Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation is thought to be anatomically and temporally localized, coincident with limited ganglionic infection. Short, subclinical shedding episodes are the most common form of HSV-2 reactivation, with host clearance mechanisms leading to rapid containment. The anatomic distribution of shedding episodes has not been characterized. To precisely define patterns of anatomic reactivation, we divided the genital tract into a 22-region grid and obtained daily swabs for 20 days from each region in 28 immunocompetent, HSV-2-seropositive persons. HSV was detected via PCR, and sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding were subjected to a biopsy procedure within 24 h. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were quantified by immunofluorescence, and HSV-specific CD4(+) T cells were identified by intracellular cytokine cytometry. HSV was detected in 868 (7%) of 11,603 genital swabs at a median of 12 sites per person (range, 0 to 22). Bilateral HSV detection occurred on 83 (67%) days with shedding, and the median quantity of virus detected/day was associated with the number of sites positive (P < 0.001). In biopsy specimens of asymptomatic shedding sites, we found increased numbers of CD8(+) T cells compared to control tissue (27 versus 13 cells/mm(2), P = 0.03) and identified HSV-specific CD4(+) T cells. HSV reactivations emanate from widely separated anatomic regions of the genital tract and are associated with a localized cellular infiltrate that was demonstrated to be HSV specific in 3 cases. These data provide evidence that asymptomatic HSV-2 shedding contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract.
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is prevalent in the general population, integrates into most Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC), and encodes oncoproteins required for MCC tumor growth. We sought to characterize T-cell responses directed against viral proteins that drive this cancer as a step toward immunotherapy.
Recombination of germline TCR alpha and beta genes generates polypeptide receptors for MHC peptide. Ag exposure during long-term herpes simplex infections may shape the T cell repertoire over time. We investigated the CD8 T cell response to HSV-2 in chronically infected individuals by sequencing the hypervariable regions encoding TCR alpha and beta polypeptides from T cell clones recognizing virion protein 22 aa 49-57, an immunodominant epitope. The most commonly detected TCRBV gene segment, found in four of five subjects and in 12 of 50 independently derived T cell clones, was TCRBV12-4. Nineteen to seventy-two percent of tetramer-binding cells in PBMCs were stained ex vivo with a TCRBV12 mAb. Three alpha-chain and three beta-chain public TCR sequences were shared between individuals. Public heterodimers were also detected. Promiscuous pairing of a specific TCRVA1-1 sequence with several different TCRB polypeptides was observed, implying a dominant structural role for the TCRA chain for these clonotypes. Functional avidity for cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma release was relatively invariant, except for one subject with both high avidity and unique TCR sequences and lower HSV-2 shedding. These data indicate that the CD8 response to a dominant alpha-herpesvirus epitope converges on preferred TCR sequences with relatively constant functional avidity.
Cytotoxic T cells are important in controlling herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivation and peripheral lesion resolution. Humans latently infected with HSV-2 have cytotoxic T cells directed against epitopes present in tegument proteins. Studies in mice of immunity to HSV have commonly focused on immunodominant responses in HSV envelope glycoproteins. These antigens have not proved to be an effective prophylactic vaccine target for most of the human population. The murine immune response against HSV tegument proteins has not been explored. We analysed cellular responses in BALB/c mice directed against the tegument proteins encoded by UL46, UL47 and UL49 and against the envelope glycoprotein gD after DNA vaccination or HSV-2 infection. After DNA vaccination, the splenocyte T-cell response to overlapping peptides from UL46 and UL47 was more than 500 gamma interferon spot-forming units per 10(6) responder cells. Peptide truncation studies, responder cell fractionation and major histocompatibility complex binding studies identified several CD8(+) and CD4(+) epitopes. Cellular responses to tegument protein epitopes were also detected after HSV-2 infection. Tegument proteins are rational candidates for further HSV-2 vaccine research.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.