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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Peptide ligands incorporated into the threefold spike capsid domain to re-direct gene transduction of AAV8 and AAV9 in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Efficiency and specificity of viral vectors are vital issues in gene therapy. Insertion of peptide ligands into the adeno-associated viral (AAV) capsid at receptor binding sites can re-target AAV2-derived vectors to alternative cell types. Also, the use of serotypes AAV8 and -9 is more efficient than AAV2 for gene transfer to certain tissues in vivo. Consequently, re-targeting of these serotypes by ligand insertion could be a promising approach but has not been explored so far. Here, we generated AAV8 and -9 vectors displaying peptides in the threefold spike capsid domain. These peptides had been selected from peptide libraries displayed on capsids of AAV serotype 2 to optimize systemic gene delivery to murine lung tissue and to breast cancer tissue in PymT transgenic mice (PymT). Such peptide insertions at position 590 of the AAV8 capsid and position 589 of the AAV9 capsid changed the transduction properties of both serotypes. However, both peptides inserted in AAV8 did not result in the same changes of tissue tropism as they did in AAV2. While the AAV2 peptides selected on murine lung tissue did not alter tropism of serotypes 8 and -9, insertion of the AAV2-derived peptide selected on breast cancer tissue augmented tumor gene delivery in both serotypes. Further, this peptide mediated a strong but unspecific in vivo gene transfer for AAV8 and abrogated transduction of various control tissues for AAV9. Our findings indicate that peptide insertion into defined sites of AAV8 and -9 capsids can change and improve their efficiency and specificity compared to their wild type variants and to AAV2, making these insertion sites attractive for the generation of novel targeted vectors in these serotypes.
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Hepatic deficiency in transcriptional cofactor TBL1 promotes liver steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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The aberrant accumulation of lipids in the liver ("fatty liver") is tightly associated with several components of the metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and atherosclerosis. Here we show that the impaired hepatic expression of transcriptional cofactor transducin beta-like (TBL) 1 represents a common feature of mono- and multigenic fatty liver mouse models. Indeed, the liver-specific ablation of TBL1 gene expression in healthy mice promoted hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis under both normal and high-fat dietary conditions. TBL1 deficiency resulted in inhibition of fatty acid oxidation due to impaired functional cooperation with its heterodimerization partner TBL-related (TBLR) 1 and the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?. As TBL1 expression levels were found to also inversely correlate with liver fat content in human patients, the lack of hepatic TBL1/TBLR1 cofactor activity may represent a molecular rationale for hepatic steatosis in subjects with obesity and the metabolic syndrome.
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Characterization of a recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 Reference Standard Material.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 Reference Standard Material (rAAV2 RSM) has been produced and characterized with the purpose of providing a reference standard for particle titer, vector genome titer, and infectious titer for AAV2 gene transfer vectors. Production and purification of the reference material were carried out by helper virus-free transient transfection and chromatographic purification. The purified bulk material was vialed, confirmed negative for microbial contamination, and then distributed for characterization along with standard assay protocols and assay reagents to 16 laboratories worldwide. Using statistical transformation and modeling of the raw data, mean titers and confidence intervals were determined for capsid particles ({X}, 9.18?x?10¹¹ particles/ml; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.89?x?10¹¹ to 1.05?x?10¹² particles/ml), vector genomes ({X}, 3.28?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml; 95% CI, 2.70?x?10¹? to 4.75?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml), transducing units ({X}, 5.09?x?10? transducing units/ml; 95% CI, 2.00?x?10? to 9.60?x?10? transducing units/ml), and infectious units ({X}, 4.37?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml; 95% CI, 2.06?x?10? to 9.26?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml). Further analysis confirmed the identity of the reference material as AAV2 and the purity relative to nonvector proteins as greater than 94%. One obvious trend in the quantitative data was the degree of variation between institutions for each assay despite the relatively tight correlation of assay results within an institution. This relatively poor degree of interlaboratory precision and accuracy was apparent even though attempts were made to standardize the assays by providing detailed protocols and common reagents. This is the first time that such variation between laboratories has been thoroughly documented and the findings emphasize the need in the field for universal reference standards. The rAAV2 RSM has been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection and is available to the scientific community to calibrate laboratory-specific internal titer standards. Anticipated uses of the rAAV2 RSM are discussed.
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The threefold protrusions of adeno-associated virus type 8 are involved in cell surface targeting as well as postattachment processing.
J. Virol.
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Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has attracted considerable interest as a vector for gene therapy owing its lack of pathogenicity and the wealth of available serotypes with distinct tissue tropisms. One of the most promising isolates for vector development, based on its superior gene transfer efficiency to the liver in small animals compared to AAV type 2 (AAV2), is AAV8. Comparison of the in vivo gene transduction of rAAV2 and rAAV8 in mice showed that single amino acid exchanges in the 3-fold protrusions of AAV8 in the surface loops comprised of residues 581 to 584 and 589 to 592 to the corresponding amino acids of AAV2 and vice versa had a strong influence on transduction efficiency and tissue tropism. Surprisingly, not only did conversion of AAV8 to AAV2 cap sequences increase the transduction efficiency and change tissue tropism but so did the reciprocal conversion of AAV2 to AAV8. Insertion of new peptide motifs at position 590 in AAV8 also enabled retargeting of AAV8 capsids to specific tissues, suggesting that these sequences can interact with receptors on the cell surface. However, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody that binds to amino acids (588)QQNTA(592) of AAV8 does not prevent cell binding and virus uptake, indicating that this region is not necessary for receptor binding but rather that the antibody interferes with an essential step of postattachment processing in which the 3-fold protrusion is also involved. This study supports a multifunctional role of the 3-fold region of AAV capsids in the infection process.
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Mapping a neutralizing epitope onto the capsid of adeno-associated virus serotype 8.
J. Virol.
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Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are small single-stranded DNA viruses that can package and deliver nongenomic DNA for therapeutic gene delivery. AAV8, a liver-tropic vector, has shown great promise for the treatment of hemophilia A and B. However, as with other AAV vectors, host anti-capsid immune responses are a deterrent to therapeutic success. To characterize the antigenic structure of this vector, cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction (cryo-reconstruction) combined with molecular genetics, biochemistry, and in vivo approaches were used to define an antigenic epitope on the AAV8 capsid surface for a neutralizing monoclonal antibody, ADK8. Docking of the crystal structures of AAV8 and a generic Fab into the cryo-reconstruction for the AAV8-ADK8 complex identified a footprint on the prominent protrusions that flank the 3-fold axes of the icosahedrally symmetric capsid. Mutagenesis and cell-binding studies, along with in vitro and in vivo transduction assays, showed that the major ADK8 epitope is formed by an AAV variable region, VRVIII (amino acids 586 to 591 [AAV8 VP1 numbering]), which lies on the surface of the protrusions facing the 3-fold axis. This region plays a role in AAV2 and AAV8 cellular transduction. Coincidently, cell binding and trafficking assays indicate that ADK8 affects a postentry step required for successful virus trafficking to the nucleus, suggesting a probable mechanism of neutralization. This structure-directed strategy for characterizing the antigenic regions of AAVs can thus generate useful information to help re-engineer vectors that escape host neutralization and are hence more efficacious.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.