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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Social Rank Explanation of How Money Influences Health.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Objective: Financial resources are a potent determinant of health, yet it remains unclear why this is the case. We aimed to identify whether the frequently observed association between absolute levels of monetary resources and health may occur because money acts an indirect proxy for a person's social rank. Method: To address this question we examined over 230,000 observations on 40,400 adults drawn from two representative national panel studies; the British Household Panel Survey and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We identified each person's absolute income/wealth and their objective ranked position of income/wealth within a social reference-group. Absolute and rank income/wealth variables were then used to predict a series of self-reported and objectively recorded health outcomes in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Results: As anticipated, those with higher levels of absolute income/wealth were found to have better health than others, after adjustment for age, gender, education, marital status, and labor force status. When evaluated simultaneously the ranked position of income/wealth but not absolute income/wealth predicted all health outcomes examined including: objective measures of allostatic load and obesity, the presence of long-standing illness, and ratings of health, physical functioning, role limitations, and pain. The health benefits of high rank were consistent in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses and did not depend on the reference-group used to rank participants. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that social position rather than material conditions may explain the impact of money on human health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Pharmacological evaluation of selective ?2c-adrenergic agonists in experimental animal models of nasal congestion.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Nasal congestion is one of the most troublesome symptoms of many upper airways diseases. We characterized the effect of selective ?2c-adrenergic agonists in animal models of nasal congestion. In porcine mucosa tissue, compound A and compound B contracted nasal veins with only modest effects on arteries. In in vivo experiments, we examined the nasal decongestant dose-response characteristics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship, duration of action, potential development of tolerance, and topical efficacy of ?2c-adrenergic agonists. Acoustic rhinometry was used to determine nasal cavity dimensions following intranasal compound 48/80 (1%, 75 µl). In feline experiments, compound 48/80 decreased nasal cavity volume and minimum cross-sectional areas by 77% and 40%, respectively. Oral administration of compound A (0.1-3.0 mg/kg), compound B (0.3-5.0 mg/kg), and d-pseudoephedrine (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent decongestion. Unlike d-pseudoephedrine, compounds A and B did not alter systolic blood pressure. The plasma exposure of compound A to produce a robust decongestion (EC(80)) was 500 nM, which related well to the duration of action of approximately 4.0 hours. No tolerance to the decongestant effect of compound A (1.0 mg/kg p.o.) was observed. To study the topical efficacies of compounds A and B, the drugs were given topically 30 minutes after compound 48/80 (a therapeutic paradigm) where both agents reversed nasal congestion. Finally, nasal-decongestive activity was confirmed in the dog. We demonstrate that ?2c-adrenergic agonists behave as nasal decongestants without cardiovascular actions in animal models of upper airway congestion.
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Money, well-being, and loss aversion: does an income loss have a greater effect on well-being than an equivalent income gain?
Psychol Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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Higher income is associated with greater well-being, but do income gains and losses affect well-being differently? Loss aversion, whereby losses loom larger than gains, is typically examined in relation to decisions about anticipated outcomes. Here, using subjective-well-being data from Germany (N = 28,723) and the United Kingdom (N = 20,570), we found that losses in income have a larger effect on well-being than equivalent income gains and that this effect is not explained by diminishing marginal benefits of income to well-being. Our findings show that loss aversion applies to experienced losses, challenging suggestions that loss aversion is only an affective-forecasting error. By failing to account for loss aversion, longitudinal studies of the relationship between income and well-being may have overestimated the positive effect of income on well-being. Moreover, societal well-being might best be served by small and stable income increases, even if such stability impairs long-term income growth.
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Synthesis and SAR studies of benzimidazolone derivatives as histamine H3-receptor antagonists.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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A novel series of benzimidazolone-containing histamine H3-receptor antagonists were prepared and their structure-activity relationship was explored. These benzimidazolone analogs demonstrate potent H3-receptor binding affinities, no P450 enzyme inhibition, and strong H3 functional activity. Compound 1o exhibits the best overall profile with H3Ki=0.95nM and rat AUC=12.9?Mh.
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Role of ?2-adrenoceptors in electrical field stimulation-induced contraction of pig nasal mucosa and pharmacologic characterization of a novel ?2C-adrenoceptor agonist.
Am J Rhinol Allergy
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Blood vessels of the nasal mucosa are richly innervated by sympathetic nerves and neural mechanism is of great interest in upper respiratory tract disorders. This study was designed to determine the role of ?2-adrenoceptors and, more specifically, ?2C-adrenoceptors, on neurogenic sympathetic vasoconstrictor responses in pig nasal mucosa, and to define the pharmacologic profile of a novel selective ?2C-adrenoreceptor agonist.
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Pharmacological characterization of the late phase reduction in lung functions and correlations with microvascular leakage and lung edema in allergen-challenged Brown Norway rats.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Late phase airflow obstruction and reduction in forced vital capacity are characteristic features of human asthma. Airway microvascular leakage and lung edema are also present in the inflammatory phase of asthma, but the impact of this vascular response on lung functions has not been precisely defined. This study was designed to evaluate the role of increased lung microvascular leakage and edema on the late phase changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in allergen-challenged Brown Norway rats using pharmacological inhibitors of the allergic inflammatory response. Rats were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin aerosol and forced expiratory lung functions (FVC, PEF) and wet and dry lung weights were measured 48 h after antigen challenge. Ovalbumin challenge reduced FVC (63% reduction) and PEF (33% reduction) and increased wet (65% increase) and dry (51% increase) lung weights. The antigen-induced reduction in FVC and PEF was completely inhibited by oral treatment with betamethasone and partially attenuated by inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism including indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor), 7-TM and MK-7246 (CRTH2 antagonists) and montelukast (CysLT1 receptor antagonist). Antagonists of histamine H1 receptors (mepyramine) and 5-HT receptors (methysergide) had no significant effects indicating that these pre-formed mast cell mediators were not involved. There was a highly significant (P < 0.005) correlation for the inhibition of FVC reduction and increase in wet and dry lung weights by these pharmacological agents. These results strongly support the hypothesis that lung microvascular leakage and the associated lung edema contribute to the reduction in forced expiratory lung functions in antigen-challenged Brown Norway rats and identify an important role for the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism in these responses.
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Personality prior to disability determines adaptation: agreeable individuals recover lost life satisfaction faster and more completely.
Psychol Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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Personality traits prior to the onset of illness or disability may influence how well an individual psychologically adjusts after the illness or disability has occurred. Previous research has shown that after the onset of a disability, people initially experience sharp drops in life satisfaction, and the ability to regain lost life satisfaction is at best partial. However, such research has not investigated the role of individual differences in adaptation to disability. We suggest that predisability personality determines the speed and extent of adaptation. We analyzed measures of personality traits in a sample of 11,680 individuals, 307 of whom became disabled over a 4-year period. We show that although becoming disabled has a severe impact on life satisfaction, this effect is significantly moderated by predisability personality. After 4 years of disability, moderately agreeable individuals had levels of life satisfaction 0.32 standard deviations higher than those of moderately disagreeable individuals. Agreeable individuals adapt more quickly and fully to disability; disagreeable individuals may need additional support to adapt.
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Rapid assessment of in vitro expanded human regulatory T cell function.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Human regulatory T cells (Treg) are able to actively suppress autoreactive immune responses. Phenotypically, they are broadly characterized as CD4+, CD25+, CD127(lo/?) and FoxP3+. CD45RA can be used to further differentiate the population into naïve (CD45RA(+)) and induced (CD45RA?) Treg. The functional potential of Treg is routinely determined by assessing their ability to suppress T cell function in 3-5day proliferation assays. Since Treg are being explored for therapeutic use, a short-term functional assay could serve as a valuable tool for evaluating the potency of Treg. Therefore, an assay designed to measure Treg suppression of activation marker expression by responder T cells in 7 to 20h has been examined in this report. Using flow cytometry, expression of CD69 and CD154 on T cells, in response to stimulation with CD3/CD28 beads, was used as a measure of activation in the assay. Treg from healthy volunteers were sorted as CD4+CD25+CD127(lo/?)CD45RA+ cells with a BD FACSAria™ II. The highly purified Treg were then expanded in vitro and their function was assessed in short term activation marker suppression assays using autologous PBMC as responder cells. The data suggest that this short term suppression assay could be a reliable surrogate for assessing Treg functional potential.
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An evolutionary based social rank explanation of why low income predicts mental distress: a 17 year cohort study of 30,000 people.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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This paper presents a new psychological model of why low income increases risk of mental distress. Consistent with evolutionary perspectives on disorder, income was predicted to relate to mental distress only through acting as an indirect proxy for social rank.
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Do people become healthier after being promoted?
Health Econ
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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This paper examines the hypothesis that greater job status makes a person healthier. It begins by successfully replicating the well-known cross-section association between health and job seniority. Then, however, it turns to longitudinal patterns. Worryingly for the hypothesis, the data-on a large sample of randomly selected British workers through time-suggest that people who start with good health go on later to be promoted. The paper can find relatively little evidence that health improves after promotion. In fact, promoted individuals suffer a significant deterioration in their psychological well-being (on a standard General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) mental ill-health measure).
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Pharmacological characterization of a novel ?2C-adrenoceptor agonist N-[3,4-dihydro-4-(1H-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)-2H-1, 4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-N-ethyl-N-methylurea (compound A).
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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We define the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profiles of a novel ?(2C)-adrenoceptor agonist, compound A [N-[3,4-dihydro-4-(1H-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-N-ethyl-N-methylurea]. This compound has high affinity (K(i)) for the human ?(2C)-adrenoceptor (K(i) = 12 nM), and 190- to 260-fold selectivity over the ?(2A)- and ?(2B)-adrenoceptor subtypes. In cell-based functional assays, compound A produced good agonist (EC(50) = 166 nM) and efficacy (E(max) = 64%) responses at the ?(2C)-adrenoceptor, much lower potency and efficacy at the ?(2A)-adrenoceptor (EC(50) = 1525 nM; E(max) = 8%) and ?(2B)-adrenoceptor (EC(50) = 5814 nM; E(max) = 21%) subtypes, and low or no affinity and functional activity at the ?(1A)-, ?(1B)-, and ?(1D)-adrenoceptor subtypes. In the human saphenous vein postjunctional ?(2C)-adrenoceptor bioassay, compound A functions as a potent agonist (pD(2) = 6.3). In a real-time contraction bioassay of pig nasal mucosa, compound A preferentially constricted the veins (EC(50) = 108 nM), and the magnitude of arteriolar contraction reached only 50% of the maximum venular responses. Compound A exhibited no effect on locomotor activity, sedation, and body temperature in mice (up to 100 mg/kg) and did not cause hypertension and mydriasis (30 mg/kg) in conscious rats. Compound A is orally bioavailable (24%) with good plasma exposure. This compound is a substrate for the efflux P-glycoprotein transporter, resulting in very low central nervous system (CNS) penetration. In summary, compound A is a highly selective, orally active, and non-CNS-penetrating ?(2C)-adrenoceptor agonist with desirable in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties suitable for the treatment of nasal congestion.
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Immune monitoring with iTAg MHC Tetramers for prediction of recurrent or persistent cytomegalovirus infection or disease in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: a prospective multicenter study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients despite the introduction of posttransplantation viral monitoring and preemptive antiviral therapy. We evaluated the use of HLA class I tetramers in monitoring CMV-specific T-cell recovery to predict patients at risk for CMV-related complications. This prospective multicenter clinical trial obtained nearly 1400 tetramer/allele results in more than 800 biweekly blood samples from 83 patients monitored for 1 year after transplantation. Major HLA types were included (A*0101, A*0201, B*0702, B*0801, B*3501). iTAg MHC Tetramers (Beckman Coulter) were used to enumerate CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells by flow cytometry using a single-platform absolute counting method. Assay variability was 8% or less and results were available within 3 hours. Delayed recovery of CMV-specific T cells (< 7 cells/?L in all blood samples during the first 65 days after transplantation) was found to be a significant risk factor for CMV-related complications; these patients were more likely to develop recurrent or persistent CMV infection (relative risk 2.6, CI 1.2-5.8, P = .01) than patients showing rapid recovery, which was associated with protection from CMV-related complications (P = .004). CMV tetramer-based immune monitoring, in conjunction with virologic monitoring, can be an important new tool to assess risk of CMV-related complications and to guide preemptive therapeutic choices.
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Money and happiness: rank of income, not income, affects life satisfaction.
Psychol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Does money buy happiness, or does happiness come indirectly from the higher rank in society that money brings? We tested a rank-income hypothesis, according to which people gain utility from the ranked position of their income within a comparison group. The rank hypothesis contrasts with traditional reference-income hypotheses, which suggest that utility from income depends on comparison to a social reference-group norm. We found that the ranked position of an individuals income predicts general life satisfaction, whereas absolute income and reference income have no effect. Furthermore, individuals weight upward comparisons more heavily than downward comparisons. According to the rank hypothesis, income and utility are not directly linked: Increasing an individuals income will increase his or her utility only if ranked position also increases and will necessarily reduce the utility of others who will lose rank.
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Alpha-2c-adrenergic receptors contribute to basal nasal patency in the anesthetized cat.
Pharmacology
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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Nasal congestion is the most troublesome symptom associated with a variety of upper airway diseases, including allergic rhinitis and the common cold. A better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate nasal cavity caliber may engender the development of novel treatment strategies. It is well accepted that alpha-adrenergic (both alpha(1) and alpha(2)) mechanisms play a fundamental role in the control and maintenance of basal nasal patency. JP-1302 is a selective alpha(2c)-subtype antagonist that has been recently described in the scientific literature. Thus, we sought to examine the potential effects of this new pharmacological tool on basal nasal patency.
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Reduction of hERG inhibitory activity in the 4-piperidinyl urea series of H3 antagonists.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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Structural features of the substituted 4-piperidinyl urea analogs 1, responsible for the H3 antagonist activity, have been identified. Structure-activity relationship of the H3 receptor affinity, hERG ion channel inhibitory activity and their separation is described. Preliminary pharmacokinetic evaluation of the compounds of the series is addressed.
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Money or mental health: the cost of alleviating psychological distress with monetary compensation versus psychological therapy.
Health Econ Policy Law
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2009
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AbstractMoney is the default way in which intangible losses, such as pain and suffering, are currently valued and compensated in law courts. Economists have suggested that subjective well-being regressions can be used to guide compensation payouts for psychological distress following traumatic life events. We bring together studies from law, economic, psychology and medical journals to show that alleviating psychological distress through psychological therapy could be at least 32 times more cost effective than financial compensation. This result is not only important for law courts but has important implications for public health. Mental health is deteriorating across the world - improvements to mental health care might be a more efficient way to increase the health and happiness of our nations than pure income growth.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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