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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Selection of aptamers specific for glycated hemoglobin and total hemoglobin using on-chip SELEX.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels reflecting average glucose concentrations over the past three months are fundamental for the diagnosis, monitoring, and risk assessment of diabetes. It has been hypothesized that aptamers, which are single-stranded DNAs or RNAs that demonstrate high affinity to a large variety of molecules ranging from small drugs, metabolites, or proteins, could be used for the measurement of HbA1c. Aptamers are selected through an in vitro process called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), and they can be chemically synthesized with high reproducibility at relatively low costs. This study therefore aimed to select HbA1c- and hemoglobin (Hb)-specific single-stranded DNA aptamers using an on-chip SELEX protocol. A microfluidic SELEX chip was developed to continuously and automatically carry out multiple rounds of SELEX to screen specific aptamers for HbA1c and Hb. HbA1c and Hb were first coated onto magnetic beads. Following several rounds of selection and enrichment with a randomized 40-mer DNA library, specific oligonucleotides were selected. The binding specificity and affinity were assessed by competitive and binding assays. Using the developed microfluidic system, the incubation and partitioning times were greatly decreased, and the entire process was shortened dramatically. Both HbA1c- and Hb-specific aptamers selected by the microfluidic system showed high specificity and affinity (dissociation constant, Kd = 7.6 ± 3.0 nM and 7.3 ± 2.2 nM for HbA1c and Hb, respectively). With further refinements in the assay, these aptamers may replace the conventional antibodies for in vitro diagnostics applications in the near future.
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Effect of electrochemical dissolution and deposition order on lithium dendrite formation: a top view investigation.
Faraday Discuss.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Rechargeable metallic lithium batteries are the ultimate solution to electrochemical storage due to their high theoretical energy densities. One of the key technological challenges is to control the morphology of metallic lithium electrode during electrochemical dissolution and deposition. Here we have investigated the morphology change of metallic lithium electrode after charging and discharging in nonaqueous batteries by ex situ SEM techniques from a top view. Formation of the hole structure after lithium dissolution and the filling of dendrite-like lithium into the holes has been observed for the first time. In addition, an in situ SEM investigation using an all-solid Li/Li2O/super aligned carbon nanotube set-up indicates that lithium ions could diffuse across through the surface oxide layer and grow lithium dendrites after applying an external electric field. The growth of lithium dendrites can be guided by electron flow when the formed lithium dendrite touches the carbon nanotube.
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Plasma exchange to remove HIT antibodies: dissociation between enzyme-immunoassay and platelet activation test reactivities.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Repeated therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has been advocated to remove heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) IgG antibodies prior to cardiac/vascular surgery in patients who have serologically-confirmed acute or subacute HIT; for this situation, a negative platelet activation assay (e.g., platelet serotonin-release assay [SRA]) has been recommended as the target serological endpoint to permit safe surgery. We compared reactivities in the SRA and an anti-PF4/heparin IgG-specific enzyme-immunoassay (EIA), testing serial serum samples in a patient with recent (subacute) HIT who underwent serial TPE pre-cardiac surgery, as well as for 15 other serially-diluted HIT sera. We observed that post-TPE/diluted HIT sera-when first testing SRA-negative-continue to test strongly positive by EIA-IgG. This dissociation between the platelet activation assay and a PF4-dependent immunoassay for HIT antibodies indicates that patients with subacute HIT undergoing repeated TPE prior to heparin re-exposure should be tested by serial platelet activation assays even when their EIAs remain strongly positive.
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Change of Recipient Corneal Endothelial Cells After Non-Descemet's Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty in a Rabbit Model.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Purpose:We used a rabbit model to evaluate the interface embedded between the recipient corneas and transplanted donor corneal discs after non-Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (nDSAEK). Methods:Six unilateral DSAEK and nDSAEK surgeries were performed on New Zealand white rabbits. In vivo confocal microscopy was performed to show: 1) the changes in corneal endothelial cells embedded between the recipient corneas and the transplanted donor corneal discs (CEEB); and 2) the interface opacity by z-profile. Immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate the functional change of CEEB at post-nDSAEK 3 months. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to evaluate the morphology of CEEB after nDSAEK at post-nDSAEK six months. Results: In vivo confocal microscopy showed a time-dependent decrease in the density of CEEB at post-operative one, two or three months (p<0.01). Interface opacity was higher in the nDSAEK group than the DSAEK group at all examination points but the difference was statistically insignificant. At three months after surgery, the CEEB were negative for Na+/K+-ATPase staining. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelin (TUNEL) staining showed apoptotic changes in some areas. The CEEB showed a time dependent thickening and loss of uniform thickness of cellular morphology during a six month's observation. At post-nDSAEK three and six months, extensions of the cellular processes into the donor graft stroma combined with intracellular vacuoles containing collagen-like materials were also found. Conclusions:CEEB showed decreased density, loss of pump function, apoptosis and changed morphology after nDSAEK. However, the interface opacity was not significantly greater compared with DSAEK eyes.
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A patient with mosaic neurofibromatosis type 2 presenting with early onset meningioma.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A female patient was found to have meningioma when she was 3?years and 11?months old and subtotal excision was performed. The residual tumour recurred 3?months after the first excision, and again 11?months after the second one. She was also found to have subcutaneous neurofibroma. However, her clinical features did not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and her family history was unremarkable. Considering that primary meningioma is extremely rare in the paediatric population, the diagnosis of NF2 was considered. It was thought that this might have an impact on her subsequent management. Genetic testing on blood DNA for NF2 was arranged, and the results confirmed that she had mosaic deletion of the promoter to exon 16 of NF2. With uncertainty of whether NF2 mutations are also present in other tissues, vigilant follow-up for other NF2-related complications would be required in the future.
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Ischemic Stroke and Intracranial Hemorrhage With Aspirin, Dabigatran, and Warfarin: Impact of Quality of Anticoagulation Control.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Little is known about the impact of quality of anticoagulation control, as reflected by time in therapeutic range (TTR), on the effectiveness and safety of warfarin therapy in Chinese patients with atrial fibrillation. We investigated the risks of ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in relation to warfarin at various TTRs in a real-world cohort of Chinese patients with atrial fibrillation receiving warfarin and compared with those on dabigatran, aspirin, and no therapy.
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Aptamer photoregulation in vivo.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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The in vivo application of aptamers as therapeutics could be improved by enhancing target-specific accumulation while minimizing off-target uptake. We designed a light-triggered system that permits spatiotemporal regulation of aptamer activity in vitro and in vivo. Cell binding by the aptamer was prevented by hybridizing the aptamer to a photo-labile complementary oligonucleotide. Upon irradiation at the tumor site, the aptamer was liberated, leading to prolonged intratumoral retention. The relative distribution of the aptamer to the liver and kidney was also significantly decreased, compared to that of the free aptamer.
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The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Cirrhinus mrigala (?)?×?Labeo rohita (?).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Abstract We cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Cirrhinus mrigala (?)?×?Labeo rohita (?) by PCR-based method. The total of the mtDNA was 16,595?bp. It consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNA genes, and one putative control region (D-loop region). The overall base composition on strand was as follows A: 32.09%, G: 15.51%, C: 27.95%, T: 24.45%, and the A?+?T content 56.54%. All the protein-coding genes initiated by typical ATG codon, and ten genes ended with the complete stop codon TAA or TAG, while COII2, ND4 and Cytb genes terminated with GCC, TAT and GCT. The control region contains a thiolases active site, EGF-like domain signature and two anaphylatoxin domain signature. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in population genetics and phylogenetics of the hybrid fish in the Cyprinidae family.
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The Cytotoxic and Mechanistic Effects of Aaptamine on Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common form of cancer and the third most frequent cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. We isolated aaptamine from the marine sponge Aaptos, and synthesized derivatives of this compound. Aaptamine and synthetic derivatives displayed various biological activities. This represents the first account of studies on the effects of aaptamine and its derivatives in hepatocarcinogenesis. In this study, Cell Counting Kit (CCK8) was used to evaluate the anti-proliferative effect of aaptamine on HCC in vitro. Additionally, a subcutaneous xenograft model was used to determine if aaptamine could inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma in vivo. We also used RT-PCR and Western blot to analyze the mechanisms behind these effects. Our results showed that aaptamine has anti-proliferation effects on the cell lines LM3 and HepG2. Aaptamine also suppressed the colony-formation ability of HCC cells. We found that aaptamine treatment led to cell cycle arrest in HCC cells, reduced the expression of SOX9 and CDK2. Significant anti-tumor effects were observed in aaptamine-administered tumor-bearing mice as compared to controls. (and inhibited subcutaneous HCC xenograft development in vivo.) However, structural changes made to aaptamine yielded two derivatives for which all the effects listed above were considerably reduced as compared to the original compound aaptamine. In conclusion, aaptamine is demonstrated for the first time to inhibit liver cancer progression. The aaptamine-induced cell cycle arrest was associated with the increased binding of p21 to Cdk2-cyclin D/E complexes, inhibition of Cdk2 kinase activity in HCC cells.). Furthermore, aaptamine appears to be a promising and efficient treatment of liver cancer HCC-LM3 in vivo. We have also uncovered structural changes that might affect the biological activity. The work provides a promising drug candidate for HCC treatment.
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[Effect of tongxie yaofang on intestinal mast cells and cytokine expression of rats with visceral hypersensitivity].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To observe the effect of Tongxie Yaofang (TY) on the number of mast cells (MCs) and the expression of cytokines in rats with visceral hypersensitivity, and to explore roles of TY in treating visceral hypersensitivity and its possible mechanism.
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Retrospective Study of Adherence to Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the United States.
Adv Ther
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Greater adherence to medications has been broadly demonstrated to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, there is limited real-world evidence on adherence to glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the hybrid of Ctenopharyngodon idellus (?)?×?Elopichthys bambusa (?).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Abstract In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the hybrid of Ctenopharyngodon idellus (?)?×?Elopichthys bambusa (?). The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,609?bp (accession number KM401549), with the base composition of 31.89% A, 26.33% C, 15.68% G, 26.11% T. The genome contained 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). Except for ND6 and 8 tRNAs, all other genes were encoded on the heavy strand. The arrangements of these genes were similar to that found in the other teleosts. The complete mitogenome may provide important date set for the study of genetic mechanism in the hybrid fish of Cyprinidae.
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JAK2 inhibitor blocks the inflammation and growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro through the JAK/STAT3 pathway.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Recent research indicates that the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK/STAT3) pathway may play an important role in chronic inflammation which promotes cancer progression, yet the mechanism is not clear. The present study aimed to investigate the role of the JAK/STAT3 pathway in the growth and cancer-related inflammation (CRI) of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by studying the crosstalk between the JAK/STAT3 pathway and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) which are important inflammatory factors associated with tumorigenesis. Cell growth and the cell cycle were assessed by CCK-8 assays and flow cytometry, respectively. The protein levels of STAT3, phosphorylated STAT3, VEGF, NF-?B p65, phosphorylated NF-?B p65 and COX-2 in ESCC cells following treatment with JAK2 inhibitor for 48 h or interleukin-6 (IL-6) for 24 h were detected. RT-PCR was performed to study the interaction among STAT3, NF-?B and COX-2 by transfection of siRNAs targeted at STAT3 and NF-?B. STAT3 was activated in 3 ESCC cell lines at different levels. Blocking the JAK/STAT3 pathway inhibited cancer growth through regulation of cell growth, cell cycle and angiogenesis. Likewise, abrogation of the JAK/STAT3 pathway decreased CRI by downregulating levels of NF-?B p65 phosphorylation, COX-2 and IL-6 concentration. In addition, CRI and cancer growth were accelerated by IL-6 through stimulation of the JAK/STAT3 and NF-?B p65 pathway. Moreover, STAT3 and NF-?B both regulated COX-2 as a downstream gene. The JAK/STAT3 pathway is an important pathway which links CRI and cancer growth through IL-6 and crosstalk with the NF-?B p65 subunit and COX-2. The STAT3 pathway could be a novel target both for cancer treatment and prevention in ESCC.
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Anthracene/Phenothiazine ?-Conjugated Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells using Redox Mediator in Organic and Water-based Solvents.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Metal-free dyes (MD1 to MD5) containing an anthracene/phenothiazine unit in the spacer have been synthesized. The conversion efficiency (7.13?%) of the dye-sensitized solar cell using MD3 as the sensitizer reached approximately 85?% of the N719-based standard cell (8.47?%). The cell efficiency (8.42?%) of MD3-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with addition of chenodeoxycholic acid is comparable with that of N719-based standard cell. The MD3 water-based DSSCs using a dual-TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl)/iodide electrolyte exhibited very promising cell performance of 4.96?% with an excellent Voc of 0.77?V.
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TNF-? gene expression is increased following zinc supplementation in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Genes Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Chronic low-grade inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) can elicit changes in whole-body zinc metabolism. The interaction among the expression of inflammatory cytokines, zinc transporter and metallothionein (MT) genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in type 2 DM remains unclear. In a 12-week randomized controlled trial, the effects of zinc (40 mg/day) supplementation on the gene expression of cytokines, zinc transporters and MT in women with type 2 DM were examined. In the zinc-supplemented group, gene expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? tended to be upregulated by 27 ± 10 % at week 12 compared to baseline (P = 0.053). TNF-? fold change in the zinc-treated group was higher than in those without zinc supplementation (P < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in the expression or fold change of interleukin (IL)-1? or IL-6. Numerous bivariate relationships were observed between the fold changes of cytokines and zinc transporters, including ZnT7 with IL-1? (P < 0.01), IL-6 (P < 0.01) and TNF-? (P < 0.01). In multiple regression analysis, IL-1? expression was predicted by the expression of all zinc transporters and MT measured at baseline (r (2) = 0.495, P < 0.05) and at week 12 (r (2) = 0.532, P < 0.03). The current study presents preliminary evidence that zinc supplementation increases cytokine gene expression in type 2 DM. The relationships found among zinc transporters, MT and cytokines suggest close  interactions between zinc homeostasis and inflammation.
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Microbial transformation of the anti-diabetic agent corosolic acid.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Biotransformation of corosolic acid (1) by Cochliobolus lunatus and Streptomyces asparaginoviolaceus afforded four metabolites, which were identified by using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectral data. Biotransformation of corosolic acid by C. lunatus R.R. Nelson & Haasis CGMCC 3.4381 produced three metabolites: 2?,3?,21?-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (2), 2?,3?,7?,21?-tetrahydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (3) and 2?,3?-dihydroxy-21-oxours-12-en-28-oic acid (4). Incubation of corosolic acid with growing cultures of S. asparaginoviolaceus CGMCC 4.0175 afforded metabolite 2?,3?,30-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (5). All the metabolites were reported for the first time. The substrate and four metabolites, along with four products obtained previously, were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase; all the triterpenes tested showed potent inhibitory effects.
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Comparison between guideline-preferred and nonpreferred first-line HIV antiretroviral therapy.
Am J Manag Care
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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To compare antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and persistence and total healthcare expenditures in Medicaid-insured patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) initiating preferred or nonpreferred first-line ART based on March 2012 HHS HIV treatment guidelines.
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Effectiveness of antiepileptic drug combination therapy for partial-onset seizures based on mechanisms of action.
JAMA Neurol
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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To our knowledge, the current study is the first to describe antiepileptic drug (AED) combination therapy patterns according to their mechanism of action (MOA) in a real-world setting and to evaluate the differences in outcomes comparing different-MOA combination therapy with same-MOA combination therapy for patients with partial-onset seizure.
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The microRNA Signature in Response to Nutrient Restriction and Refeeding in Skeletal Muscle of Chinese Perch (Siniperca chuatsi).
Mar. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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The Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi) is one of the most commercially important carnivorous fish species in aquaculture with its large-scale culture in China. Increasing evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the knowledge of the identity of myogenic miRNAs and the effect of nutrient status on miRNA expression in teleost remains limited. In the present study, among the 21 miRNAs identified with high abundance in the fast muscle of adult Chinese perch, 19 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the adults and juveniles. The postprandial changes in the transcript abundance were determined for the 21 miRNAs following a single satiating meal in the juveniles after fasting for 1 week. The results showed that the seven miRNAs (miR-10c, miR-107a, miR-133a-3p, miR-140-3p, miR-181a-5p, miR-206, and miR-214) were sharply upregulated or downregulated within 1 h after refeeding. These miRNAs may be the promising candidate miRNAs involved in a fast-response signaling system that regulates fish skeletal muscle growth. Target prediction and expressional analysis suggested that four miRNAs (miR-10c, miR-107a, miR-140-3p, and miR-181a-5p) might play a role in regulating the translation of target gene transcripts such as myostatin following acute anabolic stimuli.
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Fabrication of biosensing surfaces using adhesive polydopamine.
Biotechnol. Prog.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Dopamine can be induced to polymerize on a variety of substrates, providing a robust and bioinspired surface coating that can be used to tune substrate surface properties and to sequester other species at the interface. We first exploit the facile nature of this surface modification procedure to generate an array of polydopamine that, in conjunction with fluorescent tags, provides the ability to detect multiple protein targets simultaneously and with great specificity. We then demonstrate the use of polydopamine as a matrix to confine gold nanoparticles at the surface of glass and graphene substrates. The nanoparticles are used to template further gold nanoparticle growth in situ at the interface; subsequent calcination to remove the polydopamine matrix and sinter the nanoparticles generates a highly active Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) surface that allows for sensitive molecular detection. These varied uses in surface modification/biosensing demonstrate the utility of polydopamine as a functional surface modification for control of physical and electronic properties at the interface. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2014.
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Apolipoprotein C-III is an amyloid-?-binding protein and an early marker for Alzheimer's disease.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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It has been demonstrated that peripheral injection of anti-amyloid-? (A?) antibodies to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and AD transgenic mice facilitate A? clearance. We hypothesized that peripheral circulating A?-binding proteins also possess the ability to enhance A? clearance and the levels of circulating A?-binding proteins could serve as early AD biomarkers. Circulating A?-binding proteins were isolated from plasma and identified by LC-MS/MS. Their levels were compared among non-demented individuals without AD family history (ND), with AD family history (ND-FH), and patients with mild AD. The results showed that most of the identified A?-binding proteins were apolipoproteins, i.e., apoA-I, apoB-100, apoC-III, and apoE. A? bound preferentially to apoA-I-enriched HDL, followed by apoC-III- and apoE-enriched VLDL, and bound less favorably to apoB-100-enriched LDL. Levels of apoA-I were reduced in AD patients and could be used to discriminate AD from ND groups (AUC: 0.93); whereas levels of apoC-III were reduced in both ND-FH and AD groups and could be used to differentiate ND-FH from ND individuals (AUC: 0.81). Both the levels of apoA-1 and apoC-III positively correlated with CASI and MMSE scores. In conclusion, these results suggest that plasma apoA-I could be a sensitive AD biomarker and individuals with low plasma levels of apoC-III are at risk for AD.
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Anterior corneal buttons from DSAEK donor tissue can be stored in optisol GS for later use in tectonic lamellar patch grafting.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of storing anterior corneal buttons split from donor Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) tissue for later use in tectonic lamellar patch grafting.
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Hematologic toxicity assessment in solid tumor patients treated with cetuximab: A pooled analysis of 18 randomized controlled trials.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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The role of cetuximab in treatment-related hematologic toxicity is not clear. We performed a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the overall risk of ?grade 3 hematologic toxicity events (HTEs) associated with cetuximab. PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge databases as well as abstracts presented at American Society of Clinical Oncology conferences and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies included RCTs in which cetuximab in combination with chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy was compared with chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy alone. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. A total of 11,234 patients with a variety of advanced solid tumors from 18 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with chemotherapy alone, the addition of cetuximab was associated with increased risks of ?grade 3 leucopenia/neutropenia and anemia events in colorectal cancer, with RRs of 1.16 (95% CI 1.05-1.27, p?=?0.002; incidence, 21.0 vs. 18.0%) and 2.67 (95% CI 1.53-4.65, p?=?0.01; incidence, 4.0 vs. 2.0%), respectively. Cetuximab was also associated with an increased risk of leucopenia/neutropenia in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (RR: 1.15; 95% CI 1.08-1.22, p?
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Phenothiazinedioxide-conjugated sensitizers and a dual-TEMPO/iodide redox mediator for dye-sensitized solar cells.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Metal-free dyes containing a phenothiazinedioxide entity in the spacer were synthesized. The best conversion efficiency (7.47%) of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) by using new sensitizers with chenodeoxycholic acid as a co-adsorbent and the I(-) /I3 (-) electrolyte reached over 90% of that of the standard N719-based cell (8.10%). A new type of ionic liquid containing the nitroxide radical (N-O(.) ) and iodide was successfully synthesized and applied to the DSSCs. If the I(-) /I3 (-) electrolyte was replaced with a dual redox electrolyte, that is, a TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl) derivative with a dangling imidazolium iodide entity, the cell exhibited a high open-circuit voltage of 0.85 V and a cell efficiency of 8.36%.
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Prognostic role of C-reactive protein in prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Several studies have reported that C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammation biomarker, may be associated with the prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa). The objective of this systematic review is to summarize the predictive role of CRP for survival in PCa as reported in previous studies. Related studies were identified, and evaluated for quality through multiple search strategies. Data was collected from studies comparing overall and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with elevated CRP levels and those having lower levels. However, for progression-free survival (PFS), data were collected according to the log of CRP. The hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength of associations. A total of nine studies (n = 1,497) were evaluated in this meta-analysis (five for overall survival (OS), four for CSS and two for PFS). For OS and PFS, the pooled HR of CRP was statistically significant at 1.51 (95% CI, 1.28-1.79) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.25-1.81), respectively. For CSS, the pooled HR was 1.91 (95% CI, 1.36-2.69) with higher CRP expression in PCa, which strongly indicates poorer survival in PCa. This study demonstrates that CRP may have a critical prognostic value in patients with prostatic cancer.
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Inhibitory effect of cinobufagin on L-type Ca2+ currents, contractility, and Ca2+ homeostasis of isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Cinobufagin (CBG), a major bioactive ingredient of the bufanolide steroid compounds of Chan Su, has been widely used to treat coronary heart disease. At present, the effect of CBG on the L-type Ca(2+) current (I Ca-L) of ventricular myocytes remains undefined. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effect of CBG on intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) handling and cell contractility in rat ventricular myocytes. CBG was investigated by determining its influence on I Ca-L, Ca(2+) transient, and contractility in rat ventricular myocytes using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique and video-based edge-detection and dual-excitation fluorescence photomultiplier systems. The dose of CBG (10(-8) M) decreased the maximal inhibition of CBG by 47.93%. CBG reduced I Ca-L in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 4 × 10(-10) M, upshifted the current-voltage curve of I Ca-L, and shifted the activation and inactivation curves of I Ca-L leftward. Moreover, CBG diminished the amplitude of the cell shortening and Ca(2+) transients with a decrease in the time to peak (Tp) and the time to 50% of the baseline (Tr). CBG inhibited L-type Ca(2+) channels, and reduced [Ca(2+)]i and contractility in adult rat ventricular myocytes. These findings contribute to the understanding of the cardioprotective efficacy of CBG.
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Curative use of forequarter amputation for recurrent breast cancer over an axillary area: a case report and literature review.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Axillary recurrence of breast cancer that involves the brachial neurovascular bundle is uncommon. However, for many patients with such recurrence, forequarter amputation can play a palliative role in relieving excruciating pain and paralysis of the upper limb. Further, for those patients who do not have distant metastasis or other local-regional recurrence, forequarter amputation provides a chance for a cure. Only a few case reports of curative amputations for recurrent breast cancer are present in the literature. Here, we report a case of forequarter amputation for curative treatment of axillary recurrent breast cancer, together with a literature review. To date, we have followed the patient for three years after amputation, during which there has been no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Although radical resection is feasible, it can be accompanied by surgical wound complications and psychosocial stress. Therefore, an organized multidisciplinary approach is needed to ensure the success of radical resection.
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Worsened arterial stiffness in high-risk cardiovascular patients with high habitual carbohydrate intake: a cross-sectional vascular function study.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Previous studies suggested that high dietary carbohydrate intake is associated with increased cardiovascular risk through raised triglyceride and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. However, the relation between carbohydrate intake and arterial stiffness has not been established. The purpose of this study was to examine this relation among high-risk cardiovascular patients.
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Predictive value of high-sensitivity troponin-I for future adverse cardiovascular outcome in stable patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I(hs-TnI) and T levels(hs-TnT) are sensitive biomarkers of cardiomyocyte turnover or necrosis. Prior studies of the predictive role of hs-TnT in type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) patients have yielded conflicting results. This study aimed to determine whether hs-TnI, which is detectable in a higher proportion of normal subjects than hsTnT, is associated with a major adverse cardiovascular event(MACE) in T2DM patients.
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Potential drug-drug and drug-condition interactions among fibromyalgia patients initiating pregabalin or duloxetine: prevalence and health care expenditure impact.
Pain Med
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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To quantify the prevalence of potential drug-drug/drug-condition interactions (DDI/DCI) among fibromyalgia patients initiating pregabalin or duloxetine, and to determine the impact of potential DDI/DCI on health care expenditures.
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Prevalence and characteristics of dyspepsia among college students in Zhejiang Province.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of uninvestigated dyspepsia among college students in Zhejiang Province.
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Mechanisms controlling the effects of bevacizumab (avastin) on the inhibition of early but not late formed corneal neovascularization.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To evaluate the effects and underlying mechanisms of early and late subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab on the inhibition of corneal neovascularization (NV).
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Salvia miltiorrhiza injection ameliorates renal damage induced by lead exposure in mice.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Exposure to lead (Pb) can induce kidney injury and our recent studies have found that Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) injection, a traditional Chinese medicine, could protect against the organ injury induced by iron overload. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of SM injection on nephrotoxicity induced by Pb acetate in mice and to elucidate the potential mechanism(s). Healthy male mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, Pb, low-dose Salvia miltiorrhiza (L-SM), and high-dose Salvia miltiorrhiza (H-SM). SM injection dose dependently reduced the Pb accumulation in the kidney, decreased kidney coefficients, and ameliorated renal structure and function from the morphology analysis. Meanwhile, SM administration downregulated serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CR), decreased malondialdehyde (MAD) content, and increased activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the kidney homogenate. Moreover, SM injection reduced the level of renal apoptosis by immunohistochemical staining analysis. Our findings implicate the therapeutic potential of SM injection for Pb-induced nephrotoxicity, which were at least partly due to the decrease of Pb accumulation, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and suppression of renal apoptosis. These results provided preliminary experimental support for Danshen as a therapeutic drug for Pb poisoning diseases.
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Prognostic value of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter1 in pancreatic cancer receiving gemcitabin-based chemotherapy: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The potential prognostic value of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter1 in pancreatic cancer receiving gemcitabine-based chemotherapy is variably reported.
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[Abnormal dendritic cells mediated immune response in a rat model of visceral hypersensitivity].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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To explore the role of altered characteristics of intestinal dendritic cell (DC) in the induction of visceral hyperalgesia through the activation of mast cells in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
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The association of UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 with irinotecan-induced neutropenia in Asians: a meta-analysis.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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Abstract Background: The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism is known as a biomarker of irinotecan-induced neutropenia in Caucasians. However, in Asians, the UGT1A1*28 mutation is much less frequent. Methods: A meta-analysis was performed to assess the association of the UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 with neutropenia in Asians. Results: In a combination test of the two variations, patients with severe neutropenia displayed a 155% higher mutational load than those that were not neutropenic (ORG?=?2.55; 95% CI: 1.82-3.58). Conclusions: In Asians, a combination test of UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 might be a potential biomarker of irinotecan-induced neutropenia, an observation that will need additional trials for confirmation.
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Cost comparison of drug-drug and drug-condition interactions in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy treated with pregabalin versus duloxetine.
Am J Health Syst Pharm
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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The frequency and financial impact of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and drug-condition interactions (DCIs) in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) treated with either pregabalin or duloxetine were compared.
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Hydrogen sulfide protects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats by inhibiting NF-?B expression and regulating Th1/Th2 balance.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) displays vasodilative, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of H2S on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and its possible mechanisms. Fifty-four pathogen-free Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, BLM and H2S treated groups with 18 rats in each group. Each group was then divided into three subgroups based on time of study (7, 14 and 28 day). Pulmonary fibrosis model was established by a single intratracheal instillation of BLM A5 (5mg/kg). While control rats received saline, rats of the treated group simultaneously were administered intraperitoneal injections of NaHS (the H2S donor, 28?mol/kg) once daily. BLM induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis, increased lung hydroxyproline levels, lung index, total cell counts, neutrophils and eosinophils counts and expression of NF-?B p65 in lung tissue, decreased lymphocytes and macrophages counts. In addition, Th1 response is suppressed as shown by diminished IFN-? in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after BLM exposure, and enhancement of Th2 response is marked by increased IL-4 in BALF. H2S administration significantly attenuated these effects. The findings reveal the therapeutic potential of H2S for BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in male rats, which were at least partly due to inhibition NF-?B p65 expression and regulation of Th1/Th2 balance.
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Prognostic Value of Preoperative Right Ventricular Geometry and Tricuspid Valve Tethering Area in Patients Undergoing Tricuspid Annuloplasty.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Patients who undergo tricuspid annuloplasty (TA) during left heart valve surgery have a poor postoperative clinical outcome. Nonetheless, preoperative right ventricular (RV) echocardiography parameters that predict adverse events in these patients are poorly understood.
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Smyd1b is required for skeletal and cardiac muscle function in zebrafish.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Smyd1b is a member of the Smyd family that is specifically expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Smyd1b plays a key role in thick filament assembly during myofibrillogenesis in skeletal muscles of zebrafish embryos. To better characterize Smyd1b function and its mechanism of action in myofibrillogenesis, we analyzed the effects of smyd1b knockdown on myofibrillogenesis in skeletal and cardiac muscles of zebrafish embryos. The results show that knockdown of smyd1b causes significant disruption of myofibril organization in both skeletal and cardiac muscles of zebrafish embryos. Microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analyses show that knockdown of smyd1b up-regulates heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) and unc45b gene expression. Biochemical analysis reveals that Smyd1b can be coimmunoprecipitated with heat shock protein 90 ?-1 and Unc45b, two myosin chaperones expressed in muscle cells. Consistent with its potential function in myosin folding and assembly, knockdown of smyd1b significantly reduces myosin protein accumulation without affecting mRNA expression. This likely results from increased myosin degradation involving unc45b overexpression. Together these data support the idea that Smyd1b may work together with myosin chaperones to control myosin folding, degradation, and assembly into sarcomeres during myofibrillogenesis.
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Recurrence of corneal neovascularization associated with lipid deposition after subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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To report 7 cases of recurrent corneal neovascularization (NV) and lipid deposition after subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab for the treatment of corneal NV-induced lipid keratopathy.
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Ionic Liquid with a Dual-Redox Couple for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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A new type of ionic liquid that contains a nitroxide radical (N?O(.) ) and iodide as two redox couples, JC-IL, has been successfully synthesized for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Both of the redox couples exhibit distinct redox potentials and attractive electrochemical characteristics. The UV/Vis absorption spectra of JC-IL shows a low-intensity peak compared to the strong absorption of I2 in the wavelength region of 350-500?nm. The high open-circuit voltage of DSSCs with JC-IL is over 850?mV, which is approximately 150?mV higher than that of the DSSCs with a standard iodide electrolyte. The dramatic increase in the standard heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant leads to an increase in the short-circuit current for JC-IL compared to that of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-N-oxyl (TEMPO). DSSCs with the JC-IL electrolyte show promising cell efficiencies if coupled with dyes CR147 (8.12?%) or D149 (6.76?%). The efficiencies of the DSSCs based on the JC-IL electrolyte are higher than those of DSSCs based on either TEMPO electrolyte or standard iodide electrolyte alone.
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Patterns and correlates of linkage to appropriate HIV care after HIV diagnosis in the US Medicaid population.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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Timely linkage to appropriate care after human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis is critical to optimizing patient outcomes. Medicaid is the largest source of health care coverage for patients with HIV in the United States, yet no studies of linkage to appropriate HIV care have focused solely on the Medicaid population.
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[Impact of NF-kappaB inhibitor on STAT3 translocation in PC-3 prostate cancer cell line].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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To observe the changes in the expressions of STAT3 and NF-KB in PC-3 cells after IL-6 stimulation and to verify the effects of the NF-KB inhibitor caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the expressions of p-STAT3 and IL-6 in the PC-3 prostate cancer cell line.
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Prospective randomized study to assess the efficacy of site and rate of atrial pacing on long-term progression of atrial fibrillation in sick sinus syndrome: Septal Pacing for Atrial Fibrillation Suppression Evaluation (SAFE) Study.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Atrial-based pacing is associated with lower risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in sick sinus syndrome compared with ventricular pacing; nevertheless, the impact of site and rate of atrial pacing on progression of AF remains unclear. We evaluated whether long-term atrial pacing at the right atrial (RA) appendage versus the low RA septum with (ON) or without (OFF) a continuous atrial overdrive pacing algorithm can prevent the development of persistent AF.
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Remote monitoring of cardiac implantable devices in the Asia-Pacific.
Europace
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Remote monitoring of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) has emerged as a tool to replace regular follow-up of such devices, and to detect hardware failure, arrhythmias, and heart failure decompensation. The Asia-Pacific region is a geographically diverse area, with widely different cardiac device implant rates and expertise. However, common to all countries, distance and logistic for patients to reach an expert monitoring centre for routine follow up are significant, and in some countries, this will likely be replaced by remote monitoring. Unscheduled visits such as for the treatment of atrial fibrillation and ICD shocks will be expedited. There has been an increase in both pacemaker and ICD implant rates in Asia-Pacific, due to an ageing population and improvement in economic condition. Among the countries, Australia and Japan are the major users of remote monitoring. According to the statistics of the suppliers, in Australia, up to 15% of pacemakers, 40% ICD, and 30% cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CTRD) are remotely monitored. The corresponding numbers for Japan are 5, 50, and 50% respectively. The monitoring personnel include nurses, technicians, and doctors, either from local centre or from device companies. Cost, lack of reimbursement, and logistic support are major issues in widespread application of remote monitoring technology. In conclusion, remote monitoring is increasing in Asia-Pacific region despite the increase in cost. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators and CRT/CRTDs are more likely than pacemakers to be enabled with remote monitoring.
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Dabigatran versus warfarin: effects on ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes and bleeding in Asians and non-Asians with atrial fibrillation.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Intracranial hemorrhage rates are higher in Asians than non-Asians, especially in patients receiving warfarin. This randomized evaluation of long-term anticoagulation therapy subgroup analysis assessed dabigatran etexilate (DE) and warfarin effects on stroke and bleeding rates in patients from Asian and non-Asian countries.
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Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) injection ameliorates iron overload-induced cardiac damage in mice.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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The traditional Chinese medicinal herb Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), first recorded in the "Shen Nongs Herbal Classic", has long been used to treat cardiovascular conditions, although the mechanism(s) underlying its effects remain unclear. Here, an iron dextran injection (50 mg · kg?¹ per day) was delivered intraperitoneally to establish a mouse model for investigating the ameliorative effects of Danshen injection (low dose at 3 g · kg?¹ per day or high dose at 6 g · kg?¹ per day) on iron overload-induced cardiac damage. The iron-chelating agent deferoxamine (100 mg · kg?¹ per day) was administered as a positive control. The main constituents of Danshen injection, salvianic acid A (danshensu), protocatechuic aldehyde, and salvianolic acid B, were quantified at concentrations of 2.15, 0.44, and 1.01 mg · mL?¹, respectively, using HPLC with UV detection. Danshen injection significantly lowered cardiac iron deposition and the concentration of the lipid oxidation product malondialdehyde, as well as improved cardiac superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in iron-overloaded mice. Serum levels of creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, and lactate dehydrogenase in the iron-overloaded mice were significantly elevated (up to ~ 160 %), whereas their activities were downregulated by Danshen injection by 25 ~ 35 % at the high dose and by ~ 20 % at the low dose. Morphological changes of cardiac tissue analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that lesions induced by iron overload could be ameliorated by Danshen injection dose-dependently. Altogether, these results illustrated that the protective effects of Danshen injection were at least in part due to decreased iron deposition and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
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Carbon monoxide may enhance bile secretion by increasing glutathione excretion and Mrp2 expression in rats.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Nitric oxide (NO) donors have been reported to induce choleresis via an increased excretion of glutathione. The effects of another gas molecule, carbon monoxide (CO), on bile formation are, however, inconsistent among previous reports. We investigated the sequential changes of bile output and the biliary contents in rats with or without CO supplementation to elucidate the mechanism of CO on bile excretion.
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Association of subclinical myocardial injury with arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with subclinical myocardial injury although the underlying mechanism is uncertain. We postulated that arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerosis may contribute to subclinical myocardial injury in patients with T2DM.
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Risk of infections in rheumatoid arthritis patients switching from anti-TNF agents to rituximab, abatacept, or another anti-TNF agent, a retrospective administrative claims analysis.
Semin. Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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This study compared the incidence and hazard of ICD-9-CM-coded infections and severe infections in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with subsequent-line (SL) BIOs (BIO) after switching from first-line (FL) anti-TNF therapy (anti-TNF).
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Increased aortic stiffness and attenuated lysyl oxidase activity in obesity.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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One potential mechanism through which obesity exerts adverse effects on the vascular system is by increasing aortic stiffness, a change known to be predictive of increased cardiovascular mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathophysiology that links obesity to aortic stiffening.
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Prolongation of PR interval is associated with endothelial dysfunction and activation of vascular repair in high-risk cardiovascular patients.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Epidemiological studies showed that PR prolongation is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated the relations of PR interval with indices of vascular function and endothelial repair as the underlying mechanisms.
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The CHADS2 and CHA 2DS 2-VASc scores predict new occurrence of atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Early identification of individuals who are at risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF) and ischemic stroke may enable a closer surveillance and thus prompt initiation of oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention.
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Nephroprotective effect of calcium channel blockers against toxicity of lead exposure in mice.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Exposure to lead (Pb) can induce kidney damage, which is related to induction of oxidative damage and disturbance of intracellular calcium homeostasis. Pb can readily permeate through dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type calcium channels and accumulate within cells. The objective of this study was to investigate protective effects of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) verapamil and nimodipine on nephrotoxicity induced by Pb acetate in mice. One hundred and twenty male mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: control, Pb, low-dose verapamil, high-dose verapamil, low-dose nimodipine and high-dose nimodipine (n=20 per group). Pb acetate was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 40 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days to establish the Pb toxicity model. While control mice received saline, mice of the treated groups simultaneously received i.p. injections of verapamil or nimodipine daily for 10 days. Both verapamil and nimodipine showed protection against Pb-induced kidney injury, including alleviation of renal pathological damage and decreasing the level of Pb in kidney homogenate and extent of apoptosis in nephrocytes. Moreover, verapamil and nimodipine significantly down-regulated levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the serum. In addition, verapamil and nimodipine administration decreased malondialdehyde content and increased activities of super oxide dismutase activity and glutathione peroxidase in the kidney homogenate. The findings in the present study implicate the therapeutic potential of CCBs for Pb-induced nephrotoxicity, which were at least partly due to the decrease of Pb uptake and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
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Multitargeted inhibition of hepatic fibrosis in chronic iron-overloaded mice by Salvia miltiorrhiza.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM, also known as Danshen) is a well-known Chinese medicinal herb, which has shown hepatoprotective effects with anti-fibrotic, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. To explore the effects and potential mechanism of SM against hepatic fibrosis induced by chronic iron overload in mice.
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Effects of cyclic intermittent hypoxia on ET-1 responsiveness and endothelial dysfunction of pulmonary arteries in rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders and in some cases is complication of pulmonary hypertension. We simulated OSA by exposing rats to cyclic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) to investigate its effect on pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley Rats were exposed to CIH (FiO2 9% for 1 min, repeated every 2 min for 8 h/day, 7 days/wk for 3 wk), and the pulmonary arteries of normoxia and CIH treated rats were analyzed for expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and ET receptors by histological, immunohistochemical, RT-PCR and Western Blot analyses, as well as for contractility in response to ET-1. In the pulmonary arteries, ET-1 expression was increased, and ET-1 more potently elicited constriction of the pulmonary artery in CIH rats than in normoxic rats. Exposure to CIH induced marked endothelial cell damage associated with a functional decrease of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in the pulmonary artery. Compared with normoxic rats, ETA receptor expression was increased in smooth muscle cells of the CIH rats, while the expression of ETB receptors was decreased in endothelial cells. These results demonstrated endothelium-dependent vasodilation was impaired and the vasoconstrictor responsiveness increased by CIH. The increased responsiveness to ET-1 induced by intermittent hypoxia in pulmonary arteries of rats was due to increased expression of ETA receptors predominantly, meanwhile, decreased expression of ETB receptors in the endothelium may also participate in it.
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Ethnic differences in atrial fibrillation identified using implanted cardiac devices.
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is suggested to be less common among black and Asian individuals, which could reflect bias in symptom reporting and access to care. In the Asymptomatic AF and Stroke Evaluation in Pacemaker Patients and the AF Reduction Atrial Pacing Trial (ASSERT), patients with hypertension but no history of AF had AF recorded via an implanted pacemaker or defibrillator, thus allowing both symptomatic and asymptomatic AF incidence to be determined without ascertainment bias.
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Ontogenic expression of the amino acid transporter b(0,+)AT in suckling Huanjiang piglets: effect of intra-uterine growth restriction.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Intestinal amino acid (AA) transport is critical for the supply of AA to other tissues. Few studies regarding AA intestinal transport systems during the period from postnatal intense development of piglets until weaning are available. In the present study, we measured the intestinal expression of b(0,+)AT according to developmental stage using the suckling Huanjiang piglet model, and documented the effect of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) on such expression using real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Suckling piglets that recovered after IUGR and those with normal body weights (NBW) were used after birth or at 7, 14 and 21 d of age. Blood samples were used for the measurement of plasma AA concentrations, and the jejunum was collected for the measurement of b(0,+)AT expression. In NBW piglets, b(0,+)AT expression was markedly decreased from days 0 to 21 (P< 0.01) and remained at a low level during all the suckling periods. In IUGR piglets, there was a marked decrease in b(0,+)AT expression at birth, which remained lower, when compared with NBW piglets, during the suckling period. These results coincided with decreased plasma arginine concentration at birth and decreased lysine concentration in 21-d-old piglets (P< 0.05). It is concluded that the high expression of b(0,+)AT at birth decreases during the suckling period, and that IUGR is associated with decreased expression of this apical AA transporter. The possible causal relationship between decreased b(0,+)AT expression and lower body weight of IUGR piglets in the suckling period is discussed.
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Comparative incidence and health care costs of medically attended adverse effects among U.S. Medicaid HIV patients on atazanavir- or darunavir-based antiretroviral therapy.
Value Health
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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This is the first study to compare the incidence and health care costs of medically attended adverse effects in atazanavir- and darunavir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) among U.S. Medicaid patients receiving routine HIV care.
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Endothelin receptors in augmented vasoconstrictor responses to endothelin-1 in chronic intermittent hypoxia.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Many studies have shown an association between increased circulating endothelin (ET)-1 levels and CIH. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of ET receptors in altered aortic function in an animal model of CIH. Rats were subjected to CIH (Fi o2 9% for 1 min, repeated every 2 min for 8 h/day, 7 days/week) for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks, the rats were killed and their aortas retrieved for use in in vitro experiments (isometric force measurement), histological analysis, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Aortas from rats subjected to CIH exhibited marked endothelial dysfunction and increased responsiveness to ET-1. Furthermore, CIH induced increased ET-1 and ETA receptor expression, whereas ETB receptor expression was decreased. Aortic contractile responses to ET-1 were inhibited by the ETA and ETB receptor antagonists BQ-123 and BQ-788, respectively. Acetylcholine-induced relaxation responses were significantly attenuated in aortas from rats subjected to CIH, whereas CIH had no significant effect on aortic responses to sodium nitroprusside. The results of the present study suggest that increased expression of ETA receptors, which mediate a potent vasoconstrictor response, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CIH. In addition, decreased endothelial ETB receptor expression, which is associated with the functional decline of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, also contributes to the pathogenesis of CIH. It appears that the ETB receptor-induced buffering of ET-1 responsiveness is mediated via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.
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The Asian project for collaborative derivation of reference intervals: (1) strategy and major results of standardized analytes.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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A multicenter study conducted in Southeast Asia to derive reference intervals (RIs) for 72 commonly measured analytes (general chemistry, inflammatory markers, hormones, etc.) featured centralized measurement to clearly detect regionality in test results. The results of 31 standardized analytes are reported, with the remaining analytes presented in the next report.
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Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) injection suppresses kidney injury induced by iron overload in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Excessive iron can accumulate in the kidney and induce tissue damage. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) injection is a traditional Chinese medicinal preparation used for preventing and treating chronic renal failure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with Danshen injection on iron overload-induced kidney damage.
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Modulation of human cardiac transient outward potassium current by EGFR tyrosine kinase and Src-family kinases.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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The human cardiac transient outward K(+) current I(to) (encoded by Kv4.3 or KCND3) plays an important role in phase 1 rapid repolarization of cardiac action potentials in the heart. However, modulation of I(to) by intracellular signal transduction is not fully understood. The present study was therefore designed to determine whether/how human atrial I(to) and hKv4.3 channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells are regulated by protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs).
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Perceived usefulness of syndromic surveillance in Ontario during the H1N1 pandemic.
J Public Health (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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Despite the growing popularity of syndromic surveillance, little is known about if or how these systems are accepted, utilized and valued by end users. This study seeks to describe the use of syndromic surveillance systems in Ontario and users perceptions of the value of these systems within the context of other surveillance systems.
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Frequent premature atrial complexes predict new occurrence of atrial fibrillation and adverse cardiovascular events.
Europace
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2011
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To investigate the relation between baseline frequency of premature atrial complexes (PACs) and new atrial fibrillation (AF) and adverse cardiovascular events.
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[Effect of Cordyceps sinensis sporocarp on learning-memory in mice].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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To study the effect of extracts of Cordyceps sinensis sporocarp on learning-memory in scopolamine treated mice and the possible mechanism.
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Rho kinase inhibition by fasudil has anti-inflammatory effects in hypercholesterolemic rats.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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Inhibition of Rho kinase (ROCK) ameliorates many cardiovascular dysfunctions. The aim of the current study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of fasudil, a selective ROCK inhibitor, on high cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats and its possible mechanisms. In hypercholesterolemic rats, we found the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and several inflammatory markers including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, C-reaction protein (CRP) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1 significantly elevated, while those of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) decreased. Moreover, mRNA expressions of ROCK and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and activity of ROCK in thoracic aorta were greatly up-regulated. Remarkably, administrating fasudil (10, 30 mg/kg per day) or simvastatin (10 mg/kg per day) to hypercholesterolemic rats for 2 weeks, activation of ROCK and NF-?B in thoracic aorta were suppressed, status of dyslipidemia were improved and inflammatory markers lowered. From the histopathological examination, fasudil treatment was found to lessen the thickening noted in the aortic intima and media of the hypercholesterolemic rats. These results suggested fasudil-induced inhibition of ROCK may improve lipid metabolism and has anti-inflammatory effect, which might expand the clinical application of fasudil as a new therapy for hypercholesterolemia and preventing the development of atherosclerosis.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.