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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mineralization of basalts in the CO2-H2O-SO2-O2 system.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) containing minor amounts of co-contaminants in geologic formations was investigated in the laboratory through the use of high pressure static experiments. Five different basalt samples were immersed in water equilibrated with supercritical CO2 containing 1 wt % sulfur dioxide (SO2) and 1 wt % oxygen (O2) at reservoir conditions (? 100 bar, 90 °C) for 48 and 98 days. Gypsum (CaSO4) was a common precipitate, occurred early as elongated blades with striations, and served as substrates for other mineral products. In addition to gypsum, bimodal pulses of water released during dehydroxylation were key indicators, along with X-ray diffraction, for verifying the presence of jarosite-alunite group minerals. Well-developed pseudocubic jarosite crystals formed surface coatings, and in some instances, mixtures of natrojarosite and natroalunite aggregated into spherically shaped structures measuring 100 ?m in diameter. Reaction products were also characterized using infrared spectroscopy, which indicated OH and Fe-O stretching modes. The presences of jarosite-alunite group minerals were found in the lower wavenumber region from 700 to 400 cm(-1). A strong preferential incorporation of Fe(III) into natrojarosite was attributed to the oxidation potential of O2. Evidence of CO2 was detected during thermal decomposition of precipitates, suggesting the onset of mineral carbonation.
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Axitinib sensitization of high Single Dose Radiotherapy.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Single Dose Radiation Therapy (SDRT) provides remarkably high rates of control even for tumors resistant to fractionated radiotherapy. SDRT tumor control depends on acute acid sphingomyelinase-mediated endothelial cell injury and monoclonal antibodies targeting Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Factor (VEGF) signaling radiosensitized tumor endothelium when delivered immediately prior to irradiation. Here we evaluate the ability of the oral VEGF receptor inhibitor, axitinib, to sensitize tumor endothelium and increase tumor control with SDRT.
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Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus.
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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A 61-year-old asymptomatic woman was referred for echocardiography to evaluate recently detected systolic murmur. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed an echodense obstructive mass in the left ventricular outflow tract of unclear origin. Subsequent transesophageal echo suggested an intracardiac calcified tumor and recommended surgical excision. Contrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography (CT) confirmed a well-defined lobulated mass adherent to the anterior mitral valve leaflet, the non-enhanced scout view revealed marked hyper-attenuation confirming diffuse calcification. Caseous calcification was diagnosed and surgery was deferred. Caseous calcification is typically benign and most commonly involves the posterior mitral annulus. Our patient displayed an atypical location of exuberant mitral annular calcification.
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Impact of low flow on the outcome of high-risk patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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This study sought to assess the impact of baseline left ventricular (LV) outflow, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and transvalvular gradient on outcomes following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS).
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Water ice nanoparticles: size and temperature effects on the mid-infrared spectrum.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Mid-infrared spectra have been measured for cubic ice (I(c)) nanoparticles (3-150 nm diameter) formed by rapid collisional cooling over a wide range of temperatures (5-209 K). Spectral diagnostics, such as the ratio of surface related dangling OH to interior H-bonded OH stretch bands, reveal the manner in which particle size depends on bath gas temperature and density, and on water molecule concentration. For particles smaller than 5 nm strained intermolecular bonds on the surface and subsurface cause the predominant OH stretch peak position to be dramatically blue shifted by up to 40 cm(-1). In the size regime of 8-200 nm the position of the OH stretch absorption band maximum is relatively unaffected by particle size and it is possible to measure the temperature dependence of the peak location without influences from the surface or scattering. The band maximum shifts in a linear fashion from 3218 cm(-1) at 30 K to 3253 cm(-1) at 209 K, which may assist with temperature profiling of ice particles in atmospheric clouds and extraterrestrial systems. Over the same temperature range the librational mode band shifts very little, from 870 to 860 cm(-1). In the water stretching and bending regions discrete spectral features associated with the surface or sub-surface layers have been detected in particles as large as 80 nm.
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Comparison of hemodynamic performance of self-expandable CoreValve versus balloon-expandable Edwards SAPIEN aortic valves inserted by catheter for aortic stenosis.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the self-expandable CoreValve (CV) and the balloon-expandable Edwards SAPIEN (ES) bioprostheses has been widely used for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis. However, a direct comparison of the hemodynamic results associated with these 2 prostheses is lacking. The aim of the present study was to compare the hemodynamic performance of both bioprostheses. A total of 41 patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the CV prosthesis were matched 1:1 for prosthesis size (26 mm), aortic annulus size, left ventricular ejection fraction, body surface area, and body mass index with patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the ES prosthesis. Doppler-echocardiographic data were prospectively collected before the intervention and at hospital discharge, and all examinations were sent to, and analyzed in, a central echocardiography core laboratory. The mean transprosthetic residual gradient was lower (p = 0.024) in the CV group (7.9 ± 3.1 mm Hg) than in the ES group (9.7 ± 3.8 mm Hg). The effective orifice area tended to be greater in the CV group (1.58 ± 0.31 cm(2) vs 1.49 ± 0.24 cm(2), p = 0.10). The incidence of severe prosthesis-patient mismatch was, however, similar between the 2 groups (effective orifice area indexed to the body surface area ?0.65 cm(2)/m(2); CV 9.8%, ES 9.8%, p = 1.0). The incidence of paravalvular aortic regurgitation was greater with the CV (grade 1 or more in 85.4%, grade 2 or more in 39%) than with the ES (grade 1 or more in 58.5%, grade 2 or more in 22%; p = 0.001). The number and extent of paravalvular leaks were greater in the CV group (p <0.01 for both comparisons). In conclusion, transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the CV prosthesis was associated with a lower residual gradient but a greater rate of paravalvular aortic regurgitation compared to the ES prosthesis. The potential clinical consequences of the differences in hemodynamic performance between these transcatheter heart valves needs to be addressed in future studies.
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Promising targets and drugs in development for colorectal cancer.
Semin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and causes of cancer death in the world despite incremental improvement in the treatment of this disease. Advancements in the molecular understanding of CRC have led to new areas of therapeutic research. In this endeavor, numerous compounds with specific molecular targets are being developed in preclinical and early clinical studies. Molecular pathways involved in CRC and potentially effective targeted agents in development will be reviewed.
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Development of novel targeted agents in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer.
Clin Colorectal Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the second most common cause of cancer death and third most common form of cancer in men and women. Although the incidence and mortality of CRC have been declining over the past 2 decades in the United States, nearly 140,000 new cases and 51,000 deaths were still estimated to occur in 2010.(1) These decreases have resulted primarily from earlier detection of premalignant colorectal polyps through CRC screening and to a lesser degree from adjuvant chemotherapy. Four cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs and 3 biologic agents have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for CRC, but the contribution of each has been incremental and long-term survival of advanced disease remains poor. In addition, optimal populations for treatment with these agents remain to be fully characterized. Although the field of drug development in CRC was stagnant during a period of numerous large trials with approved agents, multiple new agents are currently in development. This review discusses molecular pathways and novel targeted agents in the treatment of CRC.
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Intra-abdominal Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma and the benefits of laparoscopic surveillance.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2011
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We report a case of a neonate presenting with the rare vascular tumor, Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma. She had a lesion arising from the left ovary with multiple intraperitoneal metastases causing small bowel obstruction. We managed this case with primary surgical resection followed by laparoscopic surveillance of the peritoneal cavity and metastectomy. The child is fit and well and free of tumor after 32 months. Neither this presentation of this tumor nor this management approach has been previously described in the literature.
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Two weeks taurine supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in young male type 1 diabetics.
Diab Vasc Dis Res
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2010
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Type 1 diabetics have a well-recognised risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. Even in the absence of clinical signs there are detectable abnormalities of conduit vessel function. Our group has previously reported reversal of endothelial dysfunction in diabetics with pravastatin. In young asymptomatic smokers, taurine supplementation has a beneficial impact on macrovascular function, assessed by FMD, and shows an up-regulation of nitric oxide from monocyte-endothelial cell interactions. We hypothesise that taurine supplementation reverses early endothelial abnormalities in young male type 1 diabetics, as assessed by applanation tonometry, brachial artery ultrasound and laser Doppler fluximetry. Asymptomatic, male diabetics (n=9) were scanned prior to treatment and then randomised in a double-blind cross-over fashion to receive either 2 weeks placebo or taurine. Control patients (n=10) underwent a baseline scan. Assessed diabetics had detectable, statistically significant abnormalities when compared with controls, in both arterial stiffness (augmentation index) and brachial artery reactivity (FMD). Both of these parameters were returned to control levels with 2 weeks taurine supplementation. In conclusion, 2 weeks taurine supplementation reverses early, detectable conduit vessel abnormalities in young male diabetics. This may have important implications in the long-term treatment of diabetic patients and their subsequent progression towards atherosclerotic disease.
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The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone: current and future management options.
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
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Hyponatraemia is the commonest electrolyte abnormality, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is the most frequent underlying pathophysiology. Hyponatraemia is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and as such appropriate treatment is essential. Treatment options for SIADH include fluid restriction, demeclocycline, urea, frusemide and saline infusion, all of which have their limitations. The introduction of the vasopressin-2 receptor antagonists has allowed clinicians to specifically target the underlying pathophysiology of SIADH. Initial studies have shown good efficacy and safety profiles in the treatment of mild to moderate hyponatraemia. However, studies assessing the efficacy and safety of these agents in acute severe symptomatic hyponatraemia are awaited. Furthermore, the cost of these agents at present may limit their use.
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Incisionless revision of post-Roux-en-Y bypass stomal and pouch dilation: multicenter registry results.
Surg Obes Relat Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2010
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Surgical revision for weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has been tempered by the high complication rates associated with standard approaches. Endoluminal revision of stoma and pouch dilation should intuitively confer a better risk profile. However, questions of clinical safety, durability, and weight loss need to be answered. We report our multicenter intraoperative experience and postoperative follow-up to date using the Incisionless Operating Platform for this patient subset.
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IR spectroscopy of physical and chemical transformations in cold hydrogen chloride and ammonia aerosols.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
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Aerosol particles of hydrogen chloride corresponding to three distinct solid phases have been generated in a collisional cooling cell and observed via FTIR spectroscopy. The cubic phase of HCl was observed with cell temperatures of 90-100 K, while the highly ordered orthorhombic phase predominated below this temperature. The previously reported metastable phase was also observed under some conditions. Density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level were performed on HCl clusters with a planar, zig-zag arrangement. Computed IR spectra for chain lengths up to 15 converge to show a band shape that is characteristic of the orthorhombic HCl phase. Injection of water along with HCl was found to have little influence on the formation of HCl particles. The reaction between HCl and NH3 to produce NH4Cl particles was also examined and found to occur over a wide range of temperatures (80-300 K). The formation of homogenous particles of HCl and NH3 competed with this chemical reaction as the cell temperature was lowered and when higher pressures of N2 buffer gas were used.
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Infrared spectroscopy of ozone and hydrogen chloride aerosols.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
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Aerosols of ozone have been generated in a collisional cooling cell and observed over a small temperature range via FTIR spectroscopy, with the phase transition from the vapour taking place in the range 80-84 K. The condensed phase bands at 1038 cm(-1) (nu3) and 2105 cm(-1) (nu1+nu3) were assigned to the liquid phase. Aerosols were also generated from mixtures of ozone and HCl. In the presence of liquid ozone aerosols, evidence of solvated HCl was observed via a broad IR band 2795 cm(-1). Notably, production of a metastable, amorphous solid phase of HCl (exhibiting a narrow band at 2780 cm(-1)) was favoured to the extent that it could be generated in large excess over the crystalline orthorhombic form that usually dominates at 80 K.
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Physical function, disease activity, and health-related quality-of-life outcomes after 3 years of adalimumab treatment in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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We evaluated the three-year impact of adalimumab on patient-reported physical function and health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS).
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The natural history of surgically treated but radiotherapy-naïve nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2009
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Transsphenoidal surgery is indicated for patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) causing compressive symptoms. Previous studies attempting to define the rate of recurrence/regrowth of surgically treated but radiation-naïve NFPAs were somewhat limited by selection bias and/or small numbers and/or lack of consistency of findings between studies. A better understanding of the natural history of this condition could allow stratification of recurrence risk and inform future management. We aimed to define the natural history of a large, mainly unselected cohort with surgically treated, radiotherapy (RT)-naïve NFPAs and to try to identify predictors of recurrence/regrowth.
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Comparison of the hemodynamic performance of percutaneous and surgical bioprostheses for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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This study was undertaken to compare the hemodynamic performance of a percutaneous bioprosthesis to that of surgically implanted (stented and stentless) bioprostheses for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis.
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Cost-effectiveness of omalizumab for uncontrolled allergic asthma in the Netherlands.
J Med Econ
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Omalizumab, licensed for patients with uncontrolled persistent allergic (IgE mediated) asthma, was found to be cost-effective based upon its clinical trial data. Observational studies have been undertaken to determine the real life outcomes of using omalizumab in the community.
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A comparison of osteoprotegerin with adiponectin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as a marker for insulin resistance.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
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Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with low adiponectin and elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has been shown to be elevated in type 2 diabetes, but whether it reflects underlying IR is unclear. We aimed to compare the ability of serum OPG with adiponectin and hsCRP to act as a marker for IR in individuals with normal and abnormal glucose tolerance.
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Differential diagnosis of hyponatraemia.
Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
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The appropriate management of hyponatraemia is reliant on the accurate identification of the underlying cause of the hyponatraemia. In the light of evidence which has shown that the use of a clinical algorithm appears to improve accuracy in the differential diagnosis of hyponatraemia, the European Hyponatraemia Network considered the use of two algorithms. One was developed from a nephrologists view of hyponatraemia, while the other reflected the approach of an endocrinologist. Both of these algorithms concurred on the importance of assessing effective blood volume status and the measurement of urine sodium concentration in the diagnostic process. To demonstrate the importance of accurate diagnosis to the correct treatment of hyponatraemia, special consideration was given to hyponatraemia in neurosurgical patients. The differentiation between the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), acute adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency, fluid overload and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome was discussed. In patients with SIADH, fluid restriction has been the mainstay of treatment despite the absence of an evidence base for its use. An approach to using fluid restriction to raise serum tonicity in patients with SIADH and to identify patients who are likely to be recalcitrant to fluid restriction was also suggested.
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Hyponatraemia: an overview of frequency, clinical presentation and complications.
Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
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Hyponatraemia (defined as a serum sodium concentration <136 mmol/L) is the most frequently encountered electrolyte disturbance in clinical practice. It is classified according to volume status (hypovolaemia, hypervolaemia or euvolaemia), reflecting the relative proportions of water and sodium within the body. The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is the most common cause of euvolaemic hyponatraemia. Although hyponatraemia is associated with poor prognosis and increased length of hospital stay, it is often poorly managed and sometimes underdiagnosed and undertreated. This article provides an overview of the frequency, pathophysiology and complications associated with this common clinical condition.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.