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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia pyrrocinia Lyc2, a Biological Control Strain That Can Suppress Multiple Plant Microbial Pathogens.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Burkholderia pyrrocinia strain Lyc2 was isolated from the tobacco rhizosphere in China. This bacterium exhibits a remarkable capacity to inhibit the growth of multiple pathogens and shows strong suppression of cotton seedling damping-off. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Burkholderia pyrrocinia strain Lyc2.
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[Effects of head posture on oxygenation saturation, comfort, and dyspnea in patients with liver cirrhosis-related ascites].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis are collectively ranked as the ninth most prevalent cause of death in Taiwan. Ascites is the most common comorbidity associated with liver cirrhosis. Different body postures affect pulmonary ventilation and arterial oxygen partial pressure. Thus, ensuring proper body posture in patients is an important clinical nursing intervention that significantly affects the recovery of patients.
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Cathepsin B is involved in the heat shock induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis as well as the anti-apoptosis effect of HSP-70.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2014
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Cathepsin B is one of the major lysosomal cysteine proteases that plays an important role in apoptosis. Herein, we investigated whether Cathepsin B is involved in cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by hyperthermic injury (HI) and heat shock protein (HSP)-70 protects these cells from HI-induced apoptosis mediated by Cathepsin. HI was produced in H9C2 cells by putting them in a circulating 43 °C water bath for 120 min, whereas preinduction of HSP-70 was produced in H9C2 cells by mild heat preconditioning (or putting them in 42 °C water bath for 30 min) 8 h before the start of HI. It was found that HI caused both cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased Cathepsin B activity in H9C2 cells. E-64-c, in addition to reducing Cathepsin B activity, significantly attenuated HI-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis (evidenced by increased apoptotic cell numbers, increased tuncated Bid (t-Bid), increased cytochrome C, increased caspase-9/-3, and decreased Bcl-2/Bax) in H9C2 cells. In addition, preinduction of HSP-70 by mild heat preconditioning or inhibition of HSP-70 by Tripolide significantly attenuated or exacerbated respectively both the cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased Cathepsin B activity in H9C2 cells. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of pre-induction of HSP-70 by mild heat production in reducing both cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased Cathepsin B activity caused by HI can be significantly reduced by Triptolide preconditioning. These results indicate that Cathepsin B is involved in HI-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in H9C2 cells and HSP-70 protects these cells from HI-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through Cathepsin B pathways.
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Transcriptomic dissection of the rice-Burkholderia glumae interaction.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Bacterial panicle blight caused by the bacterium Burkholderia glumae is an emerging disease of rice in the United States. Not much is known about this disease, the disease cycle or any source of disease resistance. To understand the interaction between rice and Burkholderia glumae, we used transcriptomics via next-generation sequencing (RNA-Seq) and bioinformatics to identify differentially expressed transcripts between resistant and susceptible interactions and formulate a model for rice resistance to the disease.
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Practice Guidelines for the Application of Nonsilicone or Silicone Gels and Gel Sheets After Burn Injury.
J Burn Care Res
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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The objective of this review was to systematically evaluate available clinical evidence for the application of nonsilicone or silicone gels and gel sheets on hypertrophic scars and keloids after a burn injury so that practice guidelines could be proposed. This review provides evidence based recommendations, specifically for the rehabilitation interventions required for the treatment of aberrant wound healing after burn injury with gels or gel sheets. These guidelines are designed to assist all healthcare providers who are responsible for initiating and supporting scar management interventions prescribed for burn survivors. Summary recommendations were made after the literature, retrieved by systematic review, was critically appraised and the level of evidence determined according to Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine criteria.
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Human recombinant factor VIIa may improve heat intolerance in mice by attenuating hypothalamic neuronal apoptosis and damage.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Intolerance to heat exposure is believed to be associated with hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis impairment [reflected by decreases in blood concentrations of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone]. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of human recombinant factor VIIa (rfVIIa) on heat intolerance, HPA axis impairment, and hypothalamic inflammation, ischemic and oxidative damage, and apoptosis in mice under heat stress. Immediately after heat stress (41.2 °C for 1 h), mice were treated with vehicle (1 mL/kg of body weight) or rfVIIa (65-270 µg/kg of body weight) and then returned to room temperature (26 °C). Mice still alive on day 4 of heat exposure were considered survivors. Cellular ischemia markers (e.g., glutamate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio), oxidative damage markers (e.g., nitric oxide metabolite, hydroxyl radials), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6, interleukin-1?, tumor necrosis factor-?) in hypothalamus were determined. In addition, blood concentrations of both ACTH and corticosterone were measured. Hypothalamic cell damage was assessed by determing the neuronal damage scores, whereas the hypothalamic cell apoptosis was determined by assessing the numbers of cells stained with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated ?UTP nick-end labeling, caspase-3-positive cells, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecula-1-positive cells in hypothalamus. Compared with vehicle-treated heated mice, rfVIIa-treated heated mice had significantly higher fractional survival (8/10 vs 1/10), lesser thermoregulatory deficit (34.1 vs 24.8 °C), lesser extents of ischemic, oxidative, and inflammatory markers in hypothalamus, lesser neuronal damage scores and apoptosis in hypothalamus, and lesser HPA axis impairment. Human recombinant factor VIIa appears to exert a protective effect against heatstroke by attenuating hypothalamic cell apoptosis (due to ischemic, inflammatory, and oxidative damage) in mice.
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Successful enrichment of rarely found Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus from leachate sludge.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Bacteria that mediate the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox) have been detected in natural ecosystems, as well as various wastewater treatment systems. In this study, sludge from a particular landfill leachate anaerobic treatment system was selected as the incubation seed for anammox microorganism enrichment owing to its possible anammox activity. Transmission electron microscopy observation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, and cloning/sequencing techniques were applied to identify the diversity of anammox microorganisms throughout the incubation. During the early stage of operation, the diversity of anammox microorganisms was similar to the original complex microbes in the seed sludge. However, as incubation time increased, the anammox microorganism diversity within the system that was originally dominated by Candidatus (Ca.) Brocadia sp. was replaced by Ca. Anammoxoglobus propionicus. The domination of Ca. Anammoxoglobus propionicus produced a stable removal of ammonia (70 mg-N/l) and nitrite (90 mg-N/l), and the total nitrogen removal efficiency was maintained at nearly 95%. The fluorescence in situ hybridization results showed that Ca. Anammoxoglobus propionicus was successfully enriched from 1.8 ± 0.6% initially to 65 ± 5% after 481 days of operation. Therefore, the present results demonstrated the feasibility of enriching Ca. Anammoxoglobus propionicus from leachate sludge, even though the original cell count was extremely low. Application of this seldom found anammox organism could offer an alternative to current ammonia-nitrogen treatment.
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Trajectories of Physical Activity and Risk Factors Among Taiwanese Older Adults.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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The significance of physical activity has been noticed. However, the dynamic change and the heterogeneity of physical activity patterns among older people are little explored.
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Effects of ceftriaxone on the behavioral and neuronal changes in an MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease rat model.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Hyperactivity of the glutamatergic system is involved in excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) and treatment with drugs modulating glutamatergic activity may have beneficial effects. Ceftriaxone has been reported to increase glutamate uptake by increasing glutamate transporter expression. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ceftriaxone on working memory, object recognition, and neurodegeneration in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD rat model. MPTP was stereotaxically injected into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of male Wistar rats. Then, starting the next day (day 1), the rats were injected daily with either ceftriaxone (200 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or saline for 14 days and underwent a T-maze test on days 8-10 and an object recognition test on days 12-14. MPTP-lesioned rats showed impairments of working memory in the T-maze test and of recognition function in the object recognition test. The treatment of ceftriaxone decreased the above MPTP-induced cognitive deficits. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that ceftriaxone inhibits MPTP lesion-induced dopaminergic degeneration in the nigrostriatal system, microglial activation in the SNc, and cell loss in the hippocampal CA1 area. In conclusion, these data support the idea that hyperactivity of the glutamatergic system is involved in the pathophysiology of PD and suggest that ceftriaxone may be a promising pharmacological tool for the development of new treatments for the dementia associated with PD.
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Using the ADDIE model to develop online continuing education courses on caring for nurses in Taiwan.
J Contin Educ Nurs
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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A hospital in Taiwan committed to implementing a framework of caring in clinical practice. This study was conducted to develop online courses on caring for the hospital's nurses.
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Gradenigo syndrome caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria.
Audiol. Neurootol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Gradenigo syndrome is a rare but devastating complication of otitis media that involves the petrous apex. Clinically, it is characterized by the triad of suppurative otitis media, deep facial pain, and abducens palsy. Most of the Gradenigo syndrome cases that have been reported in the literature were caused by pyogenic bacteria. In this report, we describe the clinical courses of 4 adults with Gradenigo syndrome who were encountered consecutively at a tertiary referral hospital between 2008 and 2012. Mycobacterium abscessus was confirmed in all 4 cases by culturing the pathological tissues obtained during surgical debridement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report documenting infections of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in Gradenigo syndrome. An NTM infection must be considered in chronic otomastoiditis complicated by Gradenigo syndrome. The definite treatment of Gradenigo syndrome with an NTM infection requires adequate surgical debridement combined with antibiotic treatment for at least 4-6 months. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Safety and mutagenicity evaluation of red mold dioscorea fermented from Monascus purpureus NTU 568.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Monascus-fermented products, including red mold rice and red mold dioscorea, have been developed as functional foods with many health benefits. We performed safety and mutagenic evaluations on red mold dioscorea powder (RMDP) fermented from Monascus purpureus NTU 568. The results of Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA1535 showed that RMDP (?5 mg/plate) was not mutagenic. The mammalian chromosomal aberration test showed that the number of Chinese hamster ovary cells with abnormal chromosomes was <3% after RMDP treatment (maximum concentration: 5 mg/mL). Imprinting control region mice were used to estimate the genotoxicity of RMDP. Compared with the control, high-dose RMDP administration (2000 mg/kg) did not show significant differences in the number of reticulocytes or the occurrence of micronucleated reticulocytes. A 28-day oral toxicity assay in Sprague-Dawley rats was performed to investigate the no observed adverse effect level of RMDP. Compared with the control, high-dose RMDP administration (2000 mg/kg) caused no toxicological responses such as mortality, variation in body weight, or toxicopathologic lesions. Thus, RMDP from M. purpureus NTU 568 shows no significant mutagenic or toxic effects.
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Reducing side effects of hiding sensitive itemsets in privacy preserving data mining.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Data mining is traditionally adopted to retrieve and analyze knowledge from large amounts of data. Private or confidential data may be sanitized or suppressed before it is shared or published in public. Privacy preserving data mining (PPDM) has thus become an important issue in recent years. The most general way of PPDM is to sanitize the database to hide the sensitive information. In this paper, a novel hiding-missing-artificial utility (HMAU) algorithm is proposed to hide sensitive itemsets through transaction deletion. The transaction with the maximal ratio of sensitive to nonsensitive one is thus selected to be entirely deleted. Three side effects of hiding failures, missing itemsets, and artificial itemsets are considered to evaluate whether the transactions are required to be deleted for hiding sensitive itemsets. Three weights are also assigned as the importance to three factors, which can be set according to the requirement of users. Experiments are then conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in execution time, number of deleted transactions, and number of side effects.
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Measuring attention in a Parkinson's disease rat model using the 5-arm maze test.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Twenty to thirty percent of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from not only motor disorder, but also symptoms of dementia, named Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Cognitive deficits in PDD include memory, recognition, and attention. Although patients with PDD show fluctuation of internal attention when taking an attentional test, they perform better when provided with an external cue, indicating that they have normal external attention. We examined visuospatial attention in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD animal model using the 5-arm maze test. After an 8-day training period, followed by a 2-day pre-lesion test in the 5-arm maze, male Wistar rats received a microinfusion of MPTP into the substantia nigra pars compacta, while controls underwent a sham operation procedure. Nine days after MPTP lesioning, the rats underwent an open field test, followed by a 2-day post-lesion test in the maze. The results showed that: (1) no motor impairment was observed 9 days after MPTP lesioning; and (2) in the post-lesion 5-arm maze test, cue illumination lasting 0.5s resulted in a decrease in the percentage of correct responses compared to a 2 second cue in both the sham-operated and MPTP-lesioned groups and no difference was observed between these two groups. As far as we are aware, this is the first study examining visuospatial attention in the PD rat model using the 5-arm maze test. These results suggest that, as in patients with PDD, MPTP-induced PD rats show normal external attention function.
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Ixeridium calcicola (Compositae), a New Limestone Endemic from Taiwan, with Notes on Its Atypical Basic Chromosome Number, Phylogenetic Affinities, and a Limestone Refugium Hypothesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A new species Ixeridium calcicola (Compositae) endemic to middle altitude (ca 1,000-2,000 m asl) limestone mountains of eastcentral Taiwan is described based on morphological and chromosome cytological observations and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Ixeridium calcicola resembles Ixeridium transnokoense, endemic to upper montane and alpine ranges (2,600-3,500 m asl) of Taiwan, in the dwarf habit, but differs in the oblong to lanceolate leaf blades (vs. linear to linear-lanceolate), the presence of mucronulate teeth on the leaf margin and petiole (vs. smooth to very sparse), the dark purple lower leaf surface (vs. greenish), the capitulum with 10 to 12 florets (vs. 5 to 7) and 8 to 10 inner phyllaries (vs. 5, rarely to 7). The basic chromosome number in Ixeridium was known as X?=?7. However, the new species has a basic chromosome number of X?=?8, as recorded also in the closely related Ixeris. Molecular phylogenetic analyses with the expanded sampling of Ixeridium and Ixeris including both type species supported the monophyly of each of the genera and the placement of the new species in Ixeridium. The result of the phylogenetic analyses and detailed observation of the chromosome morphology revealed that X?=?8 in Ixeridium calcicola is derived from centric fission in an ancestral karyomorphotype with X?=?7 in Ixeridium. Ixeridium calcicola and Ixeridium transnokoense formed a Taiwan endemic lineage and their estimated divergence time was in the middle Pleistocene. Their common ancestral lineage may have experienced altitudinal distribution shifts in response to glacial-interglacial temperature fluctuation, and a lineage which had not retreated to alpine ranges in an interglacial period likely survived in a limestone refugium, where ordinary plant species did not grow, leading to allopatric speciation.
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S6K1 promotes invasiveness of breast cancer cells in a model of metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer.
Am J Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of oncology-related death in US women. Of all invasive breast cancers, patients with tumors lacking expression of the estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors and overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 have the poorest clinical prognosis. These referred to as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represent an aggressive form of disease that is marked by early-onset metastasis, high tumor recurrence rate, and low overall survival during the first three years post-diagnosis. In this report, we discuss a novel model of early-onset TNBC metastasis to bone and lungs, derived from MDA-MB-231 cells. Breast cancer cells injected intravenously produced rapid, osteolytic metastases in long bones and spines of athymic nude mice, with concurrent metastasis to lungs, liver, and soft tissues. From the bone metastases, we developed a highly metastatic luciferase-tagged cell line variant named MDA-231-LUC Met. In this report, we demonstrate that the Akt/mTOR/S6K1 axis is hyperactivated in these cells, leading to a dramatic increase in phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein at Ser235/236. Lastly, we provide evidence that inhibition of the furthest downstream kinase in the mTOR pathway, S6K1, with a highly specific inhibitor PF-4708671 inhibits cell migration, and thus may provide a potent anti-metastatic adjuvant therapy approach.
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Honokiol Protected against Heatstroke-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Rats.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We aimed at investigating the effect of honokiol on heatstroke in an experimental rat model. Sprogue-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: normothermic diabetic rats treated with vehicle solution (NTDR+V), heatstroke-diabetic rats treated with vehicle (HSDR+V), and heatstroke rats treated with konokiol (0.5-5?mg/ml/kg) (HSDR+H). Sixty minutes before the start of heat stress, honokiol or vehicle solution was administered. (HSDR+H) significantly (a) attenuated hyperthermia, hypotension and hypothalamic ischemia, hypoxia, and neuronal apoptosis; (b) reduced the plasma index of the toxic oxidizing radicals; (c) diminished the indices of hepatic and renal dysfunction; (d) attenuated the plasma systemic inflammatory response molecules; (e) promoted plasma levels of an anti-inflammatory cytokine; (f) reduced the index of infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the serum; and (g) promoted the survival time fourfold compared with the (HSDR+V) group. In conclusion, honokiol protected against the outcome of heatstroke by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress-mediated multiple organ dysfunction in diabetic rats.
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Counting injury deaths: a comparison of two definitions and two countries.
Inj. Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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This study sought to examine the discrepancy in counting injury deaths according to two definitions, that is, (a) external cause of injury as the underlying cause of death (UCOD), and (b) with mention of external cause of injury, and differences in certification practices between Taiwan and the USA.
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Sequential Phosphoproteomic Enrichment through Complementary Metal-Directed Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Chromatography.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Methodologies to enrich heterogeneous types of phosphopeptides are critical for comprehensive mapping of the under-explored phosphoproteome. Taking advantage of the distinct binding affinities of Ga(3+) and Fe(3+) for phosphopeptides, we designed a metal-directed immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography for the sequential enrichment of phosphopeptides. In Raji B cells, the sequential Ga(3+)-Fe(3+)-immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) strategy displayed a 1.5-3.5-fold superior phosphoproteomic coverage compared to single IMAC (Fe(3+), Ti(4+), Ga(3+), and Al(3+)). In addition, up to 92% of the 6283 phosphopeptides were uniquely enriched in either the first Ga(3+)-IMAC (41%) or second Fe(3+)-IMAC (51%). The complementary properties of Ga(3+) and Fe(3+) were further demonstrated through the exclusive enrichment of almost all of 1214 multiply phosphorylated peptides (99.4%) in the Ga(3+)-IMAC, whereas only 10% of 5069 monophosphorylated phosphopeptides were commonly enriched in both fractions. The application of sequential Ga(3+)-Fe(3+)-IMAC to human lung cancer tissue allowed the identification of 2560 unique phosphopeptides with only 8% overlap. In addition to the above-mentioned mono- and multiply phosphorylated peptides, this fractionation ability was also demonstrated on the basic and acidic phosphopeptides: acidophilic phosphorylation sites were predominately enriched in the first Ga(3+)-IMAC (72%), while Pro-directed (85%) and basophilic (79%) phosphorylation sites were enriched in the second Fe(3+)-IMAC. This strategy provided complementary mapping of different kinase substrates in multiple cellular pathways related to cancer invasion and metastasis of lung cancer. Given the fractionation ability and ease of tip preparation of this Ga(3+)-Fe(3+)-IMAC, we propose that this strategy allows more comprehensive characterization of the phosphoproteome both in vitro and in vivo.
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A retrospective comparative study of histoacryl injection and banding ligation in the treatment of acute type 1 gastric variceal hemorrhage.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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BACKGROUND. Esophageal varices extending along lesser curvature side of stomach is classified as GOV1. The optimal therapy for GOV1 bleeding is still undetermined. METHODS. One hundred and sixty-two patients diagnosed as acute hemorrhage from GOV1 were enrolled. At endoscopists discretion, 118 patients received glue injection (Glue group) and 44 patients received ligation to arrest bleeding [endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) group]. This study aimed to compare hemostasis, rebleeding, complications and mortality within 42 days. RESULTS. Both groups were comparable in baseline data. In 109 patients (92%) in the Glue group and 36 patients (82%) in the EVL group (p = 0.07) 48-h hemostasis was achieved . Hemostasis of active bleeding was achieved in 49 of 55 patients (89%) in the Glue group and 24 of 28 patients (85%) in the EVL group (p = 0.70). Treatment failure was noted in 14% of the Glue group and 23% in the EVL group (p = 0.22). Eight patients in the Glue group and four patients in the EVL group rebled between 5 and 42 days (p = 0.73). A total of 48 and 19 adverse events occurred in the Glue and EVL groups, respectively (p = 0.85). Six patients in the Glue group and seven patients in the EVL group encountered posttreatment gastric ulcer bleeding (p = 0.04). Seventeen patients (14%) in the Glue group and 10 (23%) patients in the EVL group died within 42 days (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS. Banding ligation was similar to glue injection in achieving successful hemostasis of acute bleeding from GOV1. However, a higher incidence of posttreatment ulcer bleeding and mortality may be associated with banding ligation.
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The effect of bedding system selected by manual muscle testing on sleep-related cardiovascular functions.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Background. Different types of mattresses affect sleep quality and waking muscle power. Whether manual muscle testing (MMT) predicts the cardiovascular effects of the bedding system was explored using ten healthy young men. Methods. For each participant, two bedding systems, one inducing the strongest limb muscle force (strong bedding system) and the other inducing the weakest limb force (weak bedding system), were identified using MMT. Each bedding system, in total five mattresses and eight pillows of different firmness, was used for two continuous weeks at the participants home in a random and double-blind sequence. A sleep log, a questionnaire, and a polysomnography were used to differentiate the two bedding systems. Results and Conclusion. Heart rate variability and arterial pressure variability analyses showed that the strong bedding system resulted in decreased cardiovascular sympathetic modulation, increased cardiac vagal activity, and increased baroreceptor reflex sensitivity during sleep as compared to the weak bedding system. Different bedding systems have distinct cardiovascular effects during sleep that can be predicted by MMT.
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The association between participation in social activity and depressive symptoms in institutionalized elders in Taiwan.
Geriatr Nurs
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Depression can be a significant predictor of rapid health decline in institutionalized elders. Non-pharmacologic interventions for depression may include meaningful and enjoyable social activities. This cross-sectional, descriptive correlational study was to examine the associations between three components (frequency, meaningfulness and enjoyment) of nine types of social activities and depressive symptoms in a sample of Taiwanese elders living in long-term care facilities. Results indicated that meaningful and enjoyable activities were associated with fewer depressive symptoms among institutionalized elders. Clinically depressed elders (GDS score ? 6) were significantly less likely to report a sense of meaning in 6 of 9 social activities, or to report as enjoyable 7 of 9 social activities investigated. Findings suggest that elders contemplate assignation of meaning of their subjective experiences with social activities, and it would behoove clinical nurses to pay attention to the essential purpose and perceived benefit of the designed social activities.
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Oxidative stress and nucleic acid oxidation in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and a high risk for developing malignancy. Excessive oxidative stress is thought to play a major role in elevating these risks by increasing oxidative nucleic acid damage. Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) production and antioxidant defense mechanisms and can cause vascular and tissue injuries as well as nucleic acid damage in CKD patients. The increased production of RONS, impaired nonenzymatic or enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms, and other risk factors including gene polymorphisms, uremic toxins (indoxyl sulfate), deficiency of arylesterase/paraoxonase, hyperhomocysteinemia, dialysis-associated membrane bioincompatibility, and endotoxin in patients with CKD can inhibit normal cell function by damaging cell lipids, arachidonic acid derivatives, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and nucleic acids. Several clinical biomarkers and techniques have been used to detect the antioxidant status and oxidative stress/oxidative nucleic acid damage associated with long-term complications such as inflammation, atherosclerosis, amyloidosis, and malignancy in CKD patients. Antioxidant therapies have been studied to reduce the oxidative stress and nucleic acid oxidation in patients with CKD, including alpha-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, glutathione, folic acid, bardoxolone methyl, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and providing better dialysis strategies. This paper provides an overview of radical production, antioxidant defence, pathogenesis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with CKD, and possible antioxidant therapies.
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Epidermal growth factor receptor potentiates MCM7-mediated DNA replication through tyrosine phosphorylation of Lyn kinase in human cancers.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) initiates a signaling cascade that leads to DNA synthesis and cell proliferation, but its role in regulating DNA replication licensing is unclear. Here, we show that activated EGFR phosphorylates the p56 isoform of Lyn, p56(Lyn), at Y32, which then phosphorylates MCM7, a licensing factor critical for DNA replication, at Y600 to increase its association with other minichromosome maintenance complex proteins, thereby promoting DNA synthesis complex assembly and cell proliferation. Both p56(Lyn) Y32 and MCM7 Y600 phosphorylation are enhanced in proliferating cells and correlated with poor survival of breast cancer patients. These results establish a signaling cascade in which EGFR enhances MCM7 phosphorylation and DNA replication through Lyn phosphorylation in human cancer cells.
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A novel aerosol-mediated drug delivery system for inner ear therapy: intratympanic aerosol methylprednisolone can attenuate acoustic trauma.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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We developed a novel aerosol-mediated drug delivery system for inner ear therapy by using a silicon-based multiple-Fourier horn nozzle. Intratympanic aerosol (ITA) methylprednisolone (MP) delivery can protect hearing after acoustic trauma. The highest concentration of MP (38.9 ± 5.47 ppm) appeared at 2 h and declined rapidly within 10 h. The concentrations of MP remained at a relatively low level for more than 10 h. Compared to the baseline, the auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds shifted markedly at 1 h after noise exposure in all groups (p < 0.05). From the cochleograms, it can be noted that the main lesions encompassed the 2-20 kHz frequency range. Significant differences ( ) were observed for the range between 5 and 8 kHz in the cell loss of outer hair cells (OHCs). The losses for IHCs were lower than for OHCs. The MP movement in the middle ear was simulated by a convection diffusion equation with a relaxation time. The relaxation time was 0.5 h, and the concentration threshold of MP on the round window membrane (RWM) in the middle ear (C T) was 8900 ppm. Using the unit hydrograph (UH) method, we obtained a proper boundary concentration on the RWM at the cochlea, which resulted in a well-fit concentration. Finally, a linking mechanism between the middle ear and the cochlea was established by the RWM. The adjustable permeability and concentration threshold provide the flexibility to match the peak times and peak values of the concentration on the RWM in the middle ear and the cochlea.
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Need-based intervention is an effective strategy for improving the nutritional status of older people living in a nursing home: a randomized controlled trial.
Int J Nurs Stud
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Nutrition is a key element in geriatric health. Protein-energy malnutrition is common in institutionalized persons.
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Determinants of bilateral audiometric notches in noise-induced hearing loss.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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To explore the possible determinants of bilateral audiometric notches in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL).
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In-plane magnetization-induced quantum anomalous Hall effect.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The quantum Hall effect can only be induced by an out-of-plane magnetic field for two-dimensional electron gases, and similarly, the quantum anomalous Hall effect has also usually been considered for systems with only out-of-plane magnetization. In the present work, we predict that the quantum anomalous Hall effect can be induced by in-plane magnetization that is not accompanied by any out-of-plane magnetic field. Two realistic two-dimensional systems, Bi2Te3 thin film with magnetic doping and HgMnTe quantum wells with shear strains, are presented and the general condition for the in-plane magnetization-induced quantum anomalous Hall effect is discussed based on the symmetry analysis. Nonetheless, an experimental setup is proposed to confirm this effect, the observation of which will pave the way to search for the quantum anomalous Hall effect in a wider range of materials.
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Factors associated with depressive symptoms in older Taiwanese adults in a long-term care community.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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This study was to examine culturally based factors as potential predictors of depressive symptoms in older Taiwanese adults living in eight long-term care institutions in southern Taiwan.
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Anti-inflammatory Properties of Yellow and Orange Pigments from Monascus purpureus NTU 568.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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The Monascus species has been used in foods for thousands of years in China. In this study, 10 azaphilone pigments, including four yellow and six orange pigments, were isolated from the fermented rice and dioscorea of Monascus purpureus NTU 568. By employing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, we determined the inhibitory activities of these pigments on nitric oxide (NO) production. As a result, four orange pigments, monaphilols A-D, showed the highest activities (IC50 = 1.0-3.8 ?M), compared with the other two orange pigments, monascorubrin (IC50 > 40 ?M) and rubropunctatin (IC50 = 21.2 ?M), and the four yellow pigments ankaflavin (IC50 = 21.8 ?M), monascin (IC50 = 29.1 ?M), monaphilone A (IC50 = 19.3 ?M), and monaphilone B (IC50 = 22.6 ?M). Using Western blot and ELISA kits, we found that treatments with 30 ?M of the yellow pigments and 5 ?M of the orange pigments could down-regulate the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and suppress the production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). We also used two animal experiments to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of these pigments. In a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema model, eight of these pigments (0.5 mg/ear) could prevent ear edema against TPA administrations on the ears of BALB/c mice. In an LPS-injection mice model, several of these pigments (10 mg/kg) could inhibit the NO, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 levels in the plasma of BALB/c mice. As concluded from the in vitro and in vivo studies, six azaphilonoid pigments, namely, ankaflavin, monaphilone A, and monaphilols A-D, showed high potential to be developed into chemopreventive foods or drugs against inflammation-associated diseases.
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The effects of comorbidities on the trajectory of depressive symptoms among older adults in Taiwan.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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This study aimed to identify depressive symptoms among older Taiwanese adults and to explore the relationships between different comorbidities and depressive symptoms.
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Developing online continuing education content for enhancing caring among Taiwan nurses.
J Contin Educ Nurs
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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To promote the quality of nursing care, a hospital in Taiwan committed to implementing its SHARE framework for clinical practice. This study was conducted to develop caring content for the SHARE framework in the form of online continuing education videos.
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Caspase-independent cell death is involved in the negative effect of EGF receptor inhibitors on cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Results of multiple clinical trials suggest that EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) exhibit negative effects on platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer with wild-type (WT) EGFR, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still uncertain. Studies that identify the mechanism of how TKIs negatively affect patients with WT EGFR are important for future development of effective strategies to target lung cancer. Thus, we returned to in vitro study to investigate and determine a possible explanation for this phenomenon.
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Application of massively parallel sequencing to genetic diagnosis in multiplex families with idiopathic sensorineural hearing impairment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Despite the clinical utility of genetic diagnosis to address idiopathic sensorineural hearing impairment (SNHI), the current strategy for screening mutations via Sanger sequencing suffers from the limitation that only a limited number of DNA fragments associated with common deafness mutations can be genotyped. Consequently, a definitive genetic diagnosis cannot be achieved in many families with discernible family history. To investigate the diagnostic utility of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), we applied the MPS technique to 12 multiplex families with idiopathic SNHI in which common deafness mutations had previously been ruled out. NimbleGen sequence capture array was designed to target all protein coding sequences (CDSs) and 100 bp of the flanking sequence of 80 common deafness genes. We performed MPS on the Illumina HiSeq2000, and applied BWA, SAMtools, Picard, GATK, Variant Tools, ANNOVAR, and IGV for bioinformatics analyses. Initial data filtering with allele frequencies (<5% in the 1000 Genomes Project and 5400 NHLBI exomes) and PolyPhen2/SIFT scores (>0.95) prioritized 5 indels (insertions/deletions) and 36 missense variants in the 12 multiplex families. After further validation by Sanger sequencing, segregation pattern, and evolutionary conservation of amino acid residues, we identified 4 variants in 4 different genes, which might lead to SNHI in 4 families compatible with autosomal dominant inheritance. These included GJB2 p.R75Q, MYO7A p.T381M, KCNQ4 p.S680F, and MYH9 p.E1256K. Among them, KCNQ4 p.S680F and MYH9 p.E1256K were novel. In conclusion, MPS allows genetic diagnosis in multiplex families with idiopathic SNHI by detecting mutations in relatively uncommon deafness genes.
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Fabrication and characterization of porous Ti-7.5Mo alloy scaffolds for biomedical applications.
J Mater Sci Mater Med
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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Porous titanium and titanium alloys are promising scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, since they have the potential to provide new bone tissue ingrowth abilities and low elastic modulus to match that of natural bone. In the present study, porous Ti-7.5Mo alloy scaffolds with various porosities from 30 to 75 % were successfully prepared through a space-holder sintering method. The yield strength and elastic modulus of a Ti-7.5Mo scaffold with a porosity of 50 % are 127 MPa and 4.2 GPa, respectively, being relatively comparable to the reported mechanical properties of natural bone. In addition, the porous Ti-7.5Mo alloy exhibited improved apatite-forming abilities after pretreatment (with NaOH or NaOH + water) and subsequent immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C. After soaking in an SBF solution for 21 days, a dense apatite layer covered the inner and outer surfaces of the pretreated porous Ti-7.5Mo substrates, thereby providing favorable bioactive conditions for bone bonding and growth. The preliminary cell culturing result revealed that the porous Ti-7.5Mo alloy supported cell attachment.
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Hypothermia may attenuate ischemia/reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte death by reducing autophagy.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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We sought to assess the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on the autophagy that occurred in ischemia-reperfused (IR) H9c2 cardiomyocytes.
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KMUP-1 suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss: roles of MAPKs, Akt, NF-?B and calcium/calcineurin/NFATc1 pathways.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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KMUP-1 is a xanthine derivative with inhibitory activities on the phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3,4 and 5 isoenzymes to suppress the degradation of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. However, the effects of KMUP-1 on osteoclast differentiation are still unclear. In this study, we investigated whether KMUP-1 inhibits osteoclastogenesis induced by RANKL in RAW 264.7 cells and bone loss induced by ovariectomy in mice, and the underlying mechanisms.
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Differences in the pathogenicity of the p.H723R mutation of the common deafness-associated SLC26A4 gene in humans and mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Mutations in the SLC26A4 gene are a common cause of human hereditary hearing impairment worldwide. Previous studies have demonstrated that different SLC26A4 mutations have different pathogenetic mechanisms. By using a genotype-driven approach, we established a knock-in mouse model (i.e., Slc26a4(tm2Dontuh/tm2Dontuh) mice) homozygous for the common p.H723R mutation in the East Asian population. To verify the pathogenicity of the p.H723R allele in mice, we further generated mice with compound heterozygous mutations (i.e., Slc26a4(tm1Dontuh/tm2Dontuh) ) by intercrossing Slc26a4(+/tm2Dontuh) mice with Slc26a4(tm1Dontuh/tm1Dontuh) mice, which segregated the c.919-2A>G mutation with an abolished Slc26a4 function. Mice were then subjected to audiologic assessments, a battery of vestibular evaluations, inner ear morphological studies, and noise exposure experiments. The results were unexpected; both Slc26a4(tm2Dontuh/tm2Dontuh) and Slc26a4(tm1Dontuh/tm2Dontuh) mice showed normal audiovestibular phenotypes and inner ear morphology, and they did not show significantly higher shifts in hearing thresholds after noise exposure than the wild-type mice. The results indicated not only the p.H723R allele was non-pathogenic in mice, but also a single p.H723R allele was sufficient to maintain normal inner ear physiology in heterozygous compound mice. There might be discrepancies in the pathogenicity of specific SLC26A4 mutations in humans and mice; therefore, precautions should be taken when extrapolating the results of animal studies to humans.
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Diet-induced obesity exacerbates auditory degeneration via hypoxia, inflammation, and apoptosis signaling pathways in CD/1 mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of diet-induced obesity on hearing degeneration in CD/1 mice. Sixty 4-week-old male CD/1 mice were randomly and equally divided into 2 groups. For 16 weeks, the diet-induced obesity (DIO) group was fed a high fat diet and the control group was fed a standard diet of 13.43 % kcal fat. The morphometry, biochemistry, auditory brainstem response thresholds, omental fat, and histopathology of the cochlea were compared between the beginning and end of the study (4 vs. 20 weeks old). The results show that the body weight, fasting plasma triglyceride concentrations, and omental fat weight were higher in the DIO group than in the control group at the end of experiment. The auditory brainstem response thresholds at high frequencies were significantly elevated in the DIO group compared to those of the control group. Histology studies showed that, compared to the control group, the DIO group had blood vessels with smaller diameters and thicker walls in the stria vascularis at the middle and basal turns of the cochlea. The cell densities in the spiral ganglion and spiral ligament at the basal turn of the cochlea were significantly lower in the DIO group. Immunohistochemical staining showed that hypoxia-induced factor 1 (HIF-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), caspase 3, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, and apoptosis inducing factor were all significantly more dense in the spiral ganglion and spiral ligament at the basal turn of cochlea in the DIO group. Our results suggest that diet-induced obesity exacerbates hearing degeneration via increased hypoxia, inflammatory responses, and cell loss in the spiral ganglion and spiral ligament and is associated with the activation of both caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis signaling pathways in CD/1 mice.
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Bcr-Abl oncogene stimulates Jab1 expression via cooperative interaction of ?-catenin and STAT1 in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Jab1, a co-activator of AP-1 transcription factor and the fifth subunit of the COP9 signalosome, mediates degradation of the tumor suppressor p53 and p27(Kip1) and functions as a tumor promoter in different types of human cancer. In this study, we show that inhibition of Bcr-Abl oncogene by imatinib induces down-regulation of Jab1 in Bcr-Abl-positive K562, Ku812, and MEG01 leukemia cells suggesting Bcr-Abl may regulate Jab1 expression. Promoter deletion and mutation analysis indicate the Tcf-4/?-catenin and STAT1 binding sites located between the -405/-223 region of the human Jab1 promoter are important for the activation of Jab1 by Bcr-Abl. Double mutation of these two sites reverses the inhibitory effect of imatinib. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay verifies the binding of ?-catenin and STAT1 to human Jab1 promoter. Ectopic expression of dominant-negative Tcf-4 mutant significantly attenuates Jab1 expression while over-expression of ?-catenin and STAT1 cooperatively up-regulates Jab1 promoter activity and mRNA expression. Our results also demonstrate that the AKT signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of Jab1 by Bcr-Abl because the AKT inhibitor LY294002 but not the ERK inhibitor PD98059 reduces Jab1 promoter activity and mRNA expression. Taken together, our results suggest that Bcr-Abl stimulates Jab1 expression via the cooperative interaction of ?-catenin and STAT1 in leukemia cells.
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Plant-based FRET biosensor discriminates environmental zinc levels.
Plant Biotechnol. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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Heavy metal accumulation in the environment poses great risks to flora and fauna. However, monitoring sites prone to accumulation poses scale and economic challenges. In this study, we present and test a method for monitoring these sites using fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) change in response to zinc (Zn) accumulation in plants as a proxy for environmental health. We modified a plant Zn transport protein by adding flanking fluorescent proteins (FPs) and deploying the construct into two different species. In Arabidopsis thaliana, FRET was monitored by a confocal microscope and had a 1.4-fold increase in intensity as the metal concentration increased. This led to a 16.7% overall error-rate when discriminating between a control (1?m Zn) and high (10mm Zn) treatment after 96h. The second host plant (Populus tremula×Populu salba) also had greater FRET values (1.3-fold increase) when exposed to the higher concentration of Zn, while overall error-rates were greater at 22.4%. These results indicate that as plants accumulate Zn, protein conformational changes occur in response to Zn causing differing interaction between FPs. This results in greater FRET values when exposed to greater amounts of Zn and monitored with appropriate light sources and filters. We also demonstrate how this construct can be moved into different host plants effectively including one tree species. This chimeric protein potentially offers a method for monitoring large areas of land for Zn accumulation, is transferable among species, and could be modified to monitor other specific heavy metals that pose environmental risks.
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Socially supportive activity inventory: reliability and validity of a social activity instrument for long-term care institutions.
J Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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: Diverse social and recreational activities in elder care institutions have been provided to enrich a persons mental well-being amidst what is a relatively monotonous life. However, few instruments that measure the social activities of long-term care residents are available.
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Entecavir versus lamivudine in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B patients with hepatic decompensation.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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Lamivudine has been widely used in chronic hepatitis B patients with hepatic decompensation, but its use is limited by drug resistance. This outcome research aimed to investigate the comparative efficacy and safety of entecavir versus lamivudine in decompensated patients.
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Enhanced Differentiation of Three-Gene-Reprogrammed Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into Adipocytes via Adenoviral-Mediated PGC-1? Overexpression.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Induced pluripotent stem cells formed by the introduction of only three factors, Oct4/Sox2/Klf4 (3-gene iPSCs), may provide a safer option for stem cell-based therapy than iPSCs conventionally introduced with four-gene iPSCs. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) plays an important role during brown fat development. However, the potential roles of PGC-1? in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and the differentiation of iPSCs are still unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of adenovirus-mediated PGC-1? overexpression in 3-gene iPSCs. PGC-1? overexpression resulted in increased mitochondrial mass, reactive oxygen species production, and oxygen consumption. Microarray-based bioinformatics showed that the gene expression pattern of PGC-1?-overexpressing 3-gene iPSCs resembled the expression pattern observed in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGC-1? overexpression enhanced adipogenic differentiation and the expression of several brown fat markers, including uncoupling protein-1, cytochrome C, and nuclear respiratory factor-1, whereas it inhibited the expression of the white fat marker uncoupling protein-2. Furthermore, PGC-1? overexpression significantly suppressed osteogenic differentiation. These data demonstrate that PGC-1? directs the differentiation of 3-gene iPSCs into adipocyte-like cells with features of brown fat cells. This may provide a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of mitochondrial disorders and obesity.
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PGC-1? mediates differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to brown adipose cells.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a multipotent cell type that can differentiate into non-hematopoietic cells, such as adipocytes. Adipocyte tissue is central to the regulation of energy balance. Two functionally different types of fat are present in mammals. White adipose tissue is the primary site for triglyceride storage, while brown adipose tissue is specialized in energy expenditure. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1?) controls several aspects of mitochondrial biogenesis. In this study, we hypothesized that PGC-1? plays a role in brown fat differentiation of MSCs.
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Recurrent bacterial meningitis associated with Mondini dysplasia.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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We reported two cases of recurrent meningitis and both of them had Mondini dysplasia, which provides a link between the brain and inner ear and is associated with cerebrospinal fluid, otorrhea/rhinorrhea, hearing impairment, and recurrent meningitis. Patients who have hearing impairment and recurrent meningitis should be evaluated for the possibility of this congenital dysplasia, and early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention may prevent further episodes.
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Gender differences in the association between stress trajectories and depressive symptoms among middle aged and older adults in Taiwan.
J Women Aging
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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This study investigated the effects of gender differences on the association of chronic stress and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older adults in Taiwan.
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Performance of the frequency domain indices with respect to sleep staging.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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To compare computerized staging using spectral analyses of various electrophysiological signals with manual sleep staging.
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Impact of morbidity and life events on successful aging.
Asia Pac J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2011
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The purpose of this study was to examine the risks of the incidence of chronic conditions and life events on successful aging. Longitudinal data from a 10-year follow-up health survey were used. Successful aging indicators included basic and advanced physical function, depressive symptoms, cognitive function, emotional support, participation in productive activities, and life satisfaction. The stressors included life events and morbidity years of 10 chronic conditions. Loss of offspring increased the risk to physical health, psychological health, and life satisfaction. Being newly widowed was related to depressive symptoms, whereas being newly divorced increased the risk of poor social support. Morbidity years increased the risk of failure in successful aging, especially for stroke, respiratory system disease, diabetes, and cancer. Emotional health of the elderly should be carefully monitored after onset of life events and incidences of chronic conditions.
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Establishment of a knock-in mouse model with the SLC26A4 c.919-2A>G mutation and characterization of its pathology.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2011
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Recessive mutations in the SLC26A4 gene are a common cause of hereditary hearing impairment worldwide. Previous studies have demonstrated that different SLC26A4 mutations may have different pathogenetic mechanisms. In the present study, we established a knock-in mouse model (i.e., Slc26a4(tm1Dontuh/tm1Dontuh) mice) homozygous for the c.919-2A>G mutation, which is a common mutation in East Asians. Mice were then subjected to audiologic assessment, a battery of vestibular evaluations, and inner ear morphological studies. All Slc26a4(tm1Dontuh/tm1Dontuh) mice revealed profound hearing loss, whereas 46% mice demonstrated pronounced head tilting and circling behaviors. There was a significant difference in the vestibular performance between wild-type and Slc26a4(tm1Dontuh/tm1Dontuh) mice, especially those exhibiting circling behavior. Inner ear morphological examination of Slc26a4(tm1Dontuh/tm1Dontuh) mice revealed an enlarged endolymphatic duct, vestibular aqueduct and sac, atrophy of stria vascularis, deformity of otoconia in the vestibular organs, consistent degeneration of cochlear hair cells, and variable degeneration of vestibular hair cells. Audiologic and inner ear morphological features of Slc26a4(tm1Dontuh/tm1Dontuh) mice were reminiscent of those observed in humans. These features were also similar to those previously reported in both knock-out Slc26a4(-/-) mice and Slc26a4(loop/loop) mice with the Slc26a4 p.S408F mutation, albeit the severity of vestibular hair cell degeneration appeared different among the three mouse strains.
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Plasma reactive oxygen species levels are correlated with severity of age-related hearing impairment in humans.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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To investigate the relationship between plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and severity of age-related hearing impairment in humans. We recruited 302 adult subjects aged 40-77 years with normal or symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss. The association of plasma ROS levels on pure tone average of low frequencies (PTA-low) and pure tone average of high frequencies (PTA-high) were analyzed. Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence signals, which reflect hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hypochlorite (HOCl/OCl(-)) and hydroxyl radicals (•OH) levels, showed significant positive association with PTA-low and PTA-high after adjusting for age, gender, central obesity, systemic diseases, and health-related habits (smoking, drinking, antioxidant intake). Lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence signals, which mainly reflect superoxide anion (O(2)•(-)) levels, showed significant positive association with PTA-low, but not with PTA-high after adjusting for other variables. We concluded that plasma ROS levels were associated with severity of age-related hearing impairment in humans. Various ROS may differently affect auditory dysfunctions.
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FLOWERING LOCUS T duplication coordinates reproductive and vegetative growth in perennial poplar.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Annual plants grow vegetatively at early developmental stages and then transition to the reproductive stage, followed by senescence in the same year. In contrast, after successive years of vegetative growth at early ages, woody perennial shoot meristems begin repeated transitions between vegetative and reproductive growth at sexual maturity. However, it is unknown how these repeated transitions occur without a developmental conflict between vegetative and reproductive growth. We report that functionally diverged paralogs FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), products of whole-genome duplication and homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), coordinate the repeated cycles of vegetative and reproductive growth in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.). Our manipulative physiological and genetic experiments coupled with field studies, expression profiling, and network analysis reveal that reproductive onset is determined by FT1 in response to winter temperatures, whereas vegetative growth and inhibition of bud set are promoted by FT2 in response to warm temperatures and long days in the growing season. The basis for functional differentiation between FT1 and FT2 appears to be expression pattern shifts, changes in proteins, and divergence in gene regulatory networks. Thus, temporal separation of reproductive onset and vegetative growth into different seasons via FT1 and FT2 provides seasonality and demonstrates the evolution of a complex perennial adaptive trait after genome duplication.
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Intratympanic steroid injections as a salvage treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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The purpose of this study was to determine, through a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, whether intratympanic steroid injections (ITSIs) could improve hearing recovery in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) who did not respond to initial systemic steroid therapy.
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Docosahexaenoic acid promotes dopaminergic differentiation in induced pluripotent stem cells and inhibits teratoma formation in rats with Parkinson-like pathology.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Parkinsons disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have shown potential for differentiation and may become a resource of functional neurons for the treatment of PD. However, teratoma formation is a major concern for transplantation-based therapies. This study examined whether functional neurons could be efficiently generated from iPS cells using a five-step induction procedure combined with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) treatment. We demonstrated that DHA, a ligand for the RXR/Nurr1 heterodimer, significantly activated expression of the Nurr1 gene and the Nurr1-related pathway in iPS cells. DHA treatment facilitated iPS differentiation into tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in vitro and in vivo and functionally increased dopamine release in transplanted grafts in PD-like animals. Furthermore, DHA dramatically upregulated the endogenous expression levels of neuroprotective genes (Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor) and protected against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced apoptosis in iPS-derived neuronal precursor cells. DHA-treated iPS cells significantly improved the behavior of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated PD-like rats compared to control or eicosapentaenoic acid-treated group. Importantly, the in vivo experiment suggests that DHA induces the differentiation of functional dopaminergic precursors and improves the abnormal behavior of 6-OHDA-treated PD-like rats by 4 months after transplantation. Furthermore, we found that DHA treatment in iPS cell-grafted rats significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of embryonic stem cell-specific genes (Oct-4 and c-Myc) in the graft and effectively blocked teratoma formation. Importantly, 3 Tesla-magnetic resonance imaging and ex vivo green fluorescence protein imaging revealed that no teratomas were present in transplanted grafts of DHA-treated iPS-derived DA neurons 4 months after implantation. Therefore, our data suggest that DHA plays a crucial role in iPS differentiation into functional DA neurons and that this approach could provide a novel therapeutic approach for PD treatment.
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Surface characterization and bond strengths between Ti-20Cr-1X alloys and low-fusing porcelain.
Dent Mater J
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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This study evaluated the bond strengths between experimental Ti-20Cr-1X (X=Nb, Mo, Fe, Zr) alloys and porcelain (Duceratin). The results of this bond strength testing indicated that all the Ti-20Cr-1X alloys exceeded the lower limit value in the ISO 9693 standard for the 3-point bending test (25 MPa), and were all higher than that of commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti). The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values of all Ti-20Cr-1X alloys were higher than that of c.p. Ti, and this result of a closer match between CTEs shows the fact that the Ti-20Cr-1Mo alloy had a significantly higher bond strength than both the other Ti-20Cr-1X alloys and c.p. Ti.
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Trajectories and covariates of life satisfaction among older adults in Taiwan.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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The goals of this study were to identify different life satisfaction trajectory groups among the Taiwanese elderly and to explore the relationships between life satisfaction and time-varying physical, mental, social, health, and economic variables. The data used herein were from five waves of a longitudinal study conducted from 1993 to 2007. Those who completed at least three waves were included in the analysis, for a total of 2584 participants. A group-based trajectory model was used to analyze the data. Time-constant variables and time-varying covariates were used as the moderators of changes in life satisfaction trajectories. Four life satisfaction trajectories were identified: low (21.8%), middle (39.7%), increasing (25.9%), and high-declining (12.5%). Having more education and better physical and psychological health, social support, and economic satisfaction were predictors of a higher life satisfaction trajectory, and maintaining good physical and emotional health, having a spouse, and having better economic satisfaction were associated with an increase in life satisfaction over time.
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Association of plasma adiponectin levels with hearing thresholds in adults.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Obesity is an independent risk factor for age-related hearing impairment. Adiponectin is one of the major adipocytokines secreted by adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to examine whether there is an association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and hearing sensitivity in adults.
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Coping strategies and adaptation for the disabled elderly in Taiwan.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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This study explored the relationship between coping strategies and adaptation difficulties for the disabled elderly.
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Transient ischemia/hypoxia enhances gentamicin ototoxicity via caspase-dependent cell death pathway.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
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Aminoglycoside ototoxicity is a common cause of drug-induced hearing loss. Toxicity is dose related, but some patients may still develop hearing loss even under safe dosage. Apart for genetic idiosyncrasy, indirect evidences imply that ischemia may increase the aminoglycoside ototoxic sensitivity because common clinical situations associated with cochlear ischemia such as noise, sepsis, and shock are known to augment the development of aminoglycoside ototoxicity. At present, a direct interaction of cochlear ischemia and aminoglycoside ototoxicity is still lacking. This study demonstrated a direct evidence of increased gentamicin (GM) ototoxic sensitivity in chronic guinea pig models of transient cochlear ischemia. No permanent auditory changes were observed after a single dose of GM (125 mg/kg) or after transient cochlear ischemia for 30 min. Persistent and significant auditory threshold shift was detected when GM was given after transient cochlear ischemia. Cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons are the major regions affected. Apoptosis contributes to hair cell death during acute interaction of ischemia and GM ototoxicity. Increased apoptotic cell death was also depicted when GM crossreacted with hypoxia in vitro, using cochlear cell lines. Generation of reactive oxygen species, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium release, and caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death were shown during the interaction of hypoxia and GM ototoxicity in vitro. This synergistic ototoxicity may be critical to aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss in clinical scenarios. The results should improve our understanding of the interacting mechanism and potential preventive strategy to aminoglycoside ototoxicity.
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Let-7d functions as novel regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and chemoresistant property in oral cancer.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a prevalent cancer worldwide. Let-7 family has been shown to function as a tumor suppressor through regulating multiple oncogenic signaling. Recent study reported that combined underexpression of miR-205 and let-7d showed negative correlation with the survival prognosis of head and neck cancer patients. However, the let-7d-involved mechanism in regulating OSCC is still unclear. In this study, we first demonstrated that let-7d expression was significantly decreased while Twist and Snail expression was increased in OSCC cancer cell lines and primary cultures as compared to normal human oral keratinocyte cells. To further investigate the role of let-7d in OSCC, we applied the SPONGE method to knock down let-7d in OECM-1 and two primary OSCC cell types. The results showed that knockdown of let-7d promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) traits and migratory/invasive capabilities in OSCC cells. Furthermore, down-expression of let-7d significantly activated Twist and Snail expressions and chemo-resistant abilities of OSCC cells. Notably, overexpression of let-7d effectively reversed the EMT phenotype, blocked migratory/invasive abilities, and further increased the chemosensitivity in oral cancer tumor initiating ALDH1+ cells. In sum, these results show that let-7d negatively modulates EMT expression and also plays a role in regulating chemo-resistant ability in oral cancer.
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New bioactive orange pigments with yellow fluorescence from Monascus-fermented dioscorea.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Red mold dioscorea (RMD) is a fermented product of Monascus purpureus NTU 568 using dioscorea as culture substrate. To investigate the bioactive components of RMD, six orange pigments including four new azaphilones with yellow fluorescence, monapilol A-D (1-4), and known monascorubrin (5) and rubropunctatin (6) were isolated and characterized. Structural elucidation of new isolates was based on nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) and other spectroscopic analyses. The structures of monapilols (1-4) were similar to those of monascorubrin (5) and rubropunctatin (6); however, the hydroxyl group (8-OH) in compounds 1-4 substituted for the C-8 carbonyl in compounds 5 and 6. Biological evaluation indicated that compounds 1-4 inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Compounds 1-4 also exhibited antiproliferative activities against human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp-2) and human colon adenocarinoma (WiDr).
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Poplar maintains zinc homeostasis with heavy metal genes HMA4 and PCS1.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Perennial woody species, such as poplar (Populus spp.) must acquire necessary heavy metals like zinc (Zn) while avoiding potential toxicity. Poplar contains genes with sequence homology to genes HMA4 and PCS1 from other species which are involved in heavy metal regulation. While basic genomic conservation exists, poplar does not have a hyperaccumulating phenotype. Poplar has a common indicator phenotype in which heavy metal accumulation is proportional to environmental concentrations but excesses are prevented. Phenotype is partly affected by regulation of HMA4 and PCS1 transcriptional abundance. Wild-type poplar down-regulates several transcripts in its Zn-interacting pathway at high Zn levels. Also, overexpressed PtHMA4 and PtPCS1 genes result in varying Zn phenotypes in poplar; specifically, there is a doubling of Zn accumulation in leaf tissues in an overexpressed PtPCS1 line. The genomic complement and regulation of poplar highlighted in this study supports a role of HMA4 and PCS1 in Zn regulation dictating its phenotype. These genes can be altered in poplar to change its interaction with Zn. However, other poplar genes in the surrounding pathway may maintain the phenotype by inhibiting drastic changes in heavy metal accumulation with a single gene transformation.
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Association of obstructive sleep apnea and auditory dysfunctions in older subjects.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2011
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Determine the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and auditory dysfunction in older subjects.
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A potential for granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for use as a prophylactic agent for heatstroke in rats.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Heatstroke is a form of excessive hyperthermia associated with a systemic inflammatory response that leads to multi-organ dysfunction in which central nervous system disorders predominate. Herein we determined to ascertain whether heat-induced multi-organ dysfunction in rats could be attenuated by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) preconditioning. Anesthetized rats were divided into 2 major groups and given vehicle solution (isotonic saline, 0.3 ml, subcutaneously) or G-CSF (50-200 ?g/kg body weight in 0.3 ml normal saline, subcutaneously) daily and consecutively for 5 days before the start of thermal experiments. They were exposed to an ambient temperature of 43°C for 68 min to induce heatstroke. G-CSF preconditioning significantly prolonged the survival time in heatstroke rats in a dose-related way (82-98 min vs 127-243 min). The non-preconditioning heatstroke animals showed hyperthermia, arterial hypotension, increased serum levels of systemic inflammatory response molecules, increased hypothalamic apoptotic cell numbers as well as neuronal damage scores, and increased serum levels of renal and hepatic dysfunction indicators. These heatstroke syndromes could be significantly reduced by G-CSF preconditioning. Thus our results revealed a potential for G-CSF used as a prophylactic agent for heatstroke in rats.
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Newborn genetic screening for hearing impairment: a preliminary study at a tertiary center.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) is of paramount importance for early identification and management of hearing impairment in children. However, infants with slight/mild, progressive, or late-onset hearing impairment might be missed in conventional UNHS. To investigate whether genetic screening for common deafness-associated mutations could assist in identifying these infants, 1017 consecutive newborns in a tertiary hospital were subjected to both newborn hearing screening using a two-step distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) screening and newborn genetic screening (NGS) for deafness. The NGS targeted 4 deafness-associated mutations commonly found in the Taiwanese population, including p.V37I (c.109G>A) and c.235delC of the GJB2 gene, c.919-2A>G of the SLC26A4 gene, and mitochondrial m.1555A>G of the 12S rRNA gene. The results of the NGS were then correlated to the results of the NHS. Of the 1017 newborns, 16 (1.6%) had unilateral DPOAE screening failure, and 22 (2.2%) had bilateral DPOAE screening failure. A total of 199 (19.6%) babies were found to have at least 1 mutated allele on the NGS for deafness, 11 (1.1%) of whom were homozygous for GJB2 p.V37I, 6 (0.6%) compound heterozygous for GJB2 p.V37I and c.235delC, and 1 (0.1%) homoplasmic for m.1555A>G, who may potentially have hearing loss. Among them, 3 babies, 5 babies, and 1 baby, respectively, passed the NHS at birth. Comprehensive audiological assessments in the 9 babies at 3 months identified 1 with slight hearing loss and 2 with mild hearing loss. NGS for common deafness-associated mutations may identify infants with slight/mild or potentially progressive hearing impairment, thus compensating for the inherent limitations of the conventional UNHS.
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Induced interleukin-19 contributes to cell-mediated immunosuppression in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2011
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Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) promotes immunosuppression, which predisposes patients to infectious complications. We investigated the role of interleukin (IL)-19 in the functions of CD4+ T cells in patients undergoing CABG with CPB.
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Nanoprobe-based immobilized metal affinity chromatography for sensitive and complementary enrichment of multiply phosphorylated peptides.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP, <100 nm) have rapidly evolved as sensitive affinity probes for phosphopeptide enrichment. By taking advantage of the easy magnetic separation and flexible surface modification of the MNP, we developed a surface-blocked, nanoprobe-based immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (NB-IMAC) method for the enhanced purification of multiply phosphorylated peptides. The NB-IMAC method allowed rapid and specific one-step enrichment by blocking the surface of titanium (IV) ion-charged nitrilotriacetic acid-conjugated MNP (Ti?-NTA-PEG@MNP) with low molecular weight polyethylene glycol. The MNP demonstrated highly sensitive and unbiased extraction of both mono- and multiply phosphorylated peptides from diluted ?-casein (2 × 10?¹? ?M). Without chemical derivation or fractionation, 1283 phosphopeptides were identified from 400 ?g of Raji B cells with 80% purification specificity. We also showed the first systematic comparison on the particle size effect between nano-sclae IMAC and micro-scale IMAC. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis revealed that MNP had a 4.6-fold higher capacity for metal ions per unit weight than did the magnetic micro-sized particle (MMP, 2-10 ?m), resulting in the identification of more phosphopeptides as well as a higher percentage of multiply phosphorylated peptides (31%) at the proteome scale. Furthermore, NB-IMAC complements chromatography-based IMAC and TiO? methods because <13% of mono- and 12% of multiply phosphorylated peptide identifications overlapped among the 2700 phosphopeptides identified by the three methods. Notably, the number of multiply phosphorylated peptides was enriched twofold and threefold by NB-IMAC relative to micro-scale IMAC and TiO?, respectively. NB-IMAC is an innovative material for increasing the identification coverage in phosphoproteomics.
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Group-based trajectories of depressive symptoms and the predictors in the older population.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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The goals of this study were to examine the group-based trajectories of depressive symptoms over an extended period among the older people and to identify the risk factors by gender.
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Postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal and middle ear: treatment outcomes, marginal misses, and perspective on target delineation.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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To report outcomes of the rare disease of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external auditory canal (EAC) and middle ear treated with surgery and postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Failure patterns related to spatial dose distribution were also analyzed to provide insight into target delineation.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.