Leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4) promotes the Wnt signaling through interaction with R-spondins or norrin. Using PCR amplification from rat ovarian cDNAs, we identified a naturally occurring Lgr4 splice variant encoding only the ectodomain of Lgr4, which was named Lgr4-ED. Lgr4-ED can be detected as a secreted protein in the extracts from rodent and bovine postnatal gonads, suggesting conservation of Lgr4-ED in mammals. Recombinant Lgr4-ED purified from the conditioned media of transfected 293T cells was found to dose-dependently inhibit the LGR4-mediated Wnt signaling induced by RSPO2 or norrin, suggesting that it is capable of ligand absorption and could have a potential role as an antagonist. Intraperitoneal injection of purified recombinant Lgr4-ED into newborn mice was found to significantly decrease the testicular expression of estrogen receptor alpha and aquaporin 1, which is similar to the phenotype found in Lgr4-null mice. Administration of recombinant Lgr4-ED to superovulated female rats can also decrease the expression of estrogen receptor alpha, aquaporin 1, LH receptor and other key steroidogenic genes as well as bring about the suppression of progesterone production. Thus, these findings suggest that endogenously expressed Lgr4-ED may act as an antagonist molecule and help to fine-tune the R-spondin/norrin-mediated Lgr4-Wnt signaling during gonadal development.
Hypoxia and reoxygenation are common characteristics of solid tumors, which lead to oxidative stress and activation of stress-response genes. Previously, we observed that N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) was strongly down-regulated after shifting to reoxygenation, but the regulatory mechanism of NDRG1 remained elusive. Here we focused on the regulation of NDRG1 by microRNAs (miRNAs). Breast cancer MCF-7 cells were cultured under hypoxia for 24 h followed by 24 h of reoxygenation. The miRNA profiles were examined by Nanostring nCounter assays. Forty-three miRNAs had significant changes upon reoxygenation. In silico analysis identified four oxygen-sensitive miRNAs whose seed regions perfectly matched the 3'-UTR of NDRG1. In particular, miR-769-3p was able to inhibit the expression of NDRG1, which caused a significant reduction of NDRG1 protein upon reoxygenation. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-769-3p significantly inhibited cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. Our results revealed that miR-769-3p can functionally regulate NDRG1 during changes in oxygen concentration.
An efficient synthesis of quinolizinium salts from 2-vinylpyridines and alkynes via Rh(III) or Ru(II)-catalyzed C-H activation and annulation reaction is described. A possible mechanism involving pyridine assisted vinylic ortho-C-H activation, alkyne insertion and reductive elimination is proposed.
An efficient and convenient method for the synthesis of highly substituted polycyclic pyridinium salts from the reaction of various 2-aryl-pyridines and 2-aryl-sp(2) -nitrogen-atom-containing heterocycles with alkynes through rhodium(III)-catalyzed C?H activation and annulation under an O2 atmosphere is described. A possible mechanism that involves the chelation-assisted C?H activation of the 2-aryl-pyridine substrate, insertion of the alkyne, and reductive elimination is proposed. This mechanism was supported by the isolation of a five-membered rhodacycle (I). In addition, kinetic isotope studies were performed to understand the intimate reaction mechanism.
The latest researchers have employed software technology to turn gyration air mice into a high performance limb detector to detect specific limb movement, and to further collaborate using the preferred environmental stimulation to help people with disabilities to suppress unwanted behaviors or habits and to reward good behaviors. This study extended the functionality of a gyration air mouse, and used the mouse as a precise physical activity detector integrated with the preferred environmental stimulation to assess if this integrated set can be used to help two disabled people who are overweight and lacking in exercise to actively perform physical activities. The study was conducted based on an A-B-A-B design. The results showed that both participants increased significantly the time duration required for them to maintain their physical activity status so that they could obtain their favorite environmental stimulation during the intervention phases. Both the practical and developmental implications of the findings are then discussed.
Intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) is a form of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that delivers dose in single or multiple arcs. We compared IMRT plans versus single-arc field (1ARC) and multi-arc fields (3ARC) IMAT plans in high-risk prostate cancer.
Mammalian LGR4, 5 and 6 are seven-transmembrane receptors that are important for diverse physiological processes. These receptors are orthologous to DLGR2, a Drosophila receptor activated by the burs/pburs heterodimer important for morphogenesis. Although recent studies indicated that four R-spondin proteins are cognate ligands for LGR4, 5 and 6 receptors, several BMP antagonists in vertebrates have been postulated to be orthologous to burs and pburs. Using newly available genome sequences, we showed that norrin is a vertebrate ortholog for insect burs and pburs and stimulates Wnt signaling mediated by LGR4, but not by LGR5 and 6, in mammalian cells. Although norrin could only activate LGR4, binding studies suggested interactions between norrin and LGR4, 5 and 6. Norrin, the Norrie disease gene product, is also capable of activating Wnt signaling mediated by the Frizzled4 receptor and serves as a BMP antagonist. Mutagenesis studies indicated that different norrin mutations found in patients with Norrie disease can be categorized into subgroups according to defects for signaling through the three distinct binding proteins. Thus, norrin is a rare ligand capable of binding three receptors/binding proteins that are important for BMP and Wnt signaling pathways.
Neuromedin U (NMU) was originally identified as an anorexigenic peptide that modulates appetite as well as energy homeostasis through the brain-gut axis. Although growing evidence has linked NMU activity with the development of female reproductive organs, no direct expression of and function for NMU in these organs has been pinpointed. Using a superovulated rat model, we found that NMU is directly expressed in the ovary, where its transcript level is tightly regulated by gonadotropins. Ovarian microdissection and immunohistochemical staining showed clearly that NMU is expressed mainly in theca/interstitial cells and to a moderate extent in granulosa cells. Primary cell studies together with reporter assays indicated the Nmu mRNA level in these cells is strongly induced via cAMP signaling, whereas this increase in expression can be reversed by the degradation message residing within its 3-untranslated region, which recruits cis-acting mRNA degradation mechanisms, such as the gonadotropin-induced zinc finger RNA-binding protein Zfp36l1. This study also demonstrated that NMUR2, but not NMUR1, is the dominant NMU receptor in the ovary, where its expression is restricted to theca/interstitial cells. Treatment with NMU led to induction of the early response c-Fos gene, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and promotion of progesterone production in both developing and mature theca/interstitial cells. Taken as a whole, this study demonstrates that NMU and NMU receptor 2 compose a novel autocrine system in theca/interstitial cells in which the intensity of signaling is tightly controlled by gonadotropins.
The aim of this report is to propose standard pulse taking procedure of Traditional Chinese Medicine Pulse Diagnosis. In order to acquire full information from taking a wrist pulse, this proposal adopts a tactile sensor with 12 sensing points at one sensing position, such as Cun, Guan, or Chi. Simultaneously Palpation (SP) and Pressing with One Finger (PWOF) are adopted to explore their differences of the detected pulse signals. According to vertical dynamic characteristics, the results of a Pearson product moment reveal that the correlation coefficients of PWOF and SP are highly correlated from Fu to Chen. In addition, according to unique characteristics of body state, the results of a paired samples t test reveal that the SP and PWOF are indifferent at a specific pulse taking depth. Hence, if using the pulse-taking instrument with tactile sensors, it is concluded that pulse signals taken by familiar SP and PWOF methods are shown in statistical indifferences among seven parameters (Vppmean,Vppmax, HR, LENGTH, WIDTH, AS, and DS).
This work describes a bio-potential acquisition system for portable ubiquitous healthcare applications using flexible polydimethylsiloxane dry electrodes (FPDEs) and a low-power recording circuit. This novel FPDE used Au as the skin contact layer, which was made using a CO2 laser and replica method technology. The FPDE was revised from a commercial bio-potential electrode with a conductive snap using dry electrodes rather than wet electrodes that proposed reliable and robust attachment for the purpose of measurement, and attaching velcro made it wearable on the forearm for bio-potential applications. Furthermore, this study proposes a recording device to store bio-potential signal data and provides portability and low-power consumption for the proposed acquisition system. To acquire differential bio-potentials, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, the proposed recording device includes a low-power front-end acquisition chip fabricated using a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process, a commercial microcontroller (MSP430F149), and a secure digital (SD) card for portable healthcare applications. The proposed system can obtain ECG signals efficiently and are comfortable to the skin. The power consumption of the system is about 85 mW for continuous working over a 3 day period with two AA batteries. It can also be used as a compact Holter ECG system.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Radiotherapy is often applied for treating lung cancer, but it often fails because of the relative non-susceptibility of lung cancer cells to radiation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to modulate the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells and have the potential to improve the efficacy of radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to identify a miRNA that can adjust radiosensitivity in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Two lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (CL1-0 and CL1-5) with different metastatic ability and radiosensitivity were used. In order to understand the regulatory mechanisms of differential radiosensitivity in these isogenic tumor cells, both CL1-0 and CL1-5 were treated with 10 Gy radiation, and were harvested respectively at 0, 1, 4, and 24 h after radiation exposure. The changes in expression of miRNA upon irradiation were examined using Illumina Human microRNA BeadChips. Twenty-six miRNAs were identified as having differential expression post-irradiation in CL1-0 or CL1-5 cells. Among these miRNAs, miR-449a, which was down-regulated in CL1-0 cells at 24 h after irradiation, was chosen for further investigation. Overexpression of miR-449a in CL1-0 cells effectively increased irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis, altered the cell cycle distribution and eventually led to sensitization of CL1-0 to irradiation.
A real-time telemetry system, which consists of readout circuits, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a microcontroller unit (MCU), a graphical user interface (GUI), and a radio frequency (RF) transceiver, is proposed for amperometric and potentiometric electrochemical sensors. By integrating the proposed system with the electrochemical sensors, analyte detection can be conveniently performed. The data is displayed in real-time on a GUI and optionally uploaded to a database via the Internet, allowing it to be accessed remotely. An MCU was implemented using a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to filter noise, transmit data, and provide control over peripheral devices to reduce power consumption, which in sleep mode is 70 mW lower than in operating mode. The readout circuits, which were implemented in the TSMC 0.18-?m CMOS process, include a potentiostat and an instrumentation amplifier (IA). The measurement results show that the proposed potentiostat has a detectable current range of 1 nA to 100 ?A, and linearity with an R2 value of 0.99998 in each measured current range. The proposed IA has a common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) greater than 90 dB. The proposed system was integrated with a potentiometric pH sensor and an amperometric nitrite sensor for in vitro experiments. The proposed system has high linearity (an R2 value greater than 0.99 was obtained in each experiment), a small size of 5.6 cm × 8.7 cm, high portability, and high integration.
In this work, an asynchronous multi-sensor micro control unit (MCU) core is proposed for wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs). It consists of asynchronous interfaces, a power management unit, a multi-sensor controller, a data encoder (DE), and an error correct coder (ECC). To improve the system performance and expansion abilities, the asynchronous interface is created for handshaking different clock domains between ADC and RF with MCU. To increase the use time of the WBSN system, a power management technique is developed for reducing power consumption. In addition, the multi-sensor controller is designed for detecting various biomedical signals. To prevent loss error from wireless transmission, use of an error correct coding technique is important in biomedical applications. The data encoder is added for lossless compression of various biomedical signals with a compression ratio of almost three. This design is successfully tested on a FPGA board. The VLSI architecture of this work contains 2.68-K gate counts and consumes power 496-?W at 133-MHz processing rate by using TSMC 0.13-?m CMOS process. Compared with the previous techniques, this work offers higher performance, more functions, and lower hardware cost than other micro controller designs.
Upon nutrient deprivation, cells are thought to suppress biosynthesis but activate catabolic pathways to provide alternative energy sources and nutrients. However, here we provide evidence that in adult male C. elegans, both biosynthesis and degradation activities, including ribosome biogenesis and turnover, are enhanced during early starvation and appear to depend on the availability of intestinal lipid stores. Upon depletion of the intestinal lipids, further food deprivation results in a significant reduction in metabolic activity in the starved male worms. Our data show that adult C. elegans exhibits a two-phase metabolic response to starvation stress: an initial phase with enhanced metabolic activity that rapidly exhausts the lipid stores, followed by a phase with low metabolic activity, which outlasts the life of fed control worms. DAF-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor signaling to the RAS pathway is required for the starvation-induced ribosome biogenesis and rapid lipid depletion in the initial phase of starvation.
Formation of copulatory plugs by male animals is a common means of reducing competition with rival males. In mice, copulatory plugs are formed by the coagulation of seminal vesicle secretion (SVS), which is a very viscous and self-clotting fluid containing high concentration of proteins. In its native state, mouse SVS contains a variety of disulfide-linked high-molecular-weight complexes (HMWCs) composed of mouse SVS I-III, which are the major components of mouse SVS. Further, mouse SVS I-III are the substrates for transglutaminase 4 (TGM4), a cross-linking enzyme secreted from the anterior prostate. According to activity assays, mouse TGM4 prefers a mild reducing and alkaline environment. However, under these conditions, the activity of mouse TGM4 toward SVS I-III was much lower than that of a common tissue-type TGM, TGM2. On the other hand, mouse TGM4 exhibited much higher cross-linking activity than TGM2 when native HMWCs containing SVS I-III were used as substrates under non-reducing condition. By the action of TGM4, the clot of SVS became more resistant to proteolysis. This indicates that the activity of TGM4 can further rigidify the copulatory plug and extend its presence in the female reproductive tract. Together with the properties of TGM4 and the nature of its disulfide-linked SVS protein substrates, male mice can easily transform the semen into a rigid and durable copulatory plug, which is an important advantage in sperm competition.
Conventionally, a pulse taking platform is based on a single sensor, which initiates a feasible method of quantitative pulse diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to implement a pulse taking platform with a tactile array sensor. Three-dimensional wrist pulse signals are constructed, and the length, width, ascending slope, and descending slope are defined following the surface of the wrist pulse. And the pressure waveform of the wrist pulse obtained through proposed pulse-taking platform has the same performance as the single sensor. Finally, the results of a paired samples t-test reveal that the repeatability of the proposal platform is consistent with clinical experience. On the other hand, the results of ANOVA indicate that differences exist among different pulse taking depths, and this result is consistent with clinical experience in traditional Chinese medicine pulse diagnosis (TCMPD). Hence, the proposed pulse taking platform with an array sensor is feasible for quantification in TCMPD.
This study proposes a novel computer pointing device that uses a commercial numerical keyboard as the input device of the device to help people with disabilities move a cursor to a target quickly, easily and accurately.
We identified a testis-specific protease-like protein tentatively named TESPL and a pancreatic trypsinogen Prss2 from the clones of a yeast two-hybrid screen against a mouse testicular cDNA library using the trypsin inhibitor Spink3 from male accessory sexual glands as bait. The enzymatic motifs and the cysteine patterns in serine proteases are highly conserved in these two proteins. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, Prss2 duplicated recently and TESPL underwent distant evolution without gene duplication from the progenitor of trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like proteases. We found that TESPL transcription was restricted to the testis and that the level of transcription was positively correlated with animal maturation. In contrast, Prss2 was constitutively expressed in many tissues including testis. Alignment of the cDNA-deduced sequences of serine proteases showed the replacement of an essential serine residue in the catalytic triad of serine proteases by a proline residue in TESPL, which was demonstrated to be a membrane-bound protein devoid of proteolytic activity. The immunohistochemical staining patterns of seminiferous tubules in the testis revealed TESPL mainly on postmeiotic cells such as spermatids and spermatozoa. On the mouse sperm from caudal epididymis, TESPL was localized mainly on the plasma membrane overlaying the acrosomal region. Further, orthology group for mouse TESPL was identified in the conserved gene family of eutherian testis serine protease 5.
The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), activated by either TSH or the newly discovered glycoprotein hormone thyrostimulin, plays a central role in the control of body metabolism. Interestingly, in addition to its thyroid expression, we discovered that the mRNA level of TSHR is periodically regulated in rat ovary by gonadotropins. Ovarian microdissection followed by real-time PCR analysis indicated that granulosa cells show the highest level of TSHR expression. Cultures of follicles and primary granulosa cells demonstrated that the level of TSHR is up-regulated and decreased by the gonadotropin-driven cAMP cascade and estradiol production, respectively. Furthermore, in contrast to the negligible expression of TSH in the ovary, we also found by real-time PCR and immunohistochemical analysis that thyrostimulin is expressed mainly in oocytes. Evolving before the appearance of gonadotropins, thyrostimulin is considered the most ancestral glycoprotein hormone. Therefore, the presence of thyrostimulin in the ovary suggests that it may have a primitive function in reproduction when it activates ovarian TSHR. Next, we generated recombinant thyrostimulin protein and characterized its non-covalent heterodimeric nature. Using purified recombinant thyrostimulin, we show that the human ovarian cell line NIH:OVCAR-3 also expresses endogenous and functional TSHR. Using cultured rat granulosa cells isolated from different ovarian stages, we found that treatments with thyrostimulin significantly increase cAMP production and the c-fos gene response in the presence of gonadotropins. Thus, this study demonstrates that oocyte-derived thyrostimulin and granulosa cell-expressed TSHR compose a novel paracrine system in the ovary, where the activity is tightly controlled by gonadotropins.
Timothy syndrome (TS) is a malignant form of congenital long QT syndrome with a mode of arrhythmia onset often triggered by enhanced sympathetic tone. We sought to explore mechanisms by which beta-adrenergic stimulation (BAS) modulates arrhythmogenesis and to identify potential targeted sites of antiarrhythmic therapy in TS. Using a dynamic Luo-Rudy ventricular myocyte model incorporated with detailed intracellular Ca(2+) cycling, along with its one-dimensional multicellular strand, we simulated various clinical scenarios of TS, with stepwise increase in the percentage of G406R Ca(v)1.2 channels from 0 to 11.5 and 23%, and to 38.5 and 77%, respectively, for heterozygous and homozygous states of TS1 and TS2. Progressive prolongation of action potential duration (APD) and QT interval, accompanied by amplification of transmural dispersion of repolarization, steepening of APD restitution, induction of delayed afterdepolariztions (DADs), and both DAD and phase 3 early afterdepolariztion-mediated triggered activities, correlated well with the extent of G406R Ca(v)1.2 channel mutation. BAS amplified transmural dispersion of repolarization, steepened APD restitution, and facilitated inducibility of DAD-mediated triggered activity. Systematic analysis of intracellular Ca(2+) cycling revealed that sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (uptake current) played an essential role in BAS-induced facilitation of DAD-mediated triggered activity and, in addition to L-type calcium current, it could be an effective site of antiarrhythmic therapy under the influence of BAS. Thus G406R Ca(v)1.2 channel mutation confers not only a trigger, but also a substrate for lethal ventricular arrhythmias, which can be exaggerated by BAS. It is suggested that, besides beta-adrenergic blockers and L-type calcium current channel blockers, an agent aimed at reduction of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase uptake current may provide additional antiarrhythmic effect in patients with TS.
A new micromachined circulating polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip is reported in this study. A novel liquid transportation mechanism utilizing a suction-type membrane and three microvalves were used to create a new microfluidic control module to rapidly transport the DNA samples and PCR reagents around three bio-reactors operating at three different temperatures. When operating at a membrane actuation frequency of 14.29 Hz and a pressure of 5 psi, the sample flow rate in the microfluidic control module can be as high as 18 microL/s. In addition, an array-type microheater was adopted to improve the temperature uniformity in the reaction chambers. Open-type reaction chambers were designed to facilitate temperature calibration. Experimental data from infrared images showed that the percentage of area inside the reaction chamber with a thermal variation of less than 1 degrees C was over 90% for a denaturing temperature of 94 degrees C. Three array-type heaters and temperature sensors were integrated into this new circulating PCR chip to modulate three specific operating temperatures for the denaturing, annealing, and extension steps of a PCR process. With this approach, the cycle numbers and reaction times of the three separate reaction steps can be individually adjusted. To verify the performance of this circulating PCR chip, a PCR process to amplify a detection gene (150 base pairs) associated with the hepatitis C virus was performed. Experimental results showed that DNA samples with concentrations ranging from 10(5) to 10(2)copies/microL can be successfully amplified. Therefore, this new circulating PCR chip may provide a useful platform for genetic identification and molecular diagnosis.
G proteins, further divided into four subfamilies (G(s), G(q), G(12) and G(i)) based on their Galpha subunits, are the primary components activated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Current GPCR assays are limited to the evaluation of selective Galpha signaling and do not allow comprehensive screening for orphan GPCRs without a known coupled Galpha. Therefore, our aim was to design a chimeric reporting system that covers responses from all Galpha subfamilies simultaneously. Because G(s) activates cAMP response element (CRE)-driven genes whereas G(q) and G(12) activate serum response element (SRE)-driven genes, we therefore incorporated 2x CRE and 5x SRE (2CRE5SRE) into a promoter for driving luciferase expression. To further report G(i) signals, a 2CRE5SRE-driven chimeric G(qi), in which the C-terminus of G(q) is replaced by that of G(i), was integrated to switch the responses of G(i)-coupled GPCRs to the G(q) signaling. The novel reporter system showed a strong signal amplification when activated by neuromedin U receptor 1 (mainly activates G(q)), neuromedin U receptor 2 (mainly activates G(i)) or luteinizing hormone receptor (mainly through the G(s) and G(q) pathways). In addition, 293T cells stably carrying our reporter construct showed a similar sensitivity to the radioactive cAMP assay when revealing the constitutive signal from gain-of-function mutants of luteinizing hormone receptor. To our knowledge, this is the first reporting system capable of covering the G(s), G(q), G(12) and G(i) signals and revealing the phenomena of constitutively active GPCRs. Such a universal platform will benefit future high-throughput screening and drug designs for any GPCR.
In this paper, a low-cost, low-power and high performance micro control unit (MCU) core is proposed for wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs). It consists of an asynchronous interface, a register bank, a reconfigurable filter, a slop-feature forecast, a lossless data encoder, an error correct coding (ECC) encoder, a UART interface, a power management (PWM), and a multi-sensor controller. To improve the system performance and expansion abilities, the asynchronous interface is added for handling signal exchanges between different clock domains. To eliminate the noise of various bio-signals, the reconfigurable filter is created to provide the functions of average, binomial and sharpen filters. The slop-feature forecast and the lossless data encoder is proposed to reduce the data of various biomedical signals for transmission. Furthermore, the ECC encoder is added to improve the reliability for the wireless transmission and the UART interface is employed the proposed design to be compatible with wireless devices. For long-term healthcare monitoring application, a power management technique is developed for reducing the power consumption of the WBSN system. In addition, the proposed design can be operated with four different bio-sensors simultaneously. The proposed design was successfully tested with a FPGA verification board. The VLSI architecture of this work contains 7.67-K gate counts and consumes the power of 5.8 mW or 1.9 mW at 100 MHz or 133 MHz processing rate using a TSMC 0.18 ?m or 0.13 ?m CMOS process. Compared with previous techniques, this design achieves higher performance, more functions, more flexibility and higher compatibility than other micro controller designs.
Chemokines play pivotal roles in the recruitment of various immune cells to diverse tissues in both physiological and pathological conditions. CXCL17 is an orphan chemokine preliminarily found to be involved in tumor angiogenesis. However, its protein nature, as well as its endogenous bioactivity, has not been well clarified. Using real-time PCR, immunohistochemical staining, and Western blotting, we found that CXCL17 is highly expressed in both a constitutive and inducible manner in the rat gastric mucosa, where it undergoes endoproteolysis during protein maturation. The mature CXCL17 exhibited strong chemoattractant abilities targeting monocytes and macrophages, potentially through ERK1/2 and p38 but not JNK signaling. CXCL17 also induced the production of proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor A from treated monocytes. Furthermore, in contrast to other CXC chemokines that accelerate inflammatory responses, CXCL17 showed novel anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-activated macrophages. Therefore, our data suggest that CXCL17 in the gastric lamina propria may play an important role in tissue repair and anti-inflammation, both of which help to maintain the integrity of the gastric mucosa.
A stringlike pulse is highly related to hypertension, and many classification approaches have been proposed in which the differentiation pulse wave (dPW) can effectively classify the stringlike pulse indicating hypertension. Unfortunately, the dPW method cannot distinguish the spring stringlike pulse from the stringlike pulse so labeled by physicians in clinics.
This paper presents the development and assessment of two types of Long Period Fiber Grating (LPFG)-based sensors including a mobile liquid level sensor and a reflective sensor for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. Shewhart control charts were used to assess the liquid level sensing capacity and reliability of the mobile CO(2)-laser engraved LPFG sensor. There were ten groups of different liquid level experiment and each group underwent ten repeated wavelength shift measurements. The results showed that all measurands were within the control limits; thus, this mobile sensor was reliable and exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. In addition, a reflective sensor consisting of five LPFGs in series with a reflective end has been developed to evaluate the liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. These five LPFGs were fabricated by the electrical arc discharge method and the reflective end was coated with silver by Tollens test. After each liquid level experiment was performed five times, the average values of the resonance wavelength shifts for LPFG Nos. 1-5 were in the range of 1.35-9.14 nm. The experimental findings showed that the reflective sensor could be used to automatically monitor five fixed liquid levels. This reflective sensor also exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. The mechanism of the fluid-flow velocity sensor was based on analyzing the relationship among the optical power, time, and the LPFGs length. There were two types of fluid-flow velocity measurements: inflow and drainage processes. The differences between the LPFG-based fluid-flow velocities and the measured average fluid-flow velocities were found in the range of 8.7-12.6%. For the first time to our knowledge, we have demonstrated the feasibility of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity sensing with a reflective LPFG-based sensor without modifying LPFGs or coating chemical compounds.
Although differential screening-selected gene aberrative in neuroblastoma (DAN, official symbol NBL1) is the founding member of the DAN subfamily of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists, its antagonizing targets, gene regulation, and physiological functions remain unclear. Using diverse cell expression systems, we found that the generation of bioactive DAN is likely to be cell type specific. Unlike other phylogenetically close members, which are covalently linked homodimers, DAN forms a noncovalently linked homodimer during folding. Purified recombinant DAN specifically blocked signaling of BMP2 and BMP4 but not that of other ovarian-expressed transforming growth factor-beta members. Although widely distributed in many organs, DAN transcript level was periodically regulated by gonadotropins. Ovarian microdissection indicated that NBL1 (DAN) mRNA is mainly expressed in granulosa cells, where its transcript level is up-regulated by the gonadotropin-driven cAMP cascade. We further investigated the local regulation and ovarian functions of DAN. NBL1 (DAN) mRNA expression in granulosa cells was up-regulated by oocyte-derived growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), whereas treatment with DAN significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of BMP4 on follicle-stimulating hormone-induced progesterone production in cultured granulosa cells. Our findings suggest the DAN gradient in granulosa cells, established by oocyte-derived GDF9, may serve as an antagonist barrier that modulates the actions of theca-derived BMP4 and granulosa/theca-derived BMP2 during folliculogenesis both spatially and temporally.
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