Resection is the only curative treatment in patients suffering from neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the ileum or the pancreas. Accurate preoperative imaging is critical for surgical planning, as even findings of small and distant metastases may profoundly influence surgical management.
Approximately 30% of patients with advanced, metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer have radioiodine-refractory disease, based on decreased expression of the sodium iodide symporter SLC5A5 (NIS), diminished membrane targeting of NIS, or both. Patients with radioiodine-refractory disease, therefore, are not amenable to (131)I therapy, which is the initial systemic treatment of choice for non-refractory metastatic thyroid cancer. Patients with radioiodine-refractory cancer have historically had poor outcomes, partly because these cancers often respond poorly to cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the past decade, however, considerable progress has been made in delineating the molecular pathogenesis of radioiodine-refractory thyroid cancer. As a result of the identification of key genetic and epigenetic alterations and dysregulated signalling pathways, multiple biologically targeted drugs, in particular tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, have been evaluated in clinical trials with promising results and have begun to meaningfully impact clinical practice. In this Review, we summarise the current knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of advanced differentiated thyroid cancer and discuss findings from clinical trials of targeted drugs in patients with radioiodine-refractory disease. Additionally, we focus on the molecular basis of loss of NIS expression, function, or both in refractory disease, and discuss preclinical and clinical data on restoration of radioiodine uptake.
We investigated the use of Ga-68-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate (Ga-68-DOTA-TATE) positron emission tomography (PET) and standardized uptake values (SUVs) to predict the effectiveness of treatment with the somatostatin analogue octreotide acetate (Sandostatin LAR) in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Thirty patients with well-differentiated NETs of the ileum (grades G1 and G2) were studied with Ga-68-DOTA-TATE. The average SUV of a 50% isocontour volume of interest covering the lesion with maximum uptake (SUV mean) and the maximum SUV (SUV max) were determined. Patients were followed up, and the time to progression was recorded. Twenty-one patients showed progressive disease at the end of the study; nine patients had stable disease. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 51.0 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI] 26.4-75.6). A cutoff for the SUV max of 29.4 and for the SUV mean of 20.3 could separate between patients with a long PFS (69.0 weeks; 95% CI 9.8-128.2) and a short PFS (26.0 weeks; 95% CI 8.7-43.3) response to octreotide acetate therapy. Patients with high radiotracer uptake had significantly higher PFS with a 2.9-fold higher chance for stable disease after 45 weeks; however, the prognostic performance of SUV max on an individual basis was poor, with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 64%. SUV max and SUV mean of NET tumor lesions in Ga-68-DOTA-TATE PET are important prognostic indices for predicting the response to therapy with octreotide acetate.
Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare tumor entity. The contents of best supportive care (BSC) have not been defined in advanced MTC. The objective of this work is to describe the epidemiology, the treatment patterns with respect to symptom management, as well as palliative treatment and associated costs.
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs; syn. carcinoid tumors) are highly or moderately differentiated neoplasms. They comprise a large variety of rare and heterogeneous tumors with an estimated incidence of 3-5/100,000/year. They can arise in virtually every internal organ, but mainly occur in the gastroenteropancreatic and bronchopulmonary systems. Around 25% of the NETs are localized in the bronchopulmonary system. Approximately 2% of all lung tumors are NETs. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lung tumors, bronchopulmonary NETs are subdivided into typical carcinoids (TCs) and atypical carcinoids (ACs). The parameter with the highest impact on NET behavior and prognosis is the histological classification and staging according to the tumor/node/metastasis (TNM) system. The diagnosis of NETs is established by histological examination and the immunohistochemical detection of general neuroendocrine markers, such as chromogranin A (CgA) and synaptophysin. Serum markers and the use of functional imaging techniques are important additive tools to establish the diagnosis of a NET. The only curative option for lung NETs is complete surgical resection. Beyond that, the currently available interdisciplinary therapeutic options are local ablation, biotherapy (somatostatin analogues), or chemotherapy. New therapeutic options such as peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) and molecularly targeted therapies achieve promising results and are under further evaluation. This report is a consensus summary of the interdisciplinary symposium 'Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung and of the Gastroenteropancreatic System (GEP NET) - Expert Dialogue' held on February 25-26, 2011 in Weimar, Germany. At this conference, a panel of 23 German experts shared their knowledge and exchanged their thoughts about research, diagnosis, and clinical management of NETs, whereby special attention was paid to NETs of the respiratory tract.
Currently, major limitations for the clinical application of adenovirus-mediated gene therapy are high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies, widespread expression of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), and adenovirus sequestration by the liver. In the current study, we used the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) as a theranostic gene to investigate whether coating of adenovirus with synthetic dendrimers could be useful to overcome these hurdles in order to develop adenoviral vectors for combination of systemic oncolytic virotherapy and NIS-mediated radiotherapy.
We recently demonstrated tumor-selective iodide uptake and therapeutic efficacy of combined radiovirotherapy after systemic delivery of the theranostic sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene using a dendrimer-coated adenovirus. To further improve shielding and targeting we physically coated replication-selective adenoviruses carrying the hNIS gene with a conjugate consisting of cationic poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer linked to the peptidic, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific ligand GE11. In vitro experiments demonstrated coxsackie-adenovirus receptor-independent but EGFR-specific transduction efficiency. Systemic injection of the uncoated adenovirus in a liver cancer xenograft mouse model led to high levels of NIS expression in the liver due to hepatic sequestration, which were significantly reduced after coating as demonstrated by (123)I-scintigraphy. Reduction of adenovirus liver pooling resulted in decreased hepatotoxicity and increased transduction efficiency in peripheral xenograft tumors. (124)I-PET-imaging confirmed EGFR-specificity by significantly lower tumoral radioiodine accumulation after pretreatment with the EGFR-specific antibody cetuximab. A significantly enhanced oncolytic effect was observed following systemic application of dendrimer-coated adenovirus that was further increased by additional treatment with a therapeutic dose of (131)I. These results demonstrate restricted virus tropism and tumor-selective retargeting after systemic application of coated, EGFR-targeted adenoviruses therefore representing a promising strategy for improved systemic adenoviral NIS gene therapy.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e131; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.58; published online 5 November 2013.
The tumor-homing property of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) has lead to their use as delivery vehicles for therapeutic genes. The application of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) as therapy gene allows noninvasive imaging of functional transgene expression by (123)I-scintigraphy or PET-imaging, as well as therapeutic application of (131)I or (188)Re. Based on the critical role of the chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted)/CCL5 secreted by MSCs in the course of tumor stroma recruitment, use of the RANTES/CCL5 promoter should allow tumor stroma-targeted expression of NIS after MSC-mediated delivery. Using a human hepatocellular cancer (HCC) xenograft mouse model (Huh7), we investigated distribution and tumor recruitment of RANTES-NIS-engineered MSCs after systemic injection by gamma camera imaging. (123)I-scintigraphy revealed active MSC recruitment and CCL5 promoter activation in the tumor stroma of Huh7 xenografts (6.5% ID/g (123)I, biological half-life: 3.7?hr, tumor-absorbed dose: 44.3?mGy/MBq). In comparison, 7% ID/g (188)Re was accumulated in tumors with a biological half-life of 4.1?hr (tumor-absorbed dose: 128.7?mGy/MBq). Administration of a therapeutic dose of (131)I or (188)Re (55.5?MBq) in RANTES-NIS-MSC-treated mice resulted in a significant delay in tumor growth and improved survival without significant differences between (131)I and (188)Re. These data demonstrate successful stromal targeting of NIS in HCC tumors by selective recruitment of NIS-expressing MSCs and by use of the RANTES/CCL5 promoter. The resulting tumor-selective radionuclide accumulation was high enough for a therapeutic effect of (131)I and (188)Re opening the exciting prospect of NIS-mediated radionuclide therapy of metastatic cancer using genetically engineered MSCs as gene delivery vehicles.
Adenovirus type 5 (Ad) is an efficient gene vector with high gene transduction potential, but its efficiency depends on its native cell receptors coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) for cell attachment and ?(v)?(3/5) integrins for internalization. To enable transduction of CAR negative cancer cell lines, we have coated the negatively charged Ad by noncovalent charge interaction with cationic PAMAM (polyamidoamine) dendrimers. The specificity for tumor cell infection was increased by targeting the coated Ad to the epidermal growth factor receptor using the peptide ligand GE11, which was coupled to the PAMAM dendrimer via a 2 kDa PEG spacer. Particles were examined by measuring surface charge and size, the degree of coating was determined by transmission electron microscopy. The net positive charge of PAMAM coated Ad enhanced cellular binding and uptake leading to increased transduction efficiency, especially in low to medium CAR expressing cancer cell lines using enhanced green fluorescent protein or luciferase as transgene. While PAMAM coated Ad allowed for efficient internalization, coating with linear polyethylenimine induced excessive particle aggregation, elevated cellular toxicity and lowered transduction efficiency. PAMAM coating of Ad enabled successful transduction of cells in vitro even in the presence of neutralizing antibodies. Taken together, this study clearly proves noncovalent, charge-based coating of Ad vectors with ligand-equipped dendrimers as a viable strategy for efficient transduction of cells otherwise refractory to Ad infection.
We reported the induction of tumor-selective iodide uptake and therapeutic efficacy of (131)I in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) xenograft mouse model, using novel polyplexes based on linear polyethylenimine (LPEI), shielded by polyethylene glycol (PEG), and coupled with the epidermal growth factor receptor-specific peptide GE11 (LPEI-PEG-GE11). The aim of the current study in the same HCC model was to evaluate the potential of biodegradable nanoparticle vectors based on pseudodendritic oligoamines (G2-HD-OEI) for systemic sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene delivery and to compare efficiency and tumor specificity with LPEI-PEG-GE11. Transfection of HCC cells with NIS cDNA, using G2-HD-OEI, resulted in a 44-fold increase in iodide uptake in vitro as compared with a 22-fold increase using LPEI-PEG-GE11. After intravenous application of G2-HD-OEI/NIS HCC tumors accumulated 6-11% ID/g (123)I (percentage of the injected dose per gram tumor tissue) with an effective half-life of 10?hr (tumor-absorbed dose, 281?mGy/MBq) as measured by (123)I scintigraphic gamma camera or single-photon emission computed tomography computed tomography (SPECT CT) imaging, as compared with 6.5-9% ID/g with an effective half-life of only 6?hr (tumor-absorbed dose, 47?mGy/MBq) for LPEI-PEG-GE11. After only two cycles of G2-HD-OEI/NIS/(131)I application, a significant delay in tumor growth was observed with markedly improved survival. A similar degree of therapeutic efficacy had been observed after four cycles of LPEI-PEG-GE11/(131)I. These results clearly demonstrate that biodegradable nanoparticles based on OEI-grafted oligoamines show increased efficiency for systemic NIS gene transfer in an HCC model with similar tumor selectivity as compared with LPEI-PEG-GE11, and therefore represent a promising strategy for NIS-mediated radioiodine therapy of HCC.
We reported the therapeutic efficacy of (131)I in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells stably expressing the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) under the control of the tumor-specific ?-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter. In the current study we investigated the efficacy of adenovirus-mediated in vivo NIS gene transfer followed by (131)I and (188)Re administration for the treatment of HCC xenografts. We used a replication-deficient adenovirus carrying the human NIS gene linked to the mouse AFP promoter (Ad5-AFP-NIS) for in vitro and in vivo NIS gene transfer. Functional NIS expression was confirmed by in vivo ?-camera imaging, followed by analysis of NIS protein and mRNA expression. Human HCC (HepG2) cells infected with Ad5-AFP-NIS concentrated 50% of the applied activity of (125)I, which was sufficiently high for a therapeutic effect in an in vitro clonogenic assay. Four days after intratumoral injection of Ad5-AFP-NIS (3×10(9) plaque-forming units) HepG2 xenografts accumulated 14.5% injected dose (ID)/g (123)I with an effective half-life of 13?hr (tumor-absorbed dose, 318?mGy/MBq (131)I). In comparison, 9.2% ID/g (188)Re was accumulated in tumors with an effective half-life of 12.8?hr (tumor-absorbed dose, 545?mGy/MBq). After adenovirus-mediated NIS gene transfer in HepG2 xenografts administration of a therapeutic dose of (131)I or (188)Re (55.5?MBq) resulted in a significant delay in tumor growth and improved survival without a significant difference between (188)Re and (131)I. In conclusion, a therapeutic effect of (131)I and (188)Re was demonstrated in HepG2 xenografts after tumor-specific adenovirus-mediated in vivo NIS gene transfer.
Due to its dual role as reporter and therapy gene, the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) allows noninvasive imaging of functional NIS expression by (123)I-scintigraphy or (124)I-PET imaging before the application of a therapeutic dose of (131)I. NIS expression provides a novel mechanism for the evaluation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as gene delivery vehicles for tumor therapy. In the current study, we stably transfected bone marrow-derived CD34(-) MSCs with NIS cDNA (NIS-MSC), which revealed high levels of functional NIS protein expression. In mixed populations of NIS-MSCs and hepatocellular cancer (HCC) cells, clonogenic assays showed a 55% reduction of HCC cell survival after (131)I application. We then investigated body distribution of NIS-MSCs by (123)I-scintigraphy and (124)I-PET imaging following intravenous (i.v.) injection of NIS-MSCs in a HCC xenograft mouse model demonstrating active MSC recruitment into the tumor stroma which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and ex vivo ?-counter analysis. Three cycles of systemic MSC-mediated NIS gene delivery followed by (131)I application resulted in a significant delay in tumor growth. Our results demonstrate tumor-specific accumulation and therapeutic efficacy of radioiodine after MSC-mediated NIS gene delivery in HCC tumors, opening the prospect of NIS-mediated radionuclide therapy of metastatic cancer using MSCs as gene delivery vehicles.
We recently demonstrated tumor-selective iodide uptake and therapeutic efficacy of radioiodine in neuroblastoma tumors after systemic nonviral polyplex-mediated sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene delivery. In the present study, we used novel polyplexes based on linear polyethylenimine (LPEI), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and the synthetic peptide GE11 as an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific ligand to target a NIS-expressing plasmid to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (HuH7). Incubation of HuH7 cells with LPEI-PEG-GE11/NIS polyplexes resulted in a 22-fold increase in iodide uptake, which was confirmed in other cancer cell lines correlating well with EGFR expression levels. Using (123)I-scintigraphy and ex vivo ?-counting, HuH7 xenografts accumulated 6.5-9% injected dose per gram (ID/g) (123)I, resulting in a tumor-absorbed dose of 47 mGray/Megabecquerel (mGy/MBq) (131)Iodide ((131)I) after intravenous (i.v.) application of LPEI-PEG-GE11/NIS. No iodide uptake was observed in other tissues. After pretreatment with the EGFR-specific antibody cetuximab, tumoral iodide uptake was markedly reduced confirming the specificity of EGFR-targeted polyplexes. After three or four cycles of polyplex/(131)I application, a significant delay in tumor growth was observed associated with prolonged survival. These results demonstrate that systemic NIS gene transfer using polyplexes coupled with an EGFR-targeting ligand is capable of inducing tumor-specific iodide uptake, which represents a promising innovative strategy for systemic NIS gene therapy in metastatic cancers.
Rats affected by the MENX multitumor syndrome develop pheochromocytoma (100%). Pheochromocytomas are uncommon tumors and animal models are scarce, hence the interest in MENX rats to identify and preclinically evaluate novel targeted therapies. A prerequisite for such studies is a sensitive and noninvasive detection of MENXassociated pheochromocytoma. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) to determine whether rat pheochromocytomas are detected by tracers used in clinical practice, such as 68Ga-DOTATOC (somatostatin analogue) or (11)C-Hydroxyephedrine (HED), a norepinephrine analogue. We analyzed four affected and three unaffected rats. The PET scan findings were correlated to histopathology and immunophenotype of the tumors, their proliferative index, and the expression of genes coding for somatostatin receptors or the norepinephrine transporter. We observed that mean 68Ga-DOTATOC standard uptake value (SUV) in adrenals of affected animals was 23.3 ± 3.9, significantly higher than in control rats (15.4 ± 7.9; P = .03). The increase in mean tumor-to-liver ratio of (11)C-HED in the MENX-affected animals (1.6 ± 0.5) compared to controls (0.7 ± 0.1) was even more significant (P = .0016). In a unique animal model, functional imaging depicting two pathways important in pheochromocytoma biology discriminated affected animals from controls, thus providing the basis for future preclinical work with MENX rats.
Recent studies indicate a possible relationship between hypothyroidism and breast cancer in vivo. In addition, oestrogen-like effects of thyroid hormones on breast cancer cell growth are seen in vitro. Therefore, this study evaluated thyroid function in breast cancer patients, women with benign breast tumour and healthy controls.
The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) mediates the active iodide uptake in the thyroid gland as well as lactating breast tissue. Recently, we reported significant stimulation of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)-induced NIS expression in the estrogen-receptor positive human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 by dexamethasone (Dex) in vitro and in vivo, which might offer the potential to image and treat breast cancer with radioiodine. In this study, based on its known interaction with the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) forming a heterodimer with the retinoid-X-receptor (RXR), we examined the effect of carbamazepine (CBZ), a potent activator of PXR, on atRA-induced NIS expression and therapeutic efficacy of (131)I in MCF-7 cells. For this purpose, functional NIS expression in MCF-7 cells was examined by iodide uptake assay, quantitative real-time PCR as well as Western blot analysis, followed by investigation of (131)I cytotoxicity in vitro after incubation with CBZ (4, 25, 100 ?M) in the presence of atRA (1 ?M) with or without Dex (100 nM). Incubation with CBZ stimulated atRA-induced iodide accumulation up to twofold in a concentration-dependent manner, while atRA/Dex-stimulated iodide uptake was further stimulated up to 1.5-fold by additional CBZ treatment based on significantly increased NIS mRNA and protein levels. This stimulatory effect of CBZ was shown to be dependent on the PI3K-Akt pathway without involvement of mTOR. In contrast, treatment with CBZ alone had no effect on functional NIS expression. Moreover, selective cytotoxicity of (131)I was significantly increased from approximately 20% in MCF-7 cells treated with atRA alone to 50% after treatment with CBZ in the presence of atRA, which was further enhanced to 90% after combined treatment with atRA/Dex/CBZ. In conclusion, CBZ represents another potent stimulator of atRA-induced functional NIS expression resulting in an enhanced selective killing effect of (131)I in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for thyroidal, salivary, gastric, intestinal and mammary iodide uptake. It was first cloned from the rat in 1996 and shortly thereafter from human and mouse tissue. In the intervening years, we have learned a great deal about the biology of NIS. Detailed knowledge of its genomic structure, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation and pharmacological modulation has underpinned the selection of NIS as an exciting approach for targeted gene delivery. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the potential of using NIS gene therapy as a means of delivering highly conformal radiation doses selectively to tumours. This strategy is particularly attractive because it can be used with both diagnostic (99mTc, 125I, 124I)) and therapeutic (131I, 186Re, 188Re, 211At) radioisotopes and it lends itself to incorporation with standard treatment modalities, such as radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. In this article, we review the biology of NIS and discuss its development for gene therapy.
Molecular cloning of the NIS gene in 1996 allowed examination of the molecular basis of congenital hypothyroidism due to iodide transport defect (ITD) many years after the first case was described by Federman et al. in 1958. Since 1997, when the first NIS mutation causing ITD was identified and characterized, 12 different NIS molecular defects have been described in 31 ITD patients. Interestingly, marked clinical heterogeneity between patients with the same NIS mutation and in patients with different mutations in the NIS gene without a clear genotype-phenotype correlation has been observed. The study of NIS mutations as the molecular basis of ITD has not only yielded extremely valuable structure/function information on NIS, but has also provided an important tool for preclinical diagnosis and genetic counseling of ITD patients.
We recently reported the significant therapeutic efficacy of radioiodine therapy in various tumor mouse models following transcriptionally targeted sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene transfer. These studies showed the high potential of NIS as a novel diagnostic and therapeutic gene for the treatment of extrathyroidal tumors. As a next crucial step towards clinical application of NIS-mediated radionuclide therapy we aim at systemic delivery of the NIS gene to target extrathyroidal tumors even in the metastatic stage.
Membranous expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is a prerequisite for iodide uptake in thyrocytes. Previous studies reported heterogeneous results on the relative frequency of staining in various pathological conditions of the thyroid. The present study aimed at determining membranous staining by using confocal laser microscopy in benign and malignant thyroid diseases, complemented in a subgroup of patients with recurrent or metastatic disease with functional findings of radioiodine uptake (RIU).
Introduction Membranous expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is a prerequisite for iodide uptake in thyrocytes. Previous studies reported heterogenous results on the relative frequency of staining in various pathological conditions of the thyroid. The present study aimed at determining membranous staining by using confocal laser microscopy in benign and malignant thyroid disease (complemented in a subgroup of patients with recurrent or metastatic disease with functional findings of radioiodine uptake (RIU) Methods 380 malignant thyroid tumors (145 papillary, 51 follicular, 87 Hurthle cell and 97 undifferentiated; UTC), 115 benign adenomas, 62 diffuse goitres, 89 inflammatory conditions (Graves, Hashimoto, Thyroiditis deQuervain, lymphocytic thyroiditis) and 179 normal tissues (NT, fetal and adult) were subjected to NIS (2 different antibodies) and thyroglobulin (Tg) staining and evaluated by confocal microscopy. In a subgroup of 50 samples from patients with recurrent or metastatic disease NIS staining was correlated to RIU. Results As compared to NT, Graves patients showed significantly higher positive NIS membrane staining (> 97% vs. 69%) whereas patients with Hashimoto, lymphocytic thyroiditis but also benign adenomas scored lower than NT (56.7% and 55.8% vs 69%). Depending on their differentiation NIS staining was significantly lower in thyroid carcinomas in parallel to TG staining with only 1/97 UTCs being positive. RIU was more frequently positive than NIS staining. Discussion Confocal staining evaluating strictly only membranous expression of NIS was not used on a large scale before. We confirm the loss of membranous NIS in benign but more prominently in malignant thyroid tumors.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.