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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Phase 2study of dovitinib in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma with or without t(4;14) translocation.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Approximately 15% of multiple myeloma (MM) patients exhibit a t(4;14) translocation, which often results in constitutive activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of dovitinib, an RTK inhibitor with in vitro inhibitory activity against FGFR, in patients withrelapsed or refractory MM with or without t(4;14) translocation.
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Inhibition of Protein Geranylgeranylation Specifically Interferes with CD40-Dependent B Cell Activation, Resulting in a Reduced Capacity To Induce T Cell Immunity.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Ab-independent effector functions of B cells, such as Ag presentation and cytokine production, have been shown to play an important role in a variety of immune-mediated conditions such as autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection, and graft-versus-host disease. Most current immunosuppressive treatments target T cells, are relatively unspecific, and result in profound immunosuppression that places patients at an increased risk of developing severe infections and cancer. Therapeutic strategies, which interfere with B cell activation, could therefore be a useful addition to the current immunosuppressive armamentarium. Using a transcriptomic approach, we identified upregulation of genes that belong to the mevalonate pathway as a key molecular event following CD40-mediated activation of B cells. Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway, by lipophilic statins such as simvastatin and atorvastatin resulted in a specific inhibition of B cell activation via CD40 and impaired their ability to act as stimulatory APCs for allospecific T cells. Mechanistically, the inhibitory effect resulted from the inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation subsequent to the depletion of mevalonate, the metabolic precursor for geranylgeranyl. Thus, inhibition of geranylgeranylation either directly through geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitors or indirectly through statins represents a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of diseases in which Ag presentation by B cells plays a role.
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CD4+ T cell counts reflect the immunosuppressive state of CD4 helper cells in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The recovery of the host immune system after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is pivotal to prevent infections, relapse, and secondary malignancies. In particular, numerical CD4+ T cells reconstitution is delayed and CD4 helper cell function is considered impaired as a consequence of the transplant procedure and concomitant immunosuppressive medication. From HIV/AIDS patients, it is known that numerical and functional CD4 defects increase the risk of opportunistic infections. However, and in contrast to patients with HIV, anti-infective prophylaxis after allogeneic transplantation is usually given for 6 months depending on immunosuppressive medication and existing graft-versus-host disease but independently of absolute CD4+ T cells counts. We hypothesized that a qualitative T cell defect is existing after allogeneic transplantation, especially in patients with delayed immune-reconstitution. Applying transcriptional as well as functional approaches, we show that CD4+ T cells with delayed recovery have a distinct transcriptional profile and cluster differently from T cells originated from patients with completed immune recovery. Moreover, inhibitory signatures are substantially enriched within the transcriptional profile of these T cells translating to functional defects and impaired interleukin 2 production. In addition to time after transplant, CD4+ T cells numbers should be considered for the decision to stop or maintain antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
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Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor response is superior to neutropenia duration in predicting the risk of infection after high-dose chemotherapy for myeloma and lymphoma.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The patient granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) response is represented by the leukocyte peak in the blood induced by a single dose of G-CSF after chemotherapy, and is correlated with subsequent neutropenic infection risk. General patterns for a meaningful risk group stratification, have not yet been determined. Two independent data sets including a total of 306 cases with myeloma or lymphoma and autologous blood stem cell transplant were available. An infection susceptibility curve plotted according to ranked G-CSF responses from a multicenter study reproduced and validated a curve from the previous single center. Two trend changes were seen within these curves at around 11 000 and 22 000 leukocytes/?L, which separated three groups with a high, medium and low risk of infection. While G-CSF response is related to the consecutive duration of neutropenia, it retains additional independent predictive information for infection risk (p < 0.0001) and, more important, is a tool available before the onset of the critical period.
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Identification and functional characterization of imatinib-sensitive DTD1-PDGFRB and CCDC88C-PDGFRB fusion genes in eosinophilia-associated myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Eosinophilia-associated myeloid neoplasms with rearrangement of chromosome bands 5q31-33 are frequently associated with PDGFRB fusion genes, which are exquisitely sensitive to treatment with imatinib. In search for novel fusion partners of PDGFRB, we analyzed three cases with translocation t(5;20)(q33;p11), t(5;14)(q33;q32), and t(5;17;14)(q33;q11;q32) by 5?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (5?-RACE-PCR) and DNA-based long-distance inverse PCR (LDI-PCR) with primers derived from PDGFRB. LDI-PCR revealed a fusion between CCDC88C exon 25 and PDGFRB exon 11 in the case with t(5;17;14)(q33;q11;q32) while 5?-RACE-PCR identified fusions between CCDC88C exon 10 and PDGFRB exon 12 and between DTD1 exon 4 and PDGFRB exon 12 in the cases with t(5;14)(q33;q32) and t(5;20)(q33;p11), respectively. The PDGFRB tyrosine-kinase domain is predicted to be retained in all three fusion proteins. The partner proteins contained coiled-coil domains or other domains, which putatively lead to constitutive activation of the PDGFRB fusion protein. In vitro functional analyses confirmed transforming activity and imatinib-sensitivity of the fusion proteins. All three patients achieved rapid and durable complete hematologic remissions on imatinib.
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Bone marrow versus peripheral blood allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for haematological malignancies in adults.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is an established treatment option for many malignant and non-malignant disorders. In the past two decades, peripheral blood stem cells replaced bone marrow as stem cell source due to faster engraftment and practicability. Previous meta-analyses analysed patients treated from 1990 to 2002 and demonstrated no impact of the stem cell source on overall survival, but a greater risk for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in peripheral blood transplants. As transplant indications and conditioning regimens continue to change, whether the choice of the stem cell source has an impact on transplant outcomes remains to be determined.
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Explaining survival differences between two consecutive studies with allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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In the two consecutive German studies III and IIIA on chronic myeloid leukemia, between 1995 and 2004, 781 patients were randomized to receive either allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with a related donor or continued drug treatment. Despite comparable transplantation protocols and most centers participating in both studies, the post-transplant survival probabilities for patients transplanted in first chronic phase were significantly higher in study IIIA (144 patients) than in study III (113 patients). Prior to the decision on a combined analysis of both studies, reasons for this discrepancy had to be investigated.
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Pretransplant comorbidities maintain their impact on allogeneic stem cell transplantation outcome 5 years posttransplant: a retrospective study in a single german institution.
ISRN Hematol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The introduction of reduced-intensity conditioning regimens has allowed elderly patients with preexisting comorbidities access to the potentially curative allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Patient's comorbidities at the time of treatment consideration play a significant role in transplant outcome in terms of both overall survival (OS) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). The hematopoietic stem cell transplantation comorbidity index (HCT-CI) quantifies these patient specific risks and has established itself as a major tool in the pretransplant assessment of patients. Many single center and multicenter studies have assessed the HCT-CI score and reported conflicting outcomes. The present study aimed to evaluate the HCT-CI in a single large European transplant centre. 245 patients were retrospectively analyzed and the predictive value of the score was assessed with respect to OS and NRM. We confirm that the HCT-CI predicts outcome for both OS and NRM. Moreover, we identified age of the patient as an independent prognostic parameter for OS. Incorporation of age in the HCT-CI would improve its ability to prognosticate and allow the transplant physician to assess the patient specific risks appropriately at the time of counseling for transplant.
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Bortezomib before and after autologous stem cell transplantation overcomes the negative prognostic impact of renal impairment in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a Subgroup Analysis From the HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 Trial.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Renal impairment is frequent in patients with multiple myeloma and correlates with inferior prognosis. This analysis evaluates the prognostic role of renal impairment in patients with myeloma treated with bortezomib before and after autologous stem cell transplantation within a prospective randomized phase III trial. 827 newly diagnosed myeloma patients in the HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial were randomized to receive 3 cycles of vincristine, adriamycin, dexamethasone (VAD) or bortezomib, adriamycin, dexamethasone (PAD) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation and maintenance with thalidomide 50 mg daily (VAD-arm) or bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 every 2 weeks (PAD-arm). 746 patients had a baseline-serum creatinine less than 2 mg/dl (Durie-Salmon-stage A) and 81 had 2 mg/dl or higher (stage B). In myeloma patients with base line creatinine ?2 mg/dl the renal response rate was 63% in the VAD- arm and 81% in the PAD-arm (p=0.31). The overall myeloma response rate was 64% in the VAD-arm versus 89% in the PAD-arm with 13% CR in the VAD arm versus 36% in the PAD arm (p=0.01). Overall survival at 3 years for patients with base line creatinine ?2 mg/dl was 34% in the VAD-arm versus 74% in the PAD-arm (p<0.001) with a progression-free survival at 3 years of 16% in the VAD-arm versus 48% in the PAD-arm (p=0.004). Overall and progression-free survival in the PAD- arm were similar in patients with base line creatinine ?2 mg/dl or <2 mg/dl. We conclude that a bortezomib-containing treatment before and after autologous stem cell transplantation overcomes the negative prognostic impact of renal impairment in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. The trial was registered at www.trialregister.nl as NTR213 and at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN 64455289.
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Second allograft for hematologic relapse of acute leukemia after first allogeneic stem-cell transplantation from related and unrelated donors: the role of donor change.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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To evaluate the role of a second allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT2) given for relapsed acute leukemia (AL) after related or unrelated first hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT1) and to analyze the role of donor change for HSCT2 in both settings.
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TP53, SF3B1, and NOTCH1 mutations and outcome of allotransplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: six-year follow-up of the GCLLSG CLL3X trial.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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The purpose of this analysis was to provide 6-year follow-up of the CLL3X trial, which studied reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with poor-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and to investigate the effect of TP53, SF3B1, and NOTCH1 mutations on HSCT outcome. For 90 allografted patients, 6-year overall survival (OS) was 58% and 6-year event-free survival (EFS) was 38%. TP53, SF3B1, and NOTCH1 mutations were found in 30%, 26%, and 14% of the trial population, respectively. By univariate and multivariate analyses, the mutational status of the TP53, SF3B1, and NOTCH1 genes had no significant effect on OS and EFS. Studies of minimal residual disease confirmed durability of CLL eradication in mutated patients. We conclude that HSCT can provide long-term disease control in patients with poor-risk CLL independent of the presence of TP53, SF3B1, and NOTCH1 mutations. The trial has been registered at the US National Cancer Institute as #EU-20554, NCT00281983.
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Anti-thymocyte globulins for post-transplant graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis-A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Despite advances made in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT), graft versus host disease (GvHD) remains a major problem. The main strategy to combat GvHD is prophylaxis and ATG plays a major role in this arena. Conflicting reports on the effectiveness of ATG on GvHD prevention prompted us to address this question by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis.
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Immature DC isolated after co-culture with PUVA-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells downregulate graft-versus-host reactions in the human skin explant model.
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) remains the major barrier to successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a potent immunomodulatory treatment option for GvHD. In contrast to conventional immunosuppressants, ECP is considered not to increase relapse and infection rates resulting from generalised immunosuppression. ECP involves the mechanical separation of 5-10% of patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which are then exposed to psoralen and UVA light (PUVA) before they are returned to the patient. ECP has been shown to induce apoptosis in various cell types, in particular lymphocytes. Several studies describe downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as promotion of peripheral tolerance through enhanced production of T regulatory cells in the course of ECP-treatment. Modulation of antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DC) by PUVA-treated lymphocytes might be implicated in these regulatory processes. We evaluated the impact of PUVA-treated lymphocytes on immature DC and further demonstrated the functional capacity of such modified DC to modulate GVH reactions using a well-established human skin-explant model of GvHD. Addition of immature DC isolated after co-culture with PUVA-treated but not untreated MLR cells significantly downregulated skin-GvH reactions (p=0.023, Mann-Whitney-Test). IFN-gamma levels were non-significantly decreased in MLR and skin supernatants. We observed a non-significant increase in PD-L1 expression in iDC after co-culture with PUVA-treated MLR cells whereas expression levels of IDO and ILT-3 were not affected. We conclude that iDC modulated by PUVA-induced apoptotic cells potently downregulate allogeneic immune responses possibly through PD-L1- dependent signaling.
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Administration of bortezomib before and after autologous stem cell transplantation improves outcome in multiple myeloma patients with deletion 17p.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2011
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In patients with multiple myeloma (MM), risk stratification by chromosomal abnormalities may enable a more rational selection of therapeutic approaches. In the present study, we analyzed the prognostic value of 12 chromosomal abnormalities in a series of 354 MM patients treated within the HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial. Because of the 2-arm design of the study, we were able to analyze the effect of a bortezomib-based treatment before and after autologous stem cell transplantation (arm B) compared with standard treatment without bortezomib (arm A). For allanalyzed chromosomal aberrations, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were at least equal or superior in the bortezomib arm compared with the standard arm. Strikingly, patients with del(17p13) benefited the most from the bortezomib-containing treatment: the median PFS in arm A was 12.0 months and in arm B it was 26.2 months (P = .024); the 3 year-OS for arm A was 17% and for arm B it was 69% (P = .028). After multivariate analysis, del(17p13) was an independent predictor for PFS (P < .0001) and OS (P < .0001) in arm A, whereas no statistically significant effect on PFS (P = .28) or OS (P = .12) was seen in arm B. In conclusion, the adverse impact of del(17p13) on PFS and OS could be significantly reduced by bortezomib-based treatment, suggesting that long-term administration of bortezomib should be recommended for patients carrying del(17p13).
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Efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin as antibacterial prophylaxis for patients receiving autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a randomised trial.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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Patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) are at high risk of infections, especially bacteraemia. A prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, single-centre, pilot study was performed on oral moxifloxacin 400mg versus placebo for preventing bacteraemia in PBSCT recipients. Patients received moxifloxacin or placebo for the duration of neutropenia or until emergence of fever or other infections necessitating intravenous antibiotic treatment. Of 68 patients included in the trial, 2 were excluded from the trial before taking their first dose. The remaining 66 patients were eligible for evaluation in the intention-to-treat analysis set. Neutropenia with an absolute neutrophil count of <500cells/?L developed in 30 moxifloxacin-treated patients (88.2%) and 21 patients in the placebo group (65.6%) (P<0.03). Nine patients (26.5%) and eight patients (25.0%), respectively, were prematurely discontinued from study treatment. Breakthrough bacteraemia occurred in 3 moxifloxacin-treated patients (8.8%) and 9 patients in the placebo group (28.1%) (P=0.042). The time period until fever was 9.5 days [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.06-10.94 days) and 7.69 days (95% CI 6.51-8.85 days), respectively (P=0.0499). There was no difference in adverse events or toxicities between the groups. Moxifloxacin prevented bacteraemia and shortened febrile episodes in patients receiving autologous PBSCT. No significant increase of adverse events in the moxifloxacin arm was observed, possibly due to the rather small sample size.
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Intermediate intensity conditioning regimen containing FLAMSA, treosulfan, cyclophosphamide, and ATG for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in elderly patients with relapsed or high-risk acute myeloid leukemia.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Lower dosage of total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy in reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation have reduced the toxicity of the conditioning and non-relapse mortality. The FLAMSA-RIC protocol for high-risk patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome has shown promising results in refractory disease as well as in first complete remission. Still, the RIC protocol containing 4 Gy TBI/cyclophosphamide/anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) implicates acute toxicity mainly due to TBI preventing its usage in patients with advanced age and/or severe co-morbidities. To increase feasibility and safety of the conditioning, we substituted TBI with treosulfan. Seventeen patients with relapsed or high-risk AML and either advanced age or concomitant disease were treated within a preparative regimen containing a 4-day course of chemotherapy (FLAMSA) followed by RIC comprising of treosulfan, cyclophosphamide, and ATG. After median follow-up of 12 months, the estimated incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality were 25% and 20%, respectively. One-year overall survival was 62%. In conclusion, FLAMSA-treosulfan/cyclophosphamide/ATG is an intermediate intensity conditioning regimen with acceptable non-relapse mortality for patients with relapsed or high-risk AML. Substituting TBI with treosulfan provides an alternative to treat elderly patients or patients with severe co-morbidities when TBI appears not feasible due to the potential of increased toxicity.
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Treatment with Thalidomide and Cyclophosphamide (TCID) is Superior to Vincristine (VID) and to Vinorelbine (VRID) Regimens in Patients with Refractory or Recurrent Multiple Myeloma.
Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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Treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma remains a challenge and novel treatment regimen are required. Here, a matched pair analysis was performed comparing TCID (thalidomide, cyclophosphamide, idarubicin, dexamethasone) treatment to the treatment of patients with VID (vincristine, idarubicin, dexamethasone) or with VRID (vinorelbine, idarubicin, dexamethasone) for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. In total, 197 patients were enrolled in multicenter trials. After matching for important prognostic variables 46 matched-pairs (total of 138 patients) could be analysed with regard to survival, toxicity and efficacy. Interestingly, a significant improvement of overall response rate (ORR) for TCID treatment compared to VID and VRID was found. In addition, TCID treatment also led to a significantly higher overall survival (OS) as well as progression-free survival (PFS) compared to VID and VRID. In conclusion, TCID treatment appears to be superior to VRID and VID treatment in patients with progressive or refractory myeloma.
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Testing G-CSF responsiveness predicts the individual susceptibility to infection and consecutive treatment in recipients of high-dose chemotherapy.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2010
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The individual risk of infection and requirements for medical treatment after high-dose chemotherapy have been unpredictable. In this prospective, multicenter, open-label study we investigated the potential of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) responsiveness as a predictor. A total of 168 patients with multiple myeloma or lymphoma received a single dose of subcutaneous G-CSF (lenograstim, 263 ?g) after high-dose chemotherapy. Highly variable leukocyte peaks were measured and grouped as low (quartile 1; leukocytes 100-10 100/?L), medium (quartile 2; leukocytes > 10 100-18 300/?L), and high (quartiles 3/4; leukocytes > 18 300-44 800/?L). G-CSF responsiveness (low vs medium vs high) was inversely correlated with febrile neutropenia (77% vs 60% vs 48%; P = .0037); the rate of infection, including fever of unknown origin (91% vs 67% vs 54%; P < .0001); days with intravenous antibiotics (9 vs 6 vs 5; P < .0001); and antifungal therapy (P = .042). In multivariate analysis, G-CSF responsiveness remained the only factor significantly associated with infection (P = .016). In addition, G-CSF responsiveness was inversely correlated with grade 3/4 oral mucositis (67% vs 33% vs 23%; P < .0001). G-CSF responsiveness appears as a signature of the myeloid marrow reserve predicting defense against neutropenic infection after intensive chemotherapy. This study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01085058.
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Transmurality of scar influences the effect of a hybrid-intervention with autologous bone marrow cell injection and aortocoronary bypass surgery (MNC/CABG) in patients after myocardial infarction.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
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Cell therapy (CTx) is a strategy to support cardiac regeneration after myocardial infarction (MI). Thus far, clinical studies provided mixed results. Here, we investigated whether transmurality of the infarct may play a relevant role.
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation provides durable disease control in poor-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia: long-term clinical and MRD results of the German CLL Study Group CLL3X trial.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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The purpose of this prospective multicenter phase 2 trial was to investigate the long-term outcome of reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) in patients with poor-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Conditioning was fludarabine/ cyclophosphamide-based. Longitudinal quantitative monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) was performed centrally by MRD-flow or real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. One hundred eligible patients were enrolled, and 90 patients proceeded to alloSCT. With a median follow-up of 46 months (7-102 months), 4-year nonrelapse mortality, event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 23%, 42%, and 65%, respectively. Of 52 patients with MRD monitoring available, 27 (52%) were alive and MRD negative at 12 months after transplant. Four-year EFS of this subset was 89% with all event-free patients except for 2 being MRD negative at the most recent assessment. EFS was similar for all genetic subsets, including 17p deletion (17p-). In multivariate analyses, uncontrolled disease at alloSCT and in vivo T-cell depletion with alemtuzumab, but not 17p-, previous purine analogue refractoriness, or donor source (human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings or unrelated donors) had an adverse impact on EFS and OS. In conclusion, alloSCT for poor-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia can result in long-term MRD-negative survival in up to one-half of the patients independent of the underlying genomic risk profile. This trial is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00281983.
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Long-term follow-up of idiopathic thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura treated with rituximab.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Rituximab may be used to treat patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) refractory to plasma exchange or recurrent disease. While initial response rates are reported to be high, long-term follow-up data of patients treated with rituximab are not available to date, however important to estimate the safety and benefit of this treatment. Twelve patients with non-familial idiopathic TTP refractory to plasma exchange or with recurrent disease treated with rituximab between 2000 and 2008 were reexamined. The median follow-up was 49.6 months, ranging from 11 to 97 months. All patients achieved initial complete remission after application of rituximab. During follow-up, nine patients remained disease-free and three patients suffered from recurrent disease. All patients with recurrent disease responded to subsequent rituximab therapy. No long-term side effects were noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, rituximab represents an effective second-line treatment option in relapsing or refractory TTP. Still, patients need to be closely monitored for relapses with extended follow-up.
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The use of statins in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2009
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has become an established treatment for some patients with malignant and non-malignant hematologic diseases. More wide-spread use of this treatment modality is limited by its severe side effects. Graft-versus-host disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic stem transplantation. Recent data from experimental research in murine models of GVHD and early stage clinical studies demonstrate the potential of statins in the prevention and treatment of acute and chronic GVHD. Statins are lipid lowering drugs, which reduce cholesterol production by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, the rate limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway. They are an already approved drug class with a well known toxicity profile. Besides lowering of cholesterol levels other pleiotropic effects contribute to the therapeutic activity of statins. Statins have immunomodulatory effects and inhibit a broad range of immune cells that play a role in the pathogenesis of GVHD, including antigen-presenting cells. In addition to preventing GVHD statins possess several other effects that might prove beneficial in the setting of allogeneic transplantation, such as cardiovascular protection and anti-neoplastic activity. Here we review the current knowledge on the use and effects of statins in patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with a special focus on prevention and treatment of GVHD.
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Influence of molecular subgroups on outcome of acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype in 141 patients undergoing salvage allogeneic stem cell transplantation in primary induction failure or beyond first relapse.
Haematologica
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Based on molecular aberrations, in particular the NPM1 mutation (NPM1(mut)) and the FLT3 internal tandem duplication (Flt3-ITD), prognostic subgroups have been defined among patients with acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype. Whereas these subgroups are known to play an important role in outcome in first complete remission, and also in the indication for allogeneic stem cell transplantation, data are limited on their role after transplantation in advanced disease. To evaluate the role of molecular subgroups of acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype after allogeneic stem cell transplantation beyond first complete remission, we analyzed the data from 141 consecutive adults (median age: 51.0 years, range 18.4-69.3 years) who had received an allogeneic transplant either in primary induction failure or beyond first complete remission. A sequential regimen of cytoreductive chemotherapy (fludarabine, high-dose AraC, amsacrine) followed by reduced intensity conditioning (FLAMSA-RIC), was uniformly used for conditioning. After a median follow up of three years, overall survival from transplantation was 64 ± 4%, 53 ± 4% and 44 ± 5% at one, two and four years, respectively. Forty patients transplanted in primary induction failure achieved an encouraging 2-year survival of 69%. Among 101 patients transplanted beyond first complete remission, 2-year survival was 81% among patients with the NPM1(mut)/FLT3(wt) genotype in contrast to 43% in other genotypes. Higher numbers of transfused CD34(+) cells (hazard ratio 2.155, 95% confidence interval 0.263-0.964, P=0.039) and favorable genotype (hazard ratio 0.142, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.898, P=0.048) were associated with superior overall survival in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, patients with acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype can frequently be rescued after primary induction failure by allogeneic transplantation following FLAMSA-RIC. The prognostic role of NPM1(mut)/FLT3-ITD based subgroups was carried through after allogeneic stem cell transplantation beyond first complete remission.
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Polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulins for the prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell or bone marrow transplantation in adults.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
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Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an established treatment for many malignant and non-malignant haematological disorders. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a condition frequently occurring after HSCT, is the result of host tissues being attacked by donor immune cells. One strategy for the prevention of GVHD is the administration of anti-thymocyte globulins (ATG), a set of polyclonal antibodies directed against a variety of immune cell epitopes, leading to immunosuppression and immunomodulation.
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Intracellular concentrations of micafungin in different cellular compartments of the peripheral blood.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
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Whilst micafungin serum concentrations are well studied, little is known about its concentrations within cellular compartments of the peripheral blood. Hence, in this study blood samples were collected from patients receiving micafungin (n=26). These samples were separated by double-discontinuous Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation. Intracellular concentrations within the obtained cells, i.e. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and red blood cells (RBCs), were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Within PBMCs and PMNs, the intracellular micafungin concentration was significantly increased compared with the concentration in plasma (P<0.001). The intracellular concentration within RBCs did not significantly differ from the plasma concentration. Micafungin reaches high concentrations in human PBMCs and PMNs and is present in RBCs. In vitro data showed that intracellular uptake of micafungin by PBMCs depends on the albumin concentration of the surrounding medium, but only at non-physiological protein concentrations.
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