The incretins, GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) are gastrointestinal hormones conferring a number of beneficial effects on ?-cell secretion, survival and proliferation. In a previous study, it was demonstrated that delayed rectifier channel protein Kv2.1 contributes to ?-cell apoptosis and that the prosurvival effects of incretins involve Kv2.1 PTMs (post-translational modifications), including phosphorylation and acetylation. Since Kv1.5 overexpression was also shown to stimulate ?-cell death, the present study was initiated in order to determine whether incretins modulate Kv1.5?-Kv?2 interaction via PTM and the mechanisms involved. GIP and GLP-1 reduced apoptosis in INS-1 ?-cells (clone 832/13) overexpressing Kv1.5, and RNAi (RNA interference)-mediated knockdown of endogenous Kv1.5 attenuated apoptotic ?-cell death. Both GIP and GLP-1 increased phosphorylation and acetylation of Kv1.5 and its Kv?2 protein subunit, leading to their enhanced interaction. Further studies demonstrated that CBP [CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein)-binding protein]/SirT1 mediated acetylation/deacetylation and interaction between Kv?2 and Kv1.5 in response to GIP or GLP-1. Incretin regulation of ?-cell function therefore involves the acetylation of multiple Kv? and Kv? subunits.
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gastrointestinal hormone that exerts insulinotropic and growth and survival effects on pancreatic ?-cells. Additionally, there is increasing evidence supporting an important role for GIP in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism. In the current study we examined the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of GIP receptor (GIPR) expression in 3T3-L1 cells. GIP acted synergistically with insulin to increase neutral lipid accumulation during progression of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to the adipocyte phenotype. Both GIPR protein and mRNA expression increased during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation, and this increase was associated with upregulation of nuclear levels of sterol response element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), as well as acetylation of histones H3/H4. The PPAR? receptor agonists LY171883 and rosiglitazone increased GIPR expression in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, whereas the antagonist GW9662 ablated expression. Additionally, both PPAR? and acetylated histones H3/H4 were shown to bind to a region of the GIPR promoter containing the peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE). Knockdown of PPAR? in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, using RNA interference, reduced GIPR expression, supporting a functional regulatory role. Taken together, these studies show that GIP and insulin act in a synergistic manner on 3T3-L1 cell development and that adipocyte GIPR expression is upregulated through a mechanism involving interactions between PPAR? and a GIPR promoter region containing an acetylated histone region.
The insulin secretory response to a meal results largely from glucose stimulation of the pancreatic islets and both direct and indirect (autonomic) glucose-dependent stimulation by incretin hormones released from the gastrointestinal tract. Two incretins, Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have so far been identified. Localization of the cognate G protein-coupled receptors for GIP and GLP-1 revealed that they are present in numerous tissues in addition to the endocrine pancreas, including the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, central nervous and autonomic nervous systems (ANSs), adipose tissue, and bone. At these sites, the incretin hormones exert a range of pleiotropic effects, many of which contribute to the integration of processes involved in the regulation of food intake, and nutrient and mineral processing and storage. From detailed studies at the cellular and molecular level, it is also evident that both incretin hormones act via multiple signal transduction pathways that regulate both acute and long-term cell function. Here, we provide an overview of current knowledge relating to the physiological roles of GIP and GLP-1, with specific emphasis on their modes of action on islet hormone secretion, ?-cell proliferation and survival, central and autonomic neuronal function, gastrointestinal motility, and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, it is emphasized that despite intensive research on the various body systems, in many cases there is uncertainty as to the pathways by which the incretins mediate their pleiotropic effects and only a rudimentary understanding of the underlying cellular mechanisms involved, and these are challenges for the future.
GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) is a gastrointestinal hormone that regulates pancreatic islet function. Additionally, emerging evidence suggests an important physiological role for GIP in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism. In previous studies on the lipogenic effects of GIP, it was shown to increase adipocyte lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in both differentiated 3T3-L1 cells and human adipocytes through a pathway involving activation of protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt. In the current study, we examined the effects of GIP on LPL gene expression. GIP in the presence of insulin increased LPL gene expression in human adipocytes and LPL promoter activity in GIP receptor-expressing HEK-293 cells, and both effects were greatly reduced by the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D. Subsequent studies established that GIP increased phosphorylation of Serine 133 in cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and the nuclear localization of cAMP-responsive CREB coactivator 2 (TORC2) through a pathway involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), PKB, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, in the presence of insulin, GIP failed to activate the cAMP/PKA pathway. Knockdown of CREB and TORC2 using RNA interference reduced LPL expression, supporting a functional regulatory role. GIP-induced phospho-CREB and TORC2 were shown to bind to a cAMP-response element (-II) site in the human LPL promoter and GIP increased protein-protein interactions of these two factors. The lipogenic effects of GIP in the presence of insulin are therefore at least partially mediated by upregulation of adipocyte LPL gene transcription through a pathway involving PI3-K/PKB/AMPK-dependent CREB/TORC2 activation.
Treatment of NOD mice with the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor sitagliptin preserved islet transplants through a pathway involving modulation of splenic CD4(+) T-cell migration. In the current study, effects of sitagliptin on migration of additional subsets of CD4(+) T-cells were examined and underlying molecular mechanisms were further defined.
The gastrointestinal hormone GIP promotes pancreatic islet function and exerts pro-survival actions on cultured beta-cells. However, GIP also promotes lipogenesis, thus potentially restricting its therapeutic use. The current studies evaluated the effects of a truncated GIP analog, D-Ala(2)-GIP(1-30) (D-GIP(1-30)), on glucose homeostasis and beta-cell mass in rat models of diabetes.
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, insulin biosynthesis, and beta-cell proliferation and survival. In previous studies GIP was shown to promote beta-cell survival by modulating the activity of multiple signaling modules and regulating gene transcription of pro- and anti-apoptotic bcl-2 family proteins. We have now evaluated the mechanisms by which GIP regulates the dynamic interactions between cytoplasmic bcl-2 family members and the mitochondria in INS-1 cells during apoptosis induced by treatment with staurosporine (STS), an activator of the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. STS induced translocation of bad and bimEL, activation of mitochondrial bax, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, cleavage of caspase-3, and apoptosis. Each response was significantly diminished by GIP. Using selective enzyme inhibitors, overexpression of dominant-negative Akt, and Akt siRNA, it was demonstrated that GIP promoted beta-cell survival via Akt-dependent suppression of p38 MAPK and JNK and that combined inhibition was sufficient to explain the entire pro-survival responses to GIP during STS treatment. This signaling pathway also explained the pro-survival effects of GIP on INS-1 cells exposed to two other promoters of stress: thapsigargin (endoplasmic reticulum stress) and etoposide (genotoxic stress). Importantly, we discovered that GIP suppressed p38 MAPK and JNK via Akt-mediated changes in the phosphorylation state of the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 in INS-1 cells and human islets, resulting in inhibition of its activity. Inhibition of apoptosis by GIP is therefore mediated via a key pathway involving Akt-dependent inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, which subsequently prevents the pro-apoptotic actions of p38 MAPK and JNK.
In addition to its primary role in regulating glucose production from the liver, glucagon has many other actions, reflected by the wide tissue distribution of the glucagon receptor (Gcgr). To investigate the role of glucagon in the regulation of insulin secretion and whole body glucose homeostasis in vivo, we generated mice overexpressing the Gcgr specifically on pancreatic beta-cells (RIP-Gcgr). In vivo and in vitro insulin secretion in response to glucagon and glucose was increased 1.7- to 3.9-fold in RIP-Gcgr mice compared with controls. Consistent with the observed increase in insulin release in response to glucagon and glucose, the glucose excursion resulting from both a glucagon challenge and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was significantly reduced in RIP-Gcgr mice compared with controls. However, RIP-Gcgr mice display similar glucose responses to an insulin challenge. beta-Cell mass and pancreatic insulin content were also increased (20 and 50%, respectively) in RIP-Gcgr mice compared with controls. When fed a high-fat diet (HFD), both control and RIP-Gcgr mice developed similar degrees of obesity and insulin resistance. However, the severity of both fasting hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were reduced in RIP-Gcgr mice compared with controls. Furthermore, the insulin response of RIP-Gcgr mice to an IPGTT was twice that of controls when fed the HFD. These data indicate that increased pancreatic beta-cell expression of the Gcgr increased insulin secretion, pancreatic insulin content, beta-cell mass, and, when mice were fed a HFD, partially protected against hyperglycemia and IGT.
Recent human genetics studies have revealed that common variants of the TCF7L2 (T-cell factor 7-like 2, formerly known as TCF4) gene are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We have shown that TCF7L2 expression in the beta-cells is correlated with function and survival of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cell. In order to understand how variations in TCF7L2 influence diabetes progression, we investigated its mechanism of action in the beta-cell. We show robust differences in TCF7L2 expression between healthy controls and models of T2DM. While mRNA levels were approximately 2-fold increased in isolated islets from the diabetic db/db mouse, the Vancouver Diabetic Fatty (VDF) Zucker rat and the high fat/high sucrose diet-treated mouse compared with the non-diabetic controls, protein levels were decreased. A similar decrease was observed in pancreatic sections from patients with T2DM. In parallel, expression of the receptors for glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1R) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP-R) was decreased in islets from humans with T2DM as well as in isolated human islets treated with siRNA to TCF7L2 (siTCF7L2). Also, insulin secretion stimulated by glucose, GLP-1 and GIP, but not KCl or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was impaired in siTCF7L2-treated isolated human islets. Loss of TCF7L2 resulted in decreased GLP-1 and GIP-stimulated AKT phosphorylation, and AKT-mediated Foxo-1 phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion. Our findings suggest that beta-cell function and survival are regulated through an interplay between TCF7L2 and GLP-1R/GIP-R expression and signaling in T2DM.
The endopeptidase dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) has been shown to NH2-terminally truncate incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1, thus ablating their ability to potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Increasing the circulating levels of incretins through administration of DPP-IV inhibitors has therefore been introduced as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. DPP-IV inhibitor treatment has also been shown to preserve islet mass in rodent models of type 1 diabetes. The current study was initiated to define the effects of the DPP-IV inhibitor sitagliptin (MK0431) on transplanted islet survival in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, an autoimmune type 1 diabetes model.
Chromatin can exert a regulatory effect on gene transcription by modulating the access of transcription factors to target genes. In the present study, we examined whether nuclear actions of the incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, involve modulation of beta-cell chromatin structure. Stimulation of INS-1(832/13) beta-cells or dispersed mouse islets with glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide or glucagon-like peptide-1 resulted in the post-translational modification of core H3 histones, through acetylation and phosphorylation. Both increased histone H3 acetyltransferase and reduced histone deacetylase activities contributed. Subsequent studies demonstrated that incretin-mediated histone H3 modifications involved activation of protein kinase A, p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and p38 MAPK signaling modules, resulting in the activation of mitogen- and stress-activated kinase-1. Additionally, modification of histone H3 increased its association with the transcription factor, phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding protein (phospho-CREB) and with cAMP-responsive CREB coactivator 2. Incretin-activated CREB-related Bcl-2 transcription was greatly reduced by a histone acetyltransferase inhibitor, demonstrating the functional importance of histone H3 modification. This appears to be the first demonstration of beta-cell chromatin modification in response to the incretins and the studies indicate that their regulatory effects involve coordinated nuclear interactions between specific signaling modules, chromatin-modifying enzymes and transcription factors.
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP; gastric inhibitory polypeptide) is a 42 amino acid hormone that is produced by enteroendocrine K-cells and released into the circulation in response to nutrient stimulation. Both GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulate insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner and are thus classified as incretins. The structure of mammalian GIP is well conserved and both the N-terminus and central region of the molecule are important for biological activity. Following secretion, GIP is metabolized by the endoprotease dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). In addition to its insulinotropic activity, GIP exerts a number of additional actions including promotion of growth and survival of the pancreatic beta-cell and stimulation of adipogenesis. The brain, bone, cardiovascular system, and gastrointestinal tract are additional targets of GIP. The GIP receptor is a member of the B-family of G protein-coupled receptors and activation results in the stimulation of adenylyl cyclase and Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) and activation of protein kinase (PK) A and PKB. The Mek1/2-Erk1/2 and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways are among the downstream pathways involved in the regulation of beta-cell function. GIP also increases expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and decreases expression of the pro-apoptotic Bax, resulting in reduced beta-cell death. In adipose tissue, GIP interacts with insulin to increase lipoprotein lipase activity and lipogenesis. There is significant interest in potential clinical applications for GIP analogs and both agonists and antagonists have been developed for preclinical studies.
Therapeutics based on the actions of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), have recently been introduced for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The serine/threonine kinase Akt is a major mediator of incretin action on the pancreatic islet, increasing beta-cell mass and function and promoting beta-cell survival. The mechanisms underlying incretin activation of Akt are thought to involve an essential phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated phosphorylation of threonine 308, similar to the prototypical Akt activator, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). In this study, using activity assays on immunoprecipitated Akt, we discovered that GIP and GLP-1 were capable of stimulating Akt in the INS-1 beta-cell line and isolated mouse islets via a mechanism that did not require phosphoinositide 3-kinase or phosphorylation of Thr(308) and Ser(473), and this pathway involved the production of cAMP. Furthermore, we found that GIP stimulated anti-apoptotic signaling via this alternate mode of Akt activation. We conclude that incretins can activate Akt via a novel noncanonical mechanism that may provide an alternative therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and have broader implications for Akt physiology in human health and disease.
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone that also plays a regulatory role in fat metabolism. In 3T3-L1 cells, resistin was demonstrated to be a key mediator of GIP stimulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, involving activation of protein kinase B (PKB) and reduced phosphorylation of liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The current study was initiated to determine whether resistin has additional roles in GIP-regulated adipocyte functions. Analysis of primary adipocytes isolated from Retn(-/-), Retn(+/-), and Retn(+/+) mice found that GIP stimulated the PKB/LKB1/AMPK/LPL pathway and fatty acid uptake only in Retn(+/+) adipocytes, suggesting that GIP signaling and/or GIP responsiveness were compromised in Retn(+/-) and Retn(-/-) adipocytes. GIP receptor (GIPR) protein and mRNA were decreased in Retn(+/-) and Retn(-/-) adipocytes, but resistin treatment rescued LPL responsiveness to GIP. In addition, genes encoding tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2), and the signaling proteins stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), were downregulated, and phosphorylated levels of SAPK/JNK/c-Jun were decreased in Retn(-/-) mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to identify a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-response element (TRE-III) responsible for c-Jun-mediated transcriptional activation of Gipr. Blunted GIP responsiveness in Retn(+/-) and Retn(-/-) adipocytes was therefore largely due to the greatly reduced GIPR expression associated with decreased c-Jun-mediated transcriptional activation of Gipr.
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gastrointestinal hormone that potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during a meal. Since GIP has also been shown to exert ?-cell prosurvival and adipocyte lipogenic effects in rodents, both GIP receptor agonists and antagonists have been considered as potential therapeutics in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that chronically elevating GIP levels in a transgenic (Tg) mouse model would increase adipose tissue expansion and exert beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. In contrast, although GIP Tg mice demonstrated enhanced ?-cell function, resulting in improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, they exhibited reduced diet-induced obesity. Adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and hepatic steatosis were both greatly reduced, and a number of genes involved in lipid metabolism/inflammatory signaling pathways were found to be down-regulated. Reduced adiposity in GIP Tg mice was associated with decreased energy intake, involving overexpression of hypothalamic GIP. Together, these studies suggest that, in the context of over-nutrition, transgenic GIP overexpression has the potential to improve hepatic and adipocyte function as well as glucose homeostasis.
In response to a meal, Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP) and Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) are released from gut endocrine cells into the circulation and interact with their cognate G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Receptor activation results in tissue-selective pleiotropic responses that include augmentation of glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. N-glycosylation and receptor oligomerization are co-translational processes that are thought to regulate the exit of functional GPCRs from the ER and their maintenance at the plasma membrane. Despite the importance of these regulatory processes, their impact on functional expression of GIP and GLP-1 receptors has not been well studied. Like many family B GPCRs, both the GIP and GLP-1 receptors possess a large extracellular N-terminus with multiple consensus sites for Asn-linked (N)-glycosylation. Here, we show that each of these Asn residues is glycosylated when either human receptor is expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. N-glycosylation enhances cell surface expression and function in parallel but exerts stronger control over the GIP receptor than the GLP-1 receptor. N-glycosylation mainly lengthens receptor half-life by reducing degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum. N-glycosylation is also required for expression of the GIP receptor at the plasma membrane and efficient GIP potentiation of glucose-induced insulin secretion from the INS-1 pancreatic beta cell line. Functional expression of a GIP receptor mutant lacking N-glycosylation is rescued by co-expressed wild type GLP1 receptor, which, together with data obtained using Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer, suggests formation of a GIP-GLP1 receptor heteromer.
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