 year after occupational injury and to examine the association between occupational injury and the incidence of psychiatric disorders using National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We used cohort approach in this investigation. All eligible subjects were from the NHIRD, and aged 18-65 years old. A total of 542,208 patients were enrolled in this study. Among them, 1038 patients sustained occupational injury, 6891 patients sustained non-occupational injury. The reference group in this study was 534,279 patients who ever used the NHI for any medical condition in 2001. The incidence rates of any psychiatric disorders within 1 year after occupational injury (inpatient), occupational injury (outpatient), non-occupational injury (inpatient), non-occupational injury (outpatient), and any disease were 9.5%, 2.5%, 7.4%, 1.5%, and 1.1%, respectively. Occupational injury was found as a significant factor for developing psychiatric disorders within 1 year after the target injury. The incidence rate of any psychiatric disorders was higher in patients after occupational injury than those after non-occupational injury and any medical condition.
Related JoVE Video
Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in East Asian-ancestry populations identifies four new loci for body mass index.
Wanqing Wen, Wei Zheng, Yukinori Okada, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Yasuharu Tabara, Joo-Yeon Hwang, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Huaixing Li, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Xiaobo Yang, Jiang He, Ying Wu, Meian He, Yi Zhang, Jun Liang, Xiuqing Guo, Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, Ryan Delahanty, Xingyi Guo, Michiaki Kubo, Ken Yamamoto, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Min Jin Go, Jian Jun Liu, Wei Gan, Ching-Chu Chen, Yong Gao, Shengxu Li, Nanette R Lee, Chen Wu, Xueya Zhou, Huaidong Song, Jie Yao, I-Te Lee, Jirong Long, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Koichi Akiyama, Naoyuki Takashima, Yoon Shin Cho, Rick Th Ong, Ling Lu, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Aihua Tan, Treva K Rice, Linda S Adair, Lixuan Gui, Matthew Allison, Wen-Jane Lee, Qiuyin Cai, Minoru Isomura, Satoshi Umemura, Young Jin Kim, Mark Seielstad, James Hixson, Yong-Bing Xiang, Masato Isono, Bong-Jo Kim, Xueling Sim, Wei Lu, Toru Nabika, Juyoung Lee, Wei-Yen Lim, Yu-Tang Gao, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Dae-Hee Kang, Tien Yin Wong, Chao Agnes Hsiung, I-Chien Wu, Jyh-Ming Jimmy Juang, Jiajun Shi, Bo Youl Choi, Tin Aung, Frank Hu, Mi Kyung Kim, Wei Yen Lim, Tzung-Dao Wang, Min-Ho Shin, Jeannette Lee, Bu-Tian Ji, Young-Hoon Lee, Terri L Young, Dong Hoon Shin, Byung-Yeol Chun, Myeong-Chan Cho, Bok-Ghee Han, Chii-Min Hwu, Themistocles L Assimes, Devin Absher, Xiaofei Yan, Eric Kim, Jane Z Kuo, Soonil Kwon, Kent D Taylor, Yii-Der I Chen, Jerome I Rotter, Lu Qi, Dingliang Zhu, Tangchun Wu, Karen L Mohlke, Dongfeng Gu, Zengnan Mo, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Xu Lin, Tetsuro Miki, E Shyong Tai, Jong-Young Lee, Norihiro Kato, Xiao-Ou Shu, Toshihiro Tanaka.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent genetic association studies have identified 55 genetic loci associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI). The vast majority, 51 loci, however, were identified in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations between BMI and ?2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms among 86 757 individuals of Asian ancestry, followed by in silico and de novo replication among 7488-47 352 additional Asian-ancestry individuals. We identified four novel BMI-associated loci near the KCNQ1 (rs2237892, P = 9.29 × 10(-13)), ALDH2/MYL2 (rs671, P = 3.40 × 10(-11); rs12229654, P = 4.56 × 10(-9)), ITIH4 (rs2535633, P = 1.77 × 10(-10)) and NT5C2 (rs11191580, P = 3.83 × 10(-8)) genes. The association of BMI with rs2237892, rs671 and rs12229654 was significantly stronger among men than among women. Of the 51 BMI-associated loci initially identified in European-ancestry populations, we confirmed eight loci at the genome-wide significance level (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)) and an additional 14 at P < 1.0 × 10(-3) with the same direction of effect as reported previously. Findings from this analysis expand our knowledge of the genetic basis of obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Visit-to-visit variability of fasting plasma glucose as predictor of ischemic stroke: competing risk analysis in a national cohort of Taiwan Diabetes Study.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glycemic variation as an independent predictor of ischemic stroke in type 2 diabetic patients remains unclear. This study examined visit-to-visit variations in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), as represented by the coefficient of variation (CV), for predicting ischemic stroke independently, regardless of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and other conventional risk factors in such patients.
Related JoVE Video
Serum vascular adhesion protein-1 level predicts risk of incident cancers in subjects with type II diabetes.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Serum vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) predicts cancer-related mortality in diabetic subjects. However, whether serum VAP-1 predicts cancer incidence or cancer progression remains unclear. We conducted a cohort study to investigate whether serum VAP-1 and related clinical variables predict incident cancers in type II diabetic subjects.
Related JoVE Video
Identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes at 16q22.1 increase diabetic nephropathy risk in Han Chinese population.
BMC Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become one of the most common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in many countries, such as 44.5% in Taiwan. Previous studies have shown that there is a genetic component to ESRD. Studies attempting to determine which genetic variants are related to DN in Han Chinese are limited. A case-control study was conducted to identify DN susceptibility variants in Han Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Chimerin 2 genetic polymorphisms are associated with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in Taiwanese type 2 diabetic patients.
J. Diabetes Complicat.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate whether chimerin 2 (CHN2) genetic polymorphisms were associated with the susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Taiwanese individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Immunomodulation of phloretin by impairing dendritic cell activation and function.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dietary compounds in fruits and vegetables have been shown to exert many biological activities. In addition to antioxidant effects, a number of flavonoids are able to modulate inflammatory responses. Here, we demonstrated that phloretin (PT), a natural dihydrochalcone found in many fruits, suppressed the activation and function of mouse dendritic cells (DCs). Phloretin disturbed the multiple intracellular signaling pathways in DCs induced by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), including ROS, MAPKs (ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK), and NF-?B, and thereby reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Phloretin also effectively suppressed the activation of DCs treated with different dosages of LPS or various TLR agonists. The LPS-induced DC maturation was attenuated by phloretin because the expression levels of the MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules were down-regulated, which then inhibited the LPS-stimulating DCs and the subsequent naïve T cell activation in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. Moreover, in vivo administration of phloretin suppressed the phenotypic maturation of the LPS-challenged splenic DCs and decreased the IFN-? production from the activated CD4 T cells. Thus, we suggest that phloretin may potentially be an immunomodulator by impairing the activation and function of DCs and phloretin-contained fruits may be helpful in the improvement of inflammation and autoimmune diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Association between IPTA Gene Polymorphisms and Hematological Abnormalities in Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Patients Receiving Combination Therapy.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hematological abnormalities during hepatitis C virus (HCV) combination therapy with pegylated interferon ? and ribavirin often necessitate dose reduction. Variants of the ITPA gene have been reported to protect against anemia during the early stages of HCV combination treatments but have also been associated with larger decreases in platelet counts. We aimed to identify the association between specific ITPA gene polymorphisms and hematological abnormalities in patients undergoing HCV combination therapy.
Related JoVE Video
A novel TLR2-triggered signalling crosstalk synergistically intensifies TNF-mediated IL-6 induction.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize pathogens and trigger the production of vigorous pro-inflammatory cytokines [such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)] that induce systemic damages associated with sepsis and chronic inflammation. Cooperation between signals of TLR and TNF receptor has been demonstrated through the participation of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR) adaptors in endotoxin tolerance. Here, we identify a TLR2-mediated synergy, through a MyD88-independent crosstalk, which enhances subsequent TNF-mediated nuclear factor-kappa B activation and interleukin-6 induction. Membrane-associated adaptor MAL conduces the link between TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and TNFR-associated death domain, leading to a distinctive K63-ubiquitinylated TRAF6 recruitment into TNFR complex. In summary, our results reveal a novel route of TLR signal that synergistically amplifies TNF-mediated responses, indicating an innovative target for inflammation manipulation.
Related JoVE Video
Aging in deep gray matter and white matter revealed by diffusional kurtosis imaging.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diffusion tensor imaging has already been extensively used to probe microstructural alterations in white matter tracts, and scarcely, in deep gray matter. However, results in literature regarding age-related degenerative mechanisms in white matter tracts and parametric changes in the putamen are inconsistent. Diffusional kurtosis imaging is a mathematical extension of diffusion tensor imaging, which could more comprehensively mirror microstructure, particularly in isotropic tissues such as gray matter. In this study, we used the diffusional kurtosis imaging method and a white-matter model that provided metrics of explicit neurobiological interpretations in healthy participants (58 in total, aged from 25 to 84 years). Tract-based whole-brain analyses and regions-of-interest (anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, fornix, genu and splenium of corpus callosum, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, putamen, caudate nucleus, and thalamus) analyses were performed to examine parametric differences across regions and correlations with age. In white matter tracts, evidence was found supportive for anterior-posterior gradient and not completely supportive for retrogenesis theory. Age-related degenerations appeared to be broadly driven by axonal loss. Demyelination may also be a major driving mechanism, although confined to the anterior brain. In terms of deep gray matter, higher mean kurtosis and fractional anisotropy in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and red nucleus reflected higher microstructural complexity and directionality compared with the putamen, caudate nucleus, and thalamus. In particular, the unique age-related positive correlations for fractional anisotropy, mean kurtosis, and radial kurtosis in the putamen opposite to those in other regions call for further investigation of exact underlying mechanisms. In summary, the results suggested that diffusional kurtosis can provide measurements in a new dimension that were complementary to diffusivity metrics. Kurtosis together with diffusivity can more comprehensively characterize microstructural compositions and age-related changes than diffusivity alone. Combined with proper model, it may also assist in providing neurobiological interpretations of the identified alterations.
Related JoVE Video
Differential effects of RNAi treatments on field populations of the western corn rootworm.
Pestic Biochem Physiol
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
RNA interference (RNAi) mediated crop protection against insect pests is a technology that is greatly anticipated by the academic and industrial pest control communities. Prior to commercialization, factors influencing the potential for evolution of insect resistance to RNAi should be evaluated. While mutations in genes encoding the RNAi machinery or the sequences targeted for interference may serve as a prominent mechanism of resistance evolution, differential effects of RNAi on target pests may also facilitate such evolution. However, to date, little is known about how variation of field insect populations could influence the effectiveness of RNAi treatments. To approach this question, we evaluated the effects of RNAi treatments on adults of three western corn rootworm (WCR; Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) populations exhibiting different levels of gut cysteine protease activity, tolerance of soybean herbivory, and immune gene expression; two populations were collected from crop rotation-resistant (RR) problem areas and one from a location where RR was not observed (wild type; WT). Our results demonstrated that RNAi targeting DvRS5 (a highly expressed cysteine protease gene) reduced gut cysteine protease activity in all three WCR populations. However, the proportion of the cysteine protease activity that was inhibited varied across populations. When WCR adults were treated with double-stranded RNA of an immune gene att1, different changes in survival among WT and RR populations on soybean diets occurred. Notably, for both genes, the sequences targeted for RNAi were the same across all populations examined. These findings indicate that the effectiveness of RNAi treatments could vary among field populations depending on their physiological and genetic backgrounds and that the consistency of an RNAi trait's effectiveness on phenotypically different populations should be considered or tested prior to wide deployment. Also, genes that are potentially subjected to differential selection in the field should be avoided for RNAi-based pest control.
Related JoVE Video
The Relationship between Stasis-Stagnation Constitution and Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objectives. In traditional Chinese medicine, Yu-Zhi (YZ, indicating stasis and stagnation) constitution describes a body that tends to express abnormal circulatory conditions. This study identified the linkage between YZ constitution and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. Patients over 20 years of age who had had type 2 diabetes for 5 years or longer were recruited. PAD was diagnosed if the ankle-brachial index score was ?0.9 in either leg. Level of YZ constitution was accessed by an YZ Constitution Questionnaire. Results. A total of 712 patients (354 men and 358 women) with a mean age of 61.5 ± 10.6 years and diabetes duration of 13.1 ± 6.7 years were recruited. The prevalence of PAD among our patients was 7.2%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed significant correlations between PAD and, respectively, YZ score, age, diabetes duration, current smoking, and hs-CRP. Conclusion. In addition to traditional risk factors, YZ constitution was statistically associated with PAD in patients with type 2 diabetes. This result invites further research into the effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine to treat YZ constitution.
Related JoVE Video
Irradiation of pyrimidine in pure H2O ice with high-energy ultraviolet photons.
Astrobiology
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The detection of nucleobases, the informational subunits of DNA and RNA, in several meteorites suggests that these compounds of biological interest were formed via astrophysical, abiotic processes. This hypothesis is in agreement with recent laboratory studies of irradiation of pyrimidine in H2O-rich ices with vacuum UV photons emitted by an H2-discharge lamp in the 6.9-11.3?eV (110-180?nm) range at low temperature, shown to lead to the abiotic formation of several compounds including the nucleobases uracil, cytosine, and thymine. In this work, we irradiated H2O:pyrimidine ice mixtures under astrophysically relevant conditions (14?K, ?10(-9) torr) with high-energy UV photons provided by a synchrotron source in three different ranges: the 0(th) order light (4.1-49.6?eV, 25-300?nm), the He i line (21.2?eV, 58.4?nm), and the He ii line (40.8?eV, 30.4?nm). The photodestruction of pyrimidine was monitored with IR spectroscopy, and the samples recovered at room temperature were analyzed with liquid and gas chromatographies. Uracil and its precursor 4(3H)-pyrimidone were found in all samples, with absolute and relative abundances varying significantly from one sample to another. These results support a scenario in which compounds of biological interest can be formed and survive in environments subjected to high-energy UV radiation fields.
Related JoVE Video
Formulated extract from multiple citrus peels impairs dendritic cell functions and attenuates allergic contact hypersensitivity.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been reported that gold lotion (GL), a formulated product made from the peels of six citrus fruits, has many pharmacological properties, such as anti-tumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of GL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated mouse bone marrow-derived DC maturation and function. Our experimental results have shown that GL significantly impaired the pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine secretion, suppressed the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I/II and costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86), increased phagocytic capacity, and reduced propensity to stimulate the autologous CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation of LPS-induced DCs. Furthermore, we found that oral administration of GL attenuated the 2,4-Dinitro-1-fluorobenzene induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in animal models. Subsequently, our molecular mechanism studies showed that GL interfered with LPS-induced MAPK-JNK, p38 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65. In an essence, these findings are the first report to provide new insight in the immunopharmacological role of GL in terms of its effects on DC.
Related JoVE Video
Serotonin receptor 6 mediates defective brain development in monoamine oxidase A-deficient mouse embryos.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO-A and MAO-B) are enzymes of the outer mitochondrial membrane that metabolize biogenic amines. In the adult central nervous system, MAOs have important functions for neurotransmitter homeostasis. Expression of MAO isoforms has been detected in the developing embryo. However, suppression of MAO-B does not induce developmental alterations. In contrast, targeted inhibition and knockdown of MAO-A expression (E7.5-E10.5) caused structural abnormalities in the brain. Here we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying defective brain development induced by MAO-A knockdown during in vitro embryogenesis. The developmental alterations were paralleled by diminished apoptotic activity in the affected neuronal structures. Moreover, dysfunctional MAO-A expression led to elevated levels of embryonic serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)), and we found that knockdown of serotonin receptor-6 (5-Htr6) expression or pharmacologic inhibition of 5-Htr6 activity rescued the MAO-A knockdown phenotype and restored apoptotic activity in the developing brain. Our data suggest that excessive 5-Htr6 activation reduces activation of caspase-3 and -9 of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and enhances expression of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Moreover, we found that elevated 5-HT levels in MAO-A knockdown embryos coincided with an enhanced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and a reduction of proliferating cell numbers. In summary, our findings suggest that excessive 5-HT in MAO-A-deficient mouse embryos triggers cellular signaling cascades via 5-Htr6, which suppresses developmental apoptosis in the brain and thus induces developmental retardations.
Related JoVE Video
Association of TLR7 and TSHR copy number variation with Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy in Chinese population in Taiwan.
BMC Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Graves' disease (GD) and Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) are autoimmune disorders, which might be influenced by genetic factors. Copy number variation (CNV) is an important source of genomic diversity in humans, and influences disease susceptibility. This study investigated the association between CNV in the TSHR and TLR7 genes and the development of GD and GO in a Chinese population in Taiwan.
Related JoVE Video
Risks of decreased renal function and increased albuminuria for glycemic status and metabolic syndrome components: Taichung Community Health study.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess the association of glycemic status and decreased renal function as determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria in an adult Taiwanese metropolitan population.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic value of semiquantification NP-59 SPECT/CT in primary aldosteronism patients after adrenalectomy.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Primary aldosteronism (PA), characterized by an excessive production of aldosterone, affects 5-13 % of patients with hypertension. Accurate strategies are needed for the timely diagnosis of PA to allow curability and prevention of excessive cardiovascular events and related damage. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of semiquantification of (131)I-6?-iodomethyl-norcholesterol (NP-59) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT in differentiating aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) from idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia (IAH) and in predicting clinical outcomes after adrenalectomy.
Related JoVE Video
Low-density lipoprotein electronegativity is a novel cardiometabolic risk factor.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a central role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. In LDL chromatographically resolved according to charge, the most electronegative subfraction-L5-is the only subfraction that induces atherogenic responses in cultured vascular cells. Furthermore, increasing evidence has shown that plasma L5 levels are elevated in individuals with high cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that LDL electronegativity is a novel index for predicting CVD.
Related JoVE Video
Dual effect of a polymorphism in the macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene is associated with new-onset Graves disease in a Taiwanese Chinese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Graves disease (GD) is an autoimmune disease. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a potent cytokine that plays an important role in the regulation of immune responses. Two polymorphisms in the promoter region of MIF, rs5844572 and rs755622, are known to affect MIF expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between polymorphisms in the MIF gene promoter and the severity of GD. A total of 677 individuals, including 481 GD patients and 196 ethnically matched healthy controls, were genotyped to identify differences in the distribution of the MIF polymorphisms rs5844572 and rs755622. Although there were no significant differences in the allele or genotype distributions among patients with different grades of goiter in GD and healthy controls, the distribution of the C allele, especially C/C genotype, of the rs755622 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in MIF, may be as a risk factor for goiter initiation whereas a protector against development of severe goiter in patients with untreated GD (p<0.05). A goiter-developmental model incorporating genetic (MIF SNP rs755622) and environmental risk factors (gender, radioiodine treatment, thyroid gland surgery and vitiligo) significantly increased the prediction accuracy. Further studies are required to address the role of MIF polymorphisms, as well as their association with other candidate genes, in GD.
Related JoVE Video
Development of T-STAT for early autism screening.
J Autism Dev Disord
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This studys purpose was to modify the Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT) into a Taiwanese version called T-STAT. Study 1 included 15 children with Autism and 15 children with Developmental Delay (DD) or language impairment (LI) aged between 24 and 35 months. Study 2 had 77 young children with Autism, PDD-NOS, or DD/LI as a clinical-based validation sample. In Study 1, the signal detection procedure found that a cutoff score of 2 would yield high sensitivity and specificity in T-STAT. In Study 2, using a score of 2 as a cutoff, the agreement between T-STAT risk and ADOS classification was highly acceptable. Results were promising as a Level 2 screening tool for Autism for ages two to three.
Related JoVE Video
Airflow obstruction and left ventricular filling pressure in suspected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Left ventricular (LV) filling impairment is present in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Airflow obstruction is related to reduced LV end-diastolic volume, stroke volume, and cardiac output. The ratio of peak early diastolic filling velocity of the mitral inflow to peak early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (E/e), an echocardiographic parameter, can be applied as a surrogate marker of LV filling pressures. Forty-seven individuals with suspected COPD underwent pulmonary function tests and echocardiography. The ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and the E/e ratio were determined. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the FEV1/FVC ratio (?=0.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.001-0.019; p=0.036) independently predicted the log transformed E/e ratio. An increase of FEV1/FVC ratio (in percentage) by 1 unit was associated with an increase of the E/e ratio multiplied by 1.01. Airflow obstruction inversely predicts LV filling pressure in suspected COPD cases.
Related JoVE Video
The tyrosine kinase Syk differentially regulates Toll-like receptor signaling downstream of the adaptor molecules TRAF6 and TRAF3.
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major family of pattern recognition receptors, and they play a crucial role in innate immune responses. Activation of TLR4 signaling at the plasma membrane by its ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates a proinflammatory pathway dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6) and the kinase TAK1 (transforming growth factor ?-activated kinase 1), whereas TLR4 signaling at endosomes stimulates the production of type I interferons (IFNs) through a pathway that depends on TRAF3 and the kinase TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase-1). We found that the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Syk partially mediated the endocytosis of TLR4, but it also played a dual role in TLR4-mediated signaling. LPS-dependent stimulation of TLR4 in Syk-deficient macrophages led to enhanced activation of TAK1 and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines compared to that in wild-type macrophages. In contrast, Syk-deficient macrophages exhibited decreased TLR4-dependent activation of TBK1 signaling and production of type I IFNs. We found that Syk was present in both TRAF6- and TRAF3-containing signaling complexes; however, the LPS-dependent, lysine 63-linked ubiquitination of TRAF6 and TRAF3 was oppositely regulated by Syk. We identified the domains of Syk that interacted with TRAF3, TRAF6, TAK1, and TBK1, factors activated by multiple TLRs, which suggests that Syk may act as a common regulator of various TLR responses. Together, our results demonstrate the opposing regulatory roles of Syk in TLR-mediated TRAF6 and TRAF3 signaling pathways, which suggests that Syk may fine-tune the innate immune response to lessen inflammation.
Related JoVE Video
Survey on nitrogen removal and membrane filtration characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris Beij. on treating domestic type wastewaters.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the nitrogen assimilation and filtration characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris Beij. when treating domestic wastewaters. Chlorella could assimilate organic nitrogen, ammonia and nitrate in wastewater, and the mean cell residence time (MCRT) to achieve the maximum biomass content in a bioreactor was different for each individual nitrogen source used. The experimental results showed that using nitrate as the only nitrogen source was the most favorable for biomass growth. With ammonia and nitrate coexisting in the aquatic phase, Chlorella possibly utilized ammonia first, and this was unfavorable to subsequent biomass growth. Nitrifying bacteria in wastewaters significantly affected Chlorella growth as they possibly competed with Chlorella in assimilating ammonia and nitrate in domestic wastewater. In a submerged ultrafiltration (UF) membrane module, with an initial concentration of 850 mg/L of Chlorella, the optimized flux was 0.02 m(3)/(m(2)·h), and the filtration cycle was 30 min. A dual membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration using UF membranes for Chlorella incubation was proposed. MBR1 provides an environment with long MCRT for efficient nitrification. The converted nitrate is assimilated by Chlorella in MBR2 to sustain its growth. UF permeate from MBR1 is bacteria-free and does not affect the growth of Chlorella in MBR2. MCRT of Chlorella growth is controlled by the UF membrane of MBR2, providing the flexibility to adjust variations of nitrogen composition in the wastewater.
Related JoVE Video
Gut bacteria facilitate adaptation to crop rotation in the western corn rootworm.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Insects are constantly adapting to human-driven landscape changes; however, the roles of their gut microbiota in these processes remain largely unknown. The western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major corn pest that has been controlled via annual rotation between corn (Zea mays) and nonhost soybean (Glycine max) in the United States. This practice selected for a "rotation-resistant" variant (RR-WCR) with reduced ovipositional fidelity to cornfields. When in soybean fields, RR-WCRs also exhibit an elevated tolerance of antiherbivory defenses (i.e., cysteine protease inhibitors) expressed in soybean foliage. Here we show that gut bacterial microbiota is an important factor facilitating this corn specialists (WCRs) physiological adaptation to brief soybean herbivory. Comparisons of gut microbiota between RR- and wild-type WCR (WT-WCR) revealed concomitant shifts in bacterial community structure with host adaptation to soybean diets. Antibiotic suppression of gut bacteria significantly reduced RR-WCR tolerance of soybean herbivory to the level of WT-WCR, whereas WT-WCR were unaffected. Our findings demonstrate that gut bacteria help to facilitate rapid adaptation of insects in managed ecosystems.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of synchronous second primary malignancy: identification using whole body PET/CT imaging.
Clin Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe the prevalence of synchronous second primary malignancy detected by PET/ CT in our clinical practice and its differentiating features from metastatic lesion.
Related JoVE Video
The risk of false inclusion of a relative in parentage testing - an in silico population study.
Croat. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the potential of false inclusion of a close genetic relative in paternity testing by using computer generated families.
Related JoVE Video
Acarbose plus metformin fixed-dose combination outperforms acarbose monotherapy for type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the efficacy and safety of acarbose plus metformin fixed-dose combination (FDC) versus acarbose monotherapy for type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Related JoVE Video
Polysaccharides from Ganoderma formosanum function as a Th1 adjuvant and stimulate cytotoxic T cell response in vivo.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The fungus of Ganoderma is a basidiomycete that possesses a variety of pharmacological effects and has been used in traditional Asian medicine for centuries. Ganoderma formosanum is a native Ganoderma species isolated in Taiwan, and we have previously demonstrated that PS-F2, a polysaccharide fraction purified from the submerged culture broth of G. formosanum, exhibits immunostimulatory properties in macrophages. In this study, we further characterized the adjuvant functions of PS-F2. In vitro, PS-F2 stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) to produce proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-?, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12/IL-23 p40. PS-F2 also stimulated DCs to express the maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC class II. In a murine splenocyte culture, PS-F2 treatment resulted in elevated expression of T-bet and interferon (IFN)-? in T lymphocytes. When used as an adjuvant in vivo with the ovalbumin (OVA) antigen, PS-F2 stimulated OVA-specific antibody production and primed IFN-? production in OVA-specific T lymphocytes. PS-F2-adjuvated immunization also induced OVA-specific CTLs, which protected mice from a challenge with tumor cells expressing OVA. Collectively, our data show that PS-F2 functions as an adjuvant capable of inducing a Th1-polarized adaptive immune response, which would be useful in vaccines against viruses and tumors.
Related JoVE Video
Investigation of mercury methylation pathways in biofilm versus planktonic cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Biofilms can methylate mercury (Hg) at higher rates than unattached bacteria and are increasingly recognized as important Hg methylation sites in the environment. Our previous study showed that methylation rates in biofilm cultures were up to 1 order of magnitude greater than those in planktonic cultures of a sulfate-reducing bacterium. To probe whether the differential Hg methylation rates resulted from metabolic differences between these two cultures, Hg methylation assays following molybdate or chloroform inhibition (a specific inhibitor of the acetyl-CoA pathway) were conducted on biofilm and planktonic cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strains M8 and ND132. Molybdate was as effective in inhibiting Hg methylation as well as growth in both planktonic and biofilm cultures. The addition of chloroform only impacted Hg methylation in biofilm cultures, suggesting that different pathways are used for methylation in biofilm compared to planktonic cultures. To investigate this further, expression of the cooS gene, which encodes for carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in the acetyl-CoA pathway, was compared in biofilm and planktonic cultures of ND132. Biofilm cultures showed up to 4 times higher expression of cooS than planktonic cultures. On the basis of these results, the acetyl-CoA pathway appears to play an important role in methylation in biofilm cultures of this organism, possibly by supplying the methyl group to Hg methylating enzymes; methylation in planktonic cultures appears to be independent of this pathway. This observation has important implications, particularly in developing reliable models to predict Hg methylation rates in different environments and perhaps eventually in being able to control this undesirable chemical transformation.
Related JoVE Video
Exact solution for vortex dynamics in temperature quenches of two-dimensional superfluids.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An exact analytic solution for the dynamics of vortex pairs is obtained for rapid temperature quenches of a superfluid film starting from the line of critical points below the critical temperature T(KT). An approximate solution for quenches at and above above T(KT) provides insights into the origin of logarithmic transients in the vortex decay, and is in general agreement with recent simulations of the quenched XY model. These results confirm that there is no "creation" of vortices whose density increases with the quench rate as predicted by the Kibble-Zurek theory but only monotonic decay of the thermal vortices already present at the initial temperature.
Related JoVE Video
Parental Smoking during Pregnancy and Its Association with Low Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age, and Preterm Birth Offspring: A Birth Cohort Study.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intrauterine exposure to tobacco smoke has been discerned as an important risk factor for low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and preterm birth infants. In this cohort study, we investigated the association of the amount of parental smoking during the different pregnancy stages with birth weight and the incidence of preterm delivery.
Related JoVE Video
Risks of diabetic nephropathy with variation in hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose.
Am. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study examined whether annual variation in glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), as represented by the coefficient of variation (CV), can predict diabetic nephropathy independently of mean FPG, mean HbA1c, and other risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Clitocybe nuda Activates Dendritic Cells and Acts as a DNA Vaccine Adjuvant.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This work represents the first evaluation of the effects of water extract of C. nuda (WE-CN), an edible mushroom, on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and the potential pathway through which the effects are mediated. Our experimental results show that WE-CN could induce phenotypic maturation of DCs, as shown by the increased expression of MHC and costimulatory molecules. In addition, it also induced the proinflammatory cytokines expression on DCs and enhanced both the proliferation and IFN- ? secretion of allogenic T cells. Therefore, since WE-CN did not induce maturation of DCs generated from mice with mutated TLR-4 or TLR-2, suggesting that TLR4 and TLR2 might function as membrane receptors for WE-CN. Moreover, the mechanism of action of WE-CN may be mediated by increased phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and increased NF- ? B p65 activity, which are important signaling molecules downstream of TLR-4 and TLR-2. Finally, coimmunization of mice with WE-CN and a HER-2/neu DNA vaccine induced a HER-2/neu-specific Th1 response that resulted in significant inhibition of HER-2/neu overexpressing mouse bladder tumor (MBT-2) growth. These data suggest that WE-CN induces DC maturation through TLR-4 and/or TLR-2 and that WE-CN can be used as an adjuvant in cancer vaccine immunotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Increasing the accuracy of volume and ADC delineation for heterogeneous tumor on diffusion-weighted MRI: correlation with PET/CT.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To improve the accuracy of volume and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we proposed a method based on thresholding both the b0 images and the ADC maps.
Related JoVE Video
Immunomodulatory effect of marine cembrane-type diterpenoids on dendritic cells.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen presenting cells, which can present antigens to T-cells and play an important role in linking innate and adaptive immunity. DC maturation can be induced by many stimuli, including pro-inflammatory cytokines and bacterial products, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Here, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of marine cembrane compounds, (9E,13E)-5-acetoxy-6-hydroxy-9,13-dimethyl-3- methylene-3,3a,4,5,6,7,8,11,12,14a-decahydro-2H-cyclotrideca[b]furan-2-one (1), (9E,13E)- 5-acetoxy-6-acetyl-9,13-dimethyl-3-methylene-3,3a,4,5,6,7,8,11,12,14a-decahydro-2H-cyclotrideca[b]furan-2-one (2), lobocrassin B (3), (-)14-deoxycrassin (4), cembranolide B (5) and 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide (6) isolated from a soft coral, Lobophytum crassum, on mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). The results revealed that cembrane-type diterpenoids, especially lobocrassin B, effectively inhibited LPS-induced BMDC activation by inhibiting the production of TNF-?. Pre-treatment of BMDCs with Lobocrassin B for 1 h is essential to prohibit the following activation induced by various toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, such as LPS, zymosan, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and Pam2CSK4. Inhibition of NF-?B nuclear translocation by lobocrassin B, which is a key transcription factor for cytokine production in TLR signaling, was evident as assayed by high-content image analysis. Lobocrassin B attenuated DC maturation and endocytosis as the expression levels of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules were downregulated, which may affect the function of DCs to initiate the T-cell responses. Thus, lobocrassin B may have the potential in treatment of immune dysregulated diseases in the future.
Related JoVE Video
Oral hypoglycaemic agents and the development of non-fatal cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to assess the risk of non-fatal cardiovascular events among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are taking metformin, glimepiride or glyburide.
Related JoVE Video
Acetylcorynoline impairs the maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells via suppression of I?B kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activities.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dendritic cells (DCs) are major modulators in the immune system. One active field of research is the manipulation of DCs as pharmacological targets to screen novel biological modifiers for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Acetylcorynoline is the major alkaloid component derived from Corydalis bungeana herbs. We assessed the capability of acetylcorynoline to regulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated activation of mouse bone marrow-derived DCs.
Related JoVE Video
Dextromethorphan inhibits activations and functions in dendritic cells.
Clin. Dev. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in connecting innate and adaptive immunity. Thus, DCs have been regarded as a major target for the development of immunomodulators. In this study, we examined the effect of dextromethorphan (DXM), a common cough suppressant with a high safety profile, on the activation and function of DCs. In the presence of DXM, the LPS-induced expression of the costimulatory molecules in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) was significantly suppressed. In addition, DXM treatment reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), proinflammatory cytokines, and chemokines in maturing BMDCs that were activated by LPS. Therefore, DXM abrogated the ability of LPS-stimulated DCs to induce Ag-specific T-cell activation, as determined by their decreased proliferation and IFN- ? secretion in mixed leukocyte cultures. Moreover, the inhibition of LPS-induced MAPK activation and NF- ? B translocation may contribute to the suppressive effect of DXM on BMDCs. Remarkably, DXM decreased the LPS-induced surface expression of CD80, CD83, and HLA-DR and the secretion of IL-6 and IL-12 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). These findings provide a new insight into the impact of DXM treatment on DCs and suggest that DXM has the potential to be used in treating DC-related acute and chronic diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to impairment of insulin sensitivity and adiponectin secretion in adipocytes.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adipocytes play an integrative role in the regulation of energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis in the human body. Functional defects in adipocytes may cause systemic disturbance of glucose homeostasis. Recent studies revealed mitochondrial abnormalities in the adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes. In addition, patients with mitochondrial diseases usually manifest systemic metabolic disorder. However, it is unclear how mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes affects the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In this study, we induced mitochondrial dysfunction and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by addition of respiratory inhibitors oligomycin A and antimycin A and by knockdown of mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA), respectively. We found an attenuation of the insulin response as indicated by lower glucose uptake and decreased phosphorylation of Akt upon insulin stimulation of adipocytes with mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the expression of glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) and secretion of adiponectin were decreased in adipocytes with increased ROS generated by defective mitochondria. Moreover, the severity of insulin insensitivity was correlated with the extent of mitochondrial dysfunction. These results suggest that higher intracellular ROS levels elicited by mitochondrial dysfunction resulted in impairment of the function of adipocytes in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis through attenuation of insulin signaling, downregulation of Glut4 expression, and decrease in adiponectin secretion. Our findings substantiate the important role of mitochondria in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in adipocytes and also provide a molecular basis for the explanation of the manifestation of diabetes mellitus or insulin insensitivity in a portion of patients with mitochondrial diseases such as MELAS or MERRF syndrome.
Related JoVE Video
Carbohydrate-based vaccines with a glycolipid adjuvant for breast cancer.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Globo H (GH) is a hexasaccharide specifically overexpressed on a variety of cancer cells and therefore, a good candidate for cancer vaccine development. To identify the optimal carrier and adjuvant combination, we chemically synthesized and linked GH to a carrier protein, including keyhole limpet hemocyanion, diphtheria toxoid cross-reactive material (CRM) 197 (DT), tetanus toxoid, and BSA, and combined with an adjuvant, and it was administered to mice for the study of immune response. Glycan microarray analysis of the antiserum obtained indicated that the combination of GH-DT adjuvanted with the ?-galactosylceramide C34 has the highest enhancement of anti-GH IgG. Compared with the phase III clinical trial vaccine, GH-keyhole limpet hemocyanion/QS21, the GH-DT/C34 vaccine elicited more IgG antibodies, which are more selective for GH and the GH-related epitopes, stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 (SSEA3) and SSEA4, all of which were specifically overexpressed on breast cancer cells and breast cancer stem cells with SSEA4 at the highest level (>90%). We, therefore, further developed SSEA4-DT/C34 as a vaccine candidate, and after immunization, it was found that the elicited antibodies are also IgG-dominant and very specific for SSEA4.
Related JoVE Video
Correlations between microstructural alterations and severity of cognitive deficiency in Alzheimers disease and mild cognitive impairment: a diffusional kurtosis imaging study.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI), a natural extension of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), can characterize non-Gaussian diffusion in the brain. We investigated the capability of DKI parameters for detecting microstructural changes in both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimers disease (AD) and sought to determine whether these DKI parameters could serve as imaging biomarkers to indicate the severity of cognitive deficiency.
Related JoVE Video
Imaging biomarker with T1? and T2 mappings in osteoarthritis - in vivo human articular cartilage study.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a common and disabling disease worldwide. Its prevalence is increasing in view of the aging population. Changes in collagen content, its orientation and GAG content in the articular cartilage with age are the major features in knee osteoarthritis. These changes in collagen and GAG contents show no manifestation in plain radiography and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Nevertheless, early diagnosis of the knee osteoarthritis is of paramount importance clinically in view of the evolution of putative interventions in its early stage. The aim of this project is to identify the relationships between the two imaging biomarkers (i.e. T1? and T2 mappings) and the GAG concentration in living human symptomatic cartilage.
Related JoVE Video
Environmentally stable flexible metal-insulator-metal capacitors using zirconium-silicate and hafnium-silicate thin film composite materials as gate dielectrics.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fully flexible metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors fabricated on 25 microm thin polyimide (PI) substrates via the surface sol-gel process using 10-nm-thick zirconium-silicate (ZrSixOy) and hafnium-silicate (HfSimOn) films as gate dielectrics. The surface morphology of the ZrSixOy and HfSimOn films were investigated using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which confirmed that continuous and crack-free surface growth had occurred on the PI. Both the films treated with oxygen (O2) plasma and annealing (ca. 250 degrees C) consisted of amorphous phase; confirmed by X-ray diffraction. We employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) at high resolution to examine the chemical composition of the films subjected to various treatment conditions. The shift of the XPS peaks towards higher binding energy revealed the O2 plasma-pretreatment followed by annealing was the most effective process to the surface oxidation at relatively low-temperature, for further passivate the grease traps and making dielectric films thermally stable. The ZrSixOy and HfSimOn films in sandwich-like MIM configuration on the PI substrates exhibited the low leakage current densities of 7.1 x 10(-9) and 8.4 x 10(-9) A/cm2 at applied electric field of 10 MV/cm and maximum capacitance densities of 7.5 and 5.3 fF/microm2 at 1 MHz, respectively. In addition, the ZrSixOy and HfSimOn films in MIM capacitors showed the estimated dielectric constants of 8.2 and 6.0, respectively. Prior to use of flexible MIM capacitors in advanced flexible electronic devices; the reliability test was studied by applying day-dependent leakage current density measurements up to 30 days. These films of silicate-surfactant mesostructured materials have special interest to be used as gate dielectrics in future for flexible metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.
Related JoVE Video
A novel adjuvant Ling Zhi-8 for cancer DNA vaccines.
Hum Vaccin
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
DNA vaccines have a wide range of applications, with several potential advantages compared to other vaccine technologies for diseases. No DNA vaccine has yet been licensed in humans; however, a lot of effort has been made to enhance their potential as human vaccines and therapeutics. Finding an effective adjuvant is a strategy to improve the efficacy of DNA vaccines. We recently identified a fungal immunomodulatory protein Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8) with stimulatory activity on dendritic cells (DCs) that significantly increases the efficacy of a cancer DNA vaccine in a preclinical tumor model, suggesting that LZ-8 may be a good candidate adjuvant for vaccine development. Here we discuss the possibility for applying LZ-8 to a cancer DNA vaccine for humans.
Related JoVE Video
Immunization with apoptotic phagocytes containing Histoplasma capsulatum activates functional CD8(+) T cells to protect against histoplasmosis.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have previously revealed the protective role of CD8(+) T cells in host defense against Histoplasma capsulatum in animals with CD4(+) T cell deficiency and demonstrated that sensitized CD8(+) T cells are restimulated in vitro by dendritic cells that have ingested apoptotic macrophage-associated Histoplasma antigen. Here we show that immunization with apoptotic phagocytes containing heat-killed Histoplasma efficiently activated functional CD8(+) T cells whose contribution was equal to that of CD4(+) T cells in protection against Histoplasma challenge. Inhibition of macrophage apoptosis due to inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) deficiency or by caspase inhibitor treatment dampened the CD8(+) T cell but not the CD4(+) T cell response to pulmonary Histoplasma infection. In mice subcutaneously immunized with viable Histoplasma yeasts whose CD8(+) T cells are protective against Histoplasma challenge, there was heavy granulocyte and macrophage infiltration and the infiltrating cells became apoptotic. In mice subcutaneously immunized with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labeled apoptotic macrophages containing heat-killed Histoplasma, the CFSE-labeled macrophage material was found to localize within dendritic cells in the draining lymph node. Moreover, depleting dendritic cells in immunized CD11c-DTR mice significantly reduced CD8(+) T cell activation. Taken together, our results revealed that phagocyte apoptosis in the Histoplasma-infected host is associated with CD8(+) T cell activation and that immunization with apoptotic phagocytes containing heat-killed Histoplasma efficiently evokes a protective CD8(+) T cell response. These results suggest that employing apoptotic phagocytes as antigen donor cells is a viable approach for the development of efficacious vaccines to elicit strong CD8(+) T cell as well as CD4(+) T cell responses to Histoplasma infection.
Related JoVE Video
Unusual superconducting state at 49 K in electron-doped CaFe2As2 at ambient pressure.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the detection of unusual superconductivity up to 49 K in single crystalline CaFe(2)As(2) via electron-doping by partial replacement of Ca by rare-earth. The superconducting transition observed suggests the possible existence of two phases: one starting at 49 K, which has a low critical field < 4 Oe, and the other at 21 K, with a much higher critical field > 5 T. Our observations are in strong contrast to previous reports of doping or pressurizing layered compounds AeFe(2)As(2) (or Ae122), where Ae = Ca, Sr, or Ba. In Ae122, hole-doping has been previously observed to generate superconductivity with a transition temperature (T(c)) only up to 38 K and pressurization has been reported to produce superconductivity with a T(c) up to 30 K. The unusual 49 K phase detected will be discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Antidiabetes drugs correlate with decreased risk of lung cancer: a population-based observation in Taiwan.
Clin Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The risk of some forms of cancer has been found to be higher in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) than in the general population. The aim of this study was to examine, with sufficient statistical power, the association between DM and lung cancer and the impact of antidiabetes drugs on lung cancer risk in Taiwan.
Related JoVE Video
Is lymph node metastasis a common feature of gastrointestinal stromal tumor? PET/CT correlation.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the incidence of lymph node metastasis in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients in our PET/CT database. The demographic data and characteristics of the primary tumor were evaluated in GIST patients with or without lymph node metastasis.
Related JoVE Video
Monoamine oxidase a expression is vital for embryonic brain development by modulating developmental apoptosis.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Monoamine oxidases (MAO-A, MAO-B) metabolize biogenic amines and have been implicated in neuronal apoptosis. Although apoptosis is an important process in embryo development, the role of MAO isoenzymes has not been investigated in detail. We found that expression of MAO-A and MAO-B can be detected early on during embryo development. Expression levels remained constant until around midgestation but then dropped to almost undetectable levels toward birth. Similar expression kinetics were observed in the brain. Isoform-specific expression silencing of MAO-A mediated by siRNA during in vitro embryogenesis induced developmental defects, as indicated by a reduction of the crown rump length and impaired cerebral development. These alterations were paralleled by elevated serotonin levels. Similar abnormalities were observed when embryos were cultured in the presence of the MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline or when the transcriptional inhibitor of MAO-A expression R1 was overexpressed. In contrast, no such alterations were detected when expression of MAO-B was knocked down. To explore the underlying mechanisms for the developmental abnormalities in MAO-A knockdown embryos, we quantified the degree of developmental apoptosis in the developing brain. MAO-A knockdown reduced the number of apoptotic cells in the neuroepithelium, which coincided with impaired activation of caspases 3 and 9. Moreover, we observed reduced cyclin D1 levels as an indicator of impaired cell proliferation in MAO-A knockdown embryos. This data highlights MAO-A as a vital regulator of embryonic brain development.
Related JoVE Video
Intra-cranial metastasis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With the evolution of immunochemical staining techniques and better imaging modalities with better image resolution and whole body coverage, gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), the most common mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract, is often encountered in clinical practice. Metastasis is common with malignant GIST and can be found in up to 50% of patients at presentation. Liver and peritoneum are the two most common sites of metastasis and accounted for 95% of cases. Lymphatics, bone and lung metastasis are rare. Malignant GIST with intracranial metastasis is even rarer, with only a few cases reported in the literature, and most of these had earlier metastasis elsewhere. Radiological features for GISTs are not specific but it does contribute to confirming early and accurate diagnosis of malignant GISTs by judging the tumor size, enhancement pattern and the invasion of adjacent structures. We report a case of a 26-year-old male with metastatic GIST to the liver and subsequently to the brain and skull vault. This is the first case reported in our locality and he is the youngest patient reported with this disease entity. The clinical progress, radiological features and the role of imaging will be discussed further in this paper. The radiological and clinical features of the primary tumor will specifically be addressed. The purpose of this paper is to enrich the current database of this rare disease entity and to alert both radiologists and clinicians about the imaging features of GIST with intracranial metastasis.
Related JoVE Video
Correlation of measurements from diffusion weighted MR imaging and FDG PET/CT in GIST patients: ADC versus SUV.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the correlation relationship between ADCs measured by MRI and SUVs measured by PET/CT of lesions on GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumor) patients to verify if MR is able to replace or serve as an alternative to PET/CT in GIST staging and treatment monitoring.
Related JoVE Video
Deep simple epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of two Viburnum species, with special reference to shoot growth and development inside the seed.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In seeds with deep simple epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy, warm and cold stratification are required to break dormancy of the radicle and shoot, respectively. Although the shoot remains inside the seed all winter, little is known about its growth and morphological development prior to emergence in spring. The aims of the present study were to determine the temperature requirements for radicle and shoot emergence in seeds of Viburnum betulifolium and V. parvifolium and to monitor growth of the epicotyl, plumule and cotyledons in root-emerged seeds.
Related JoVE Video
Combining body mass index and serum potassium to urine potassium clearance ratio is an alternative method to predict primary aldosteronism.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Though aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR) is the current routine screening method for suspicious primary aldosteronism, we hypothesized that the simple formula combining body mass index (BMI) and serum potassium to urine potassium clearance (PUKC) ratio was comparable to ARR.
Related JoVE Video
Association of hemopexin in tear film and conjunctival macrophages with vernal keratoconjunctivitis.
Arch. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic allergic inflammatory disease with unclear etiology and pathogenesis. We investigated the tear film proteome of patients with VKC to understand the pathologic characteristics of VKC.
Related JoVE Video
Verification and evaluation of aldosteronism demographics in the Taiwan Primary Aldosteronism Investigation Group (TAIPAI Group).
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current data on primary aldosteronism (PA) from Asian populations are scarce. This cohort study clarifies the attributes of patients with PA in a typical Chinese population.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of short-term outcomes following pelvic reconstruction with Perigee and Apogee systems: hysterectomy or not?
Int Urogynecol J
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to compare the surgical outcomes between hysterectomy and uterine preservation in pelvic reconstruction with Perigee and Apogee systems for severe pelvic organ prolapse.
Related JoVE Video
FDG PET/CT findings in purely cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
PET/CT showed accurate localization of increased glucose metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide association study of diabetic retinopathy in a Taiwanese population.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes with a complex multifactorial pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to identify the susceptibility genes that increase the risk of DR in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to further elucidate the underlying mechanism of DR pathogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Unusual features of gastrointestinal stromal tumor on PET/CT and CT imaging.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract. It can be benign or malignant in behavior. Stomach, being the most common site (70%) for GISTs, is followed by the small intestine (20%). Anorectal, colonic, and esophageal GISTs are uncommon, whereas extraintestinal GISTs are extremely rare. The presenting symptoms are highly dependent on tumor size and location, although a large number of GISTs are asymptomatic. The purpose of this article is to highlight the unusual characteristics of GISTs illustrated by PET/CT and CT imaging. These characteristics are organized into (1) unusual tumor location, (2) unusual clinical presentation, and (3) unusual sites of metastasis. Knowing the uncommon features of GISTs is important, as they are more often seen nowadays with the increasingly important role of PET/CT and CT in GIST management; and these tumors are associated with a poorer prognosis and unwanted delay in diagnosis is avoidable. With the availability of effective treatment by imatinib mesylate, a prompt and early diagnosis is essential for disease control. All GISTs illustrated in this article are pathologically proven.
Related JoVE Video
A questionnaire study assessing local physicians, radiologists and interns knowledge and practice pertaining to radiation exposure related to radiological imaging.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the knowledge and practice pertaining to radiation exposure related to radiological imaging among medical doctors, in relation to specialty and year of experience.
Related JoVE Video
Relation of ankle-brachial index to the rate of decline of residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine whether ankle-brachial index (ABI) predicts the rate of decline of residual renal function (RRF) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Previous studies demonstrated the importance of loss of RRF in predicting all-cause risk and cardiovascular mortality in PD patients. It is also known that patients with a low ABI value have a greater risk for deteriorating renal function in the general population. The relationship between ABI and the declining rate of RRF in PD patients with an additional dialysis-specific risk factor is uncertain.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.