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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Treatment of distal clavicle type ? fracture: suture anchor versus clavicular hook plate].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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To compare the efficacy of suture anchor with clavicular hook plate in treatment of type ? fractures of the distal clavicle. METHODS?Forty patients with Neer type ? fractures of distal clavicle were treated in our hospital from May 2009 to May 2010, including 21 cases treated with suture anchors and 19 cases treated with clavicular hook plate. The time of fracture union and Constant Murley scores were compared between two groups. RESULTS?All incisions reached primary healing, and there was no infection or hematoma formation. Postoperative follow-up time was 12-24 months, mean 14.5 months. The mean time of fracture reunion in suture anchors group was 13.2±2.0 weeks (9-17 weeks) and that in clavicular hook plate group was 13.3±2.0 weeks (10-16 weeks, P>0.05). The mean postoperative Constant Murley scores in suture anchors and hook plate groups were( 91.1±6.5)% and (89.2±7.6)%, respectively(P>0.05). But the pain score in suture anchor group was higher than that in hook plate group(12.6±1.9 vs 11.3±2.3, P<0.05). CONCLUSION?Compared with claviculer hook plate, the suture anchor has good clinical results and less complications in treatment of type ? fractures of distal clavicle?
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Pumping of water by rotating chiral carbon nanotube.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Water transportation inside carbon nanotubes is of great importance for designing novel nanodevices. In this article, by using molecular dynamics simulations, we systematically investigate the pumping of water by rotating carbon nanotube (CNT). It is found that the chirality and rotation of the CNT are two preconditions for stable water flux inside it. Besides, we find that the water flux shows an approximately logarithmic dependence on the angular velocity of the rotation, a linear dependence on the radius of the CNT, and interestingly, independence of its length within a certain range of CNT size and angular velocity. Further, we also use a dragging theory which successfully describes the water flux behaviors inside the CNT and can fit well with the results obtained from simulations. The present study provides insight into the designing of nanodevices based on the CNT for real applications.
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[Clinical characteristics of infants with allergic proctocolitis: a retrospective study of 96 cases].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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To study the clinical characteristics of hospitalized infants with allergic proctocolitis, and to provide a scientific basis for early diagnosis and effective treatment of allergic proctocolitis.
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Characterization of the complete nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences of Paramphistomum cervi.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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Sequences of the complete nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene from five individual Paramphistomum cervi were determined for the first time. The five complete rDNA sequences, which included the 18S rDNA, the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), the 5.8S rDNA, the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), the 28S rDNA, and the intergenic spacer (IGS) regions, had a length range of 8,493-10,221 bp. The lengths of the investigated 18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, and 28S rDNA sequences, which were 1,994 bp, 1,293 bp, 157 bp, 286 bp, and 4,186 bp, respectively, did not vary. However, the IGS rDNA sequences had a length range of 577-2,305 bp. The 5.8S and ITS-2 rDNA sequences had 100% identity among the five investigated samples, while the identities among the IGS had a range of 53.7-99.8%. A comparative analysis revealed that different types and numbers of repeats were found within each ITS1 and IGS region, which may be related to the length polymorphism of IGS. The phylogenetic position of P. cervi in Paramphistomatidae was analyzed based on the 18S rDNA sequences. These results will aid in studying the intra- and interspecific variation of the Paramphistomatidae and the systematics and phylogenetics of Digenea.
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The coexisting phase behavior of thermo-responsive copolymer solutions.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Using a molecular theory for dilute PEO-b-PNIPAm solutions, we first take the formation of hydrogen bonds between copolymer monomers and water molecules into account, which enables us to study the impact of temperature on PEO-b-PNIPAm self-assembly effectively by quantitatively describing the different changes in water affinities of two blocks. With the increase of temperature, hydrogen bonds between PNIPAm and water break down dramatically, resulting in the hydrophobic character of PNIPAm while PEO remains hydrophilic. Amphiphilic copolymers in the aqueous surrounding can aggregate into various structures: micelles and vesicles. According to the equilibrium criterion of the excess grand potential under the conditions of the grand canonical ensemble, we find that both structures are stable and can coexist. Theoretically calculated potentials of mean force of aggregates further verify the coexistence of micelles and vesicles, although the low critical solution temperatures of different aggregates are different under these conditions. A phase diagram as functions of temperature and the weight fraction of PEO (fPEO) is obtained, which shows different regions of micelles, vesicles and their coexistence. It implies the appearance of two types of micelle-vesicle transition: spontaneous and temperature-induced. Since PEO-b-PNIPAm as a thermoresponsive material has a broad range of applications, a systematic investigation of the phase behavior is very useful not only for the scientific interest but also for the practical applications.
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New phenolic glycosides from Pilea cavaleriei.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Five new phenolic glycosides, 2-hydroxy-(2'E)-prenyl benzoate-2,4'-di-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), 2-hydroxy-(2'E)-prenyl benzoate-2-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), 4-methylphenol-1-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), 4-methylphenol-1-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-D-glucopyranoside (4), and 3,5-dimethoxyphenol-1-O-?-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 ? 2)-?-D-glucopyranoside (5), together with six known glycosides (6-11), were isolated from the n-BuOH fraction of the EtOH extract of Pilea cavaleriei Levl subsp. cavaleriei. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as HR-ESI-MS, and chemical evidences. All these compounds were isolated from the genus Pilea for the first time.
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Hydrothermal synthesis of nanocrystalline NaX zeolite at room temperature.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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NaX zeolites were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis under room-temperature conditions. Some influence parameters such as crystallization time, Al2O3/SiO2, Na2O/SiO2 and H2O/SiO2 molar ratios on the crystalline end products were studied, the products were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, particle size analysis and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. The results indicated that although 28 days product was fully crystalline according to the XRD investigation, the crystals were able to continue to grow. The TEM revealed that the samples were composed of highly crystalline NaX zeolite nanocrystals with the average size of around 30 nm. Long crystallization time favored the aggregation of individual nanocrystals, which led to the formation of large congregated agglomerates. Furthermore, mild alkalinity circumstance was favorable for the crystallization of FAU zeolite. However, higher water quantity resulted in the formation of larger steady congregated agglomerates. The samples obtained with H2O/SiO2 molar ratios of 100, 150, 250, 300 and 400 showed the mean particle sizes of 42, 108, 359, 551 and 962 nm, with the particle size distribution ranges of 30-63, 62-140, 215-602, 345-746 and 498-1395 nm, respectively.
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Genetic variability among Syphacia obvelata isolates from laboratory mice in four different geographical locations of China revealed by sequence analyses of five mitochondrial genes.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Abstract Syphacia obvelata is a rodent nematode with high prevalence in laboratory mice. In the present study, we examined the genetic variability of S. obvelata from naturally infected laboratory mice in four different provinces, China. Five mitochondrial (mt) DNA regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (pcox1), cytochrome b (pcytb), large subunit ribosomal RNA (prrnL) and NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 5 (pnad1 and pnad5), were amplified separately from individual nematodes by PCR, and then sequenced directly. The size of the sequences of pcox1, pcytb, prrnL, pnad1 and pnad5 was 628?bp, 555?bp, 548?bp, 548?bp and 561?bp, respectively. While the intra-specific sequence variations within S. obvelata were 0-1.0% for pcox1, 0-1.6% for pcytb, 0-2.8% for prrnL, 0-2.0% for pnad1 and 0-1.8% for pnad5, the inter-specific sequence differences among members of the Oxyuridae were significantly higher, being 14.0-17.5% for pcox1, 27.5-32.9% for pcytb, 35.8-37.2% for prrnL, 22.2-26.8% for pnad1 and 22.3-25.2% for pnad5, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on combined sequences of four mt protein-coding genes, using Bayesian inference (BI), maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods, indicated that all of the S. obvelata samples grouped together with high statistical support, but samples from the same geographical origin did not always cluster together. These findings demonstrated the existence of low-level intra-specific variation in five mtDNA sequences among S. obvelata isolates from laboratory mice, but no obvious geographical distinction among S. obvelata isolates from laboratory mice in different geographic regions in China. These results provide basic information for further studies of systematics and population genetics of S. obvelata.
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Impact of emission control on regional air quality: an observational study of air pollutants before, during and after the Beijing Olympic Games.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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An observational study on trace gases and PM2.5 was conducted at three sites in and around Beijing, during the Olympic season from 2007 to 2009. Air quality improved significantly during the Olympic Games due to the special emission control measures. However, concentrations of the primary pollutants and PM were found to have risen significantly after the Games. Although the major O3 precursors (NO(x) and VOCs) were well controlled during the Olympic season, O3 was still found to be the highest in 2008, based on the data of ground-based observation. All this information suggests that while control of regional emissions for the Beijing Olympic Games did improved the air quality in Beijing, more efforts will be needed for the continuous improvement of regional air quality, especially for significant reductions of O3 and fine particulate pollution, and not only in Beijing, but also in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.
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Spatial and temporal variation of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in 26 cities in China.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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O3 and PM2.5 were introduced into the newly revised air quality standard system in February 2012, representing a milestone in the history of air pollution control, and China's urban air quality will be evaluated using six factors (SO2, NO2, O3, CO, PM2.5 and PM10) from the beginning of 2013. To achieve the new air quality standard, it is extremely important to have a primary understanding of the current pollution status in various cities. The spatial and temporal variations of the air pollutants were investigated in 26 pilot cities in China from August 2011 to February 2012, just before the new standard was executed. Hourly averaged SO2, NO2 and PM10 were observed in 26 cities, and the pollutants O3, CO and PM2.5 were measured in 15 of the 26 cities. The concentrations of SO2 and CO were much higher in the cities in north China than those in the south. As for O3 and NO2, however, there was no significant difference between northern and southern cities. Fine particles were found to account for a large proportion of airborne particles, with the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 ranging from 55% to 77%. The concentrations of PM2.5 (57.5 microg/m3) and PM10 (91.2 microg/m3) were much higher than the values (PM2.5: 11.2 microg/m3; PM10: 35.6 microg/m3) recommended by the World Health Organization. The attainment of the new urban air quality standard in the investigated cities is decreased by 20% in comparison with the older standard without considering O3, CO and PM2.5, suggesting a great challenge in urban air quality improvement, and more efforts will to be taken to control air pollution in China.
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Photochemical properties and source of pollutants during continuous pollution episodes in Beijing, October, 2011.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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Beijing suffered from serious air pollution in October, 2011 with the occurrence of three continuous episodes. Here we analyze the pollution status of particulate matter, the relationship between the gaseous pollutants, physical and chemical properties of single particles, and the profile of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 during the three episodes. Regional and photochemically aged air masses, which were characterized as having high values of O3 and SO2, were hypothesized to have played a dominant role in the first episode. After mixing local air masses with freshly-emitted primary pollutants, the concentration of NO(x) continued to increase and the size of SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) in the particle population continued to become smaller. The amount of elemental carbon-rich and organic carbon-rich particles in the scaled single particles (0.2-2 microm) and water-soluble K(+) in PM2.5 also increased in the episodes. All the available information suggests that the biomass or fuel burning sources in or around Beijing may have had a huge impact on the last two episodes.
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Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the ovaries of multiple and uniparous goats (Capra hircus) during follicular phase.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Superior kidding rate is an important economic trait in production of meat goat, and ovulation rate is the precondition of kidding rate. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in almost all ovarian biological processes, including folliculogenesis, follicle development, follicle atresia, luteal development and regression. To find out the different ovarian activity and follicle recruitment with miRNA-mediated posttranscriptional regulation, the small RNAs expressed pattern in the ovarian tissues of multiple and uniparous Anhui White goats during follicular phase was analyzed using Solexa sequencing data.
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Comparative analyses of the complete mitochondrial genomes of the two ruminant hookworms Bunostomum trigonocephalum and Bunostomum phlebotomum.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Bunostomum trigonocephalum and Bunostomum phlebotomum are blood-feeding hookworms of sheep and cattle, causing considerable economic losses to the live stock industries. Studying genetic variability within and among hookworm populations is critical to addressing epidemiological and ecological questions. Mitochondrial (mt) DNA is known to provide useful markers for investigations of population genetics of hookworms, but mt genome sequence data are scant. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of the sheep and goat hookworm B. trigonocephalum were determined for the first time, and the mt genome of B. phlebotomum from yak in China was also sequenced for comparative analyses of their gene contents and genome organizations. The lengths of mt DNA sequences of B. trigonocephalum sheep isolate, B. trigonocephalum goat isolate and B. phlebotomum China yak isolate were 13,764bp, 13,771bp and 13,803bp in size, respectively. The identity of the mt genomes was 99.7% between B. trigonocephalum sheep isolate and B. trigonocephalum goat isolate. The identity of B. phlebotomum China yak isolate mt genomes was 85.3% with B. trigonocephalum sheep isolate, and 85.2% with B. trigonocephalum goat isolate. All the mt genes of the two hookworms were transcribed in the same direction and gene arrangements were consistent with those of the GA3 type, including 12 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes, but lacking ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene. The mt genomes of B. trigonocephalum and B. phlebotomum were similar to prefer bases A and T, the contents of A+T are 76.5% (sheep isolate), 76.4% (goat isolate) and 76.9% (China yak isolate), respectively. Phylogenetic relationships reconstructed using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes with three methods (maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference and neighbor joining) revealed that the B. trigonocephalum and B. phlebotomum represent distinct but closely-related species. These data provide novel and useful genetic markers for studying the systematics, and population genetics of the two ruminant hookworms.
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Pten regulates homeostasis and inflammation-induced migration of myelocytes in zebrafish.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Loss of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is frequently observed in hematopoietic malignancies. Although PTEN has been implicated in maintaining the quiescence of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), its role in hematopoiesis during ontogeny remains largely unexplored.
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Sequence variability in four mitochondrial genes among pinworm Aspicularis tetraptera isolates from laboratory mice in four provinces, China.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Abstract This research aimed at exploring sequence variability in four mitochondrial (mt) genes, namely, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), cytochrome b (cytb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 5 (nad1 and nad5), among pinworm Aspicularis tetraptera isolates from laboratory mice in four different provinces, China. A part of the cox1 (pcox1), cytb (pcytb), nad1 and nad5 genes (pnad1 and pnad5) were amplified separately from individual pinworms by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced to determine sequence variations and examine their phylogenetic relationships. Herein, the intra-specific sequence variations within A. tetraptera were 0-0.5% for pcox1, 0-1.4% for pcytb, 0-1.8% for pnad1 and 0-1.7% for pnad5, respectively. In contrast, the inter-specific sequence differences among members of the Oxyuridae were significantly higher, being 13.7-17.0% for pcox1, 24.5-34.7% for pcytb, 26.6-29.6% for pnad1 and 24.4-25.5% for pnad5, respectively. Three methods, namely, Bayesian inference (BI), maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP), were used for phylogenetic analyses based on the combined sequences of the four mt gene sequences, and the results indicated that all A. tetraptera samples form monophyletic groups, but samples from the same geographical origin did not always cluster together. This study demonstrated the existence of low-level intra-specific variation in four mtDNA sequences among A. tetraptera isolates from laboratory mice in different geographic regions in China, indicating no obvious geographical distinction among A. tetraptera isolates in China. These findings have important implications for studying systematics, molecular epidemiology and population genetics of A. tetraptera.
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Genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Brachypodium distachyon.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MADS-box genes are important transcription factors for plant development, especially floral organogenesis. Brachypodium distachyon is a model for biofuel plants and temperate grasses such as wheat and barley, but a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box family proteins in Brachypodium is still missing. We report here a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Brachypodium distachyon. We identified 57 MADS-box genes and classified them into 32 MIKC(c)-type, 7 MIKC*-type, 9 M?, 7 M? and 2 M? MADS-box genes according to their phylogenetic relationships to the Arabidopsis and rice MADS-box genes. Detailed gene structure and motif distribution were then studied. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that Brachypodium MADS-box genes distributed evenly across five chromosomes. In addition, five pairs of type II MADS-box genes were found on synteny blocks derived from whole genome duplication blocks. We then performed a systematic expression analysis of Brachypodium MADS-box genes in various tissues, particular floral organs. Further detection under salt, drought, and low-temperature conditions showed that some MADS-box genes may also be involved in abiotic stress responses, including type I genes. Comparative studies of MADS-box genes among Brachypodium, rice and Arabidopsis showed that Brachypodium had fewer gene duplication events. Taken together, this work provides useful data for further functional studies of MADS-box genes in Brachypodium distachyon.
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Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) is predominantly expressed in the brain and negatively regulates hepatopancreatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression.
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ovarian maturation in crustaceans is temporally orchestrated by two processes: oogenesis and vitellogenesis. The peptide hormone vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean reproduction known, critically modulates crustacean ovarian maturation by suppressing vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis. In this study, cDNA encoding VIH was cloned from the eyestalk of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, a highly significant commercial culture species. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. vannamei VIH (lvVIH) can be classified as a member of the type II crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family. Northern blot and RT-PCR results reveal that both the brain and eyestalk were the major sources for lvVIH mRNA expression. In in vitro experiments on primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, it was confirmed that some endogenous inhibitory factors existed in L. vannamei hemolymph, brain, and eyestalk that suppressed hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression. Purified recombinant lvVIH protein was effective in inhibiting VTG mRNA expression in both in vitro primary hepatopancreatic cell culture and in vivo injection experiments. Injection of recombinant VIH could also reverse ovarian growth induced by eyestalk ablation. Furthermore, unilateral eyestalk ablation reduced the mRNA level of lvVIH in the brain but not in the remaining contralateral eyestalk. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights on VIH regulation of shrimp reproduction: 1) the brain and eyestalk are both important sites of VIH expression and therefore possible coregulators of hepatopancreatic VTG mRNA expression and 2) eyestalk ablation could increase hepatopancreatic VTG expression by transcriptionally abolishing eyestalk-derived VIH and diminishing brain-derived VIH.
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[Progress in the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia and disturbances of carbohydrate and fat metabolism resulted from an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin and insulin resistance. Recent studies indicate that oxidative stress may have a central role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Currently, the diagnosis of body oxidative stress level mainly depends on the detection of oxidative stress markers including reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and lipid peroxide in clinical and experimental studies with methods combining physical and chemical means. The mechanism underlying oxidative stress-induced diabetes mainly may be through two ways. Firstly oxidative stress damages the normal function of islet ? cells, through the destruction of mitochondrial structure and inducing apoptosis, activation of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-?B) signaling pathway, causing cell inflammatory response, and reducing insulin synthesis and secretion by inhibiting pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1) nuclear cytoplasm translocation as well as inhibiting energy metabolism; Secondly, oxidative stress induces insulin resistance by interfering physiological activities related to insulin signaling including phosphorylation of insulin receptor (InsR) and insulin receptor substrate (IRS), the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), as well as injuring the cytoskeleton. Studying the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetes not only helps to reveal the pathogenesis of diabetes, but also provides a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of diabetes.
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The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eimeria magna (Apicomplexa: Coccidia).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Abstract In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Eimeria magna from rabbits for the first time, and compared its gene contents and genome organizations with that of seven Eimeria spp. from domestic chickens. The size of the complete mt genome sequence of E. magna is 6249?bp, which consists of 3 protein-coding genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3), 12 gene fragments for the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, and 7 gene fragments for the small subunit (SSU) rRNA, without transfer RNA genes, in accordance with that of Eimeria spp. from chickens. The putative direction of translation for three genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3) was the same as those of Eimeria species from domestic chickens. The content of A?+?T is 65.16% for E. magna mt genome (29.73% A, 35.43% T, 17.09 G and 17.75% C). The E. magna mt genome sequence provides novel mtDNA markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Eimeria spp. and has implications for the molecular diagnosis and control of rabbit coccidiosis.
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Elevating Bioavailability of Curcumin via Encapsulation with a Novel Formulation of Artificial Oil Bodies.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Utilization of curcumin has been limited due to its poor oral bioavailability. Oral bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds might be elevated via encapsulation in artificial seed oil bodies. This study aimed to improve oral bioavailability of curcumin via this encapsulation. Unfortunately, curcumin was indissoluble in various seed oils. A mixed dissolvent formula was used to dissolve curcumin, and the admixture was successfully encapsulated in artificial oil bodies stabilized by recombinant sesame caleosin. The artificial oil bodies of relatively small sizes (150 nm) were stably solidified in the forms of powder and tablet. Oral bioavailability of curcumin with or without encapsulation in artificial oil bodies was assessed in Sprague-Dawley male rats. The results showed that encapsulation of curcumin significantly elevated its bioavailability and provided the highest maximum whole blood concentration (Cmax), 37 ± 28 ng/mL, in the experimental animals 45 ± 17 min (tmax) after oral administration. Relative bioavailability calculated on the basis of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was increased by 47.7 times when curcumin was encapsulated in the artificial oil bodies. This novel formulation of artificial oil bodies seems to possess great potential to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs for oral administration.
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Sequence variability in three mitochondrial genes among four roundworm species from wild animals in China.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Abstract Sequence variability in three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely portions of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (pcox1), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (pnad1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (pnad4), for Toxocara canis. Baylisacaris transfuga. Ascaris suum and Parascaris equorum from Canis lupus. Ursus thibetanus. Sus scrofa and Equus burchelli in China were examined. The lengths of the sequences of pcox1, pnad1 and pnad4 were 711?bp, 648?bp and 666?bp, respectively. No intra-species differences were detected in pcox1 for the four examined ascarid species, in pnad1 for T. canis. A. suum and P. equorum, and in pnad4 for B. transfuga and P. equorum. Sequence differences in pnad4 for six roundworm samples of T. canis and P. equorum were 0-0.1% and 0-0.3%, respectively, and were 0-0.3% in pnad1 for six roundworm samples isolate of B. transfuga. The inter-specific sequence differences among four species were 8.7-12.4% for pcox1, 13.9-17.7% for pnad1, and 14.0-25.7% for pnad4. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the three mtDNA fragments could be used to identify ascarid species in families Ascaridiae and Toxocaridae.
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[Wetlands of priority restoration in Northeast China based on spatial analysis].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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By using GIS/RS technology, and from the aspects of landscape structure, river- and road densities, wetness index, geomorphology, and cultivated land productivity, a spatial analysis was made on the potentiality of wetland restoration in Northeast China, with the regions of priority and secondary priority restoration wetlands determined. Then, by using the coordinated development index of crop production and wetland as well as the landscape indices, the wetland restoration effect was verified. In Northeast China, the wetland area of priority restoration was 1.78 x 10(6) hm2, among which, farmland and grassland were the main types for restoration, accounting for 96.7% of the total, and mainly located in the Sanjiang Plain in the northeastern part and the Songnen Plain in the central part of Northeast China. The wetland area of secondary priority restoration was 1.03 x 10(6) hm2. After the restoration of the wetlands, the wetland area in Northeast China would be increased by 37.4%, compared with the present wetland area, and the value of the coordinated development index of crop production and wetland would increase from 0.539 before restoration to 0.733 after restoration. The landscape pattern would be more benefit to the performance of the ecological functions of the wetlands. This study revealed that the restoration scheme of the wetlands in Northeast China based on spatial analysis was practicable, which could provide data support for the implement of wetland restoration and the improvement of ecological environment in Northeast China.
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Cannabinoid receptor 2 suppresses leukocyte inflammatory migration by modulating the JNK/c-Jun/Alox5 pathway.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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The role of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (Cnr2) in regulating immune function had been widely investigated, but the mechanism is not fully understood.
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Activated N-Ras signaling regulates arterial-venous specification in zebrafish.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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The aberrant activation of Ras signaling is associated with human diseases including hematological malignancies and vascular disorders. So far the pathological roles of activated Ras signaling in hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis are largely unknown.
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Genetic variation among Clonorchis sinensis isolates from different hosts and geographical locations revealed by sequence analysis of mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA regions.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The present study examined genetic variability among Clonorchis sinensis isolates from four different geographical localities (Guangzhou, Nanning, Jiamusi and Daqing) and host species (cats, dogs, human and rabbits) in Mainland China by sequence analyses of two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes, namely NADH dehydrogenase subunits 2, 5 (nad2 and nad5) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1). A portion of the ITS1, nad2 (pnad2) and nad5 (pnad5) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction separately from adult C. sinensis individuals and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing from both directions. The length of the sequences of ITS1, pnad2 and pnad5 was 643, 666 and 771 bp, respectively. The intraspecific sequence variations within C. sinensis were 0-1.7% for ITS1, 0-1.4% for pnad2 and 0-0.9% for pnad5. The interspecific sequence variations within other zoonotic trematodes, which were published previously, were 4.5-84.9% for ITS1, 21.9-43.6% for pnad2 and 19.2-48.9% for pnad5. The A+T contents of the sequences were 45.26-45.88% (ITS1), 62.91-63.51% (pnad2) and 58.24-58.63% (pnad5). Phylogenetic analyses using ribosomal and mitochondrial sequence data set, with three different computational algorithms (Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood), all revealed distinct groups with high statistical support. These findings demonstrated the existence of low-level intraspecific variations in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and mtDNA sequences among C. sinensis isolates from four different regions and hosts in China and elucidated that mtDNA sequences and rDNA sequences provided reliable genetic markers for phylogenetic studies of zoonotic trematodes.
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Expression of G protein estrogen receptor (GPER) on membrane of mouse oocytes during maturation.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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To determine expression of G-protein estrogen receptor (GPER) in mouse oocyte membrane during maturation.
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Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the pancreatic fluke Eurytrema pancreaticum.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Eurytrema pancreaticum is one of the most common flukes, which mainly infects ruminants globally and infects human beings accidentally; causing eurytremiasis that has high veterinary and economic importance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs and are now considered as a key mechanism of gene regulation at the post-transcription level.
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[Distribution, flux and photoproduction of carbon monoxide in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea in spring].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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Concentration distribution, sea-to-air flux, photoproduction of carbon monoxide (CO) in the surface seawater and atmospheric CO mixing ratio were measured in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. A headspace analysis system was used for CO measurement. The concentrations of CO in the surface seawater ranged from 0.19 to 3.57 nmol x L(-1), with an average of 1.24 nmol x L(-1) ( SD = 0.79, n = 69). Overall, the concentrations of CO displayed a decreasing trend from the coast to the offshore stations and followed diurnal variations after classifying and averaging the CO concentrations according to sampling and analysing time in the unit of one hour, with the maximum values in midnoon which was 10 folds higher than the minimum values in predawn. Atmospheric CO mixing ratios varied from 215 x 10(-9) to 850 x 10(-9), with an average of 414 x 10(-9) (SD = 140 x 10(-9), n = 69), due to obvious terrestrial input. The supersaturation factors of CO varied from 0.42-18.90, with an average of 3.61 (SD = 2.99, n = 69), indicating that the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea was a net source of atmospheric CO. The average sea-to-air fluxes of CO from the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea were estimated to be (1.22 +/- 1.70) micromol x (m2 x d)(-1) by the LM86 equation and (2.13 +/- 2.91) micromol x (m2 x d)(-1) by the W92 equation, respectively. Using SMARTS2 spectral irradiance model to estimate CO production, the photoproduction rate of CO was 54.60 micromol x (m2 x d)(-1) and the photoproduction of carbon in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea was 26.95 x 10(9) g in spring. The photoproduction rate of CO was 25-50 times higher than the sea-to-air flux, suggesting that most part of CO was removed by microbial process in the surface seawater.
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Time dependence of lysozyme adsorption on end-grafted polymer layers of variable grafting density and length.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2011
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A combined experimental and theoretical approach establishes the long-lived nature of protein adsorption on surfaces coated with chemically grafted macromolecules. Specifically, we monitor the time dependence of adsorption of lysozyme on surfaces comprising polymer assemblies made of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) brushes grafted onto flat silica surfaces such that they produce patterns featuring orthogonal and gradual variation of the chain length (N) and grafting density (?). We show that in the kinetically controlled regime, the amount of adsorbed protein scales universally with the product ?N, while at equilibrium the amount of adsorbed protein is governed solely by ?. Surprisingly, for moderate concentrations of protein in solution, adsorption takes more than 72 h to reach an equilibrium, or steady state. Our experimental findings are corroborated with predictions using molecular theory that provides further insight into the protein adsorption phenomenon. The theory predicts that the universal behavior observed experimentally should be applicable to polymers in poor and theta solvents and to a limited extent also to good solvent conditions. Our combined experimental and theoretical findings reveal that protein adsorption is a long-lived phenomenon, much longer than generally assumed. Our studies confirm the previously predicted important differences in behavior for the kinetic versus thermodynamic control of protein adsorption.
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[Spatial and temporal variability of soil C/N ratio in Songnen Plain maize belt].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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The C/N ratio of soils is a sensitive indicator of soil quality, and an indicator for assessing carbon and nitrogen nutrition balance of soils. Its variation is significant in reflecting the carbon and nitrogen cycling of soils. Based on field investigation, sample collection and analysis, and application of geostatistics and GIS technology, spatial and temporal variation of C/N ratio was analyzed and studied from 1980 to 2005 in Songnen Plain maize belt. The results indicated that the mean value of C/N ratio is 10.56 and 12.30 in 1980 and 2005, respectively. Spatial correlation distance of soil C/N ratio in two periods is 196.3 km and 51.1 km, showing a decreasing trend, which indicated that farming management factors were enhancing. In the past 25 years, 84.88% of soil C/N ratio was on rise with the highest value in the west of the study area, but parts of Dehui County and Jiutai County decreased. As for different land use types, soil C/N ratios in the upland, paddy land, forest and woodland and grassland showed upward trends, with the highest increase from 10.03 +/- 1.12 in 1980 to 12.61 +/- 0.87 in 2005 in grassland and higher in upland and paddy land than the national average. The increasing soil C/N ratio illustrated that soil carbon increased faster than nitrogen. To maintain the steady growth of soil C/N ratio, it is suggested that the return of carbon be paid more attention when the input of nitrogen, such as incorporating crop residues into soil and inputting more organic fertilizers into soils for future farming practices.
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[The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in pain facilitation and spinal mechanism in rat model of bone cancer pain].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2011
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To investigate the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in pain facilitation and spinal mechanisms in the rat model of bone cancer pain.
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Distribution and expression characteristics of triterpenoids and OSC genes in white birch (Betula platyphylla suk.).
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Betulin and oleanolic acids (pentacyclic triterpenoid secondary metabolites) have broad pharmacological activities and can be potentially used for the development of anti-cancer and anti-AIDS drugs. In this study, we detected the accumulation and the distribution characteristics of betulin and oleanolic acid in various organs of white birch at different ages. We also determined the expression of 4 OSC genes (LUS, ?-AS, CAS1 and CAS2) involved in the triterpenoid synthesis pathways by real time RT-PCR. The result showed that the 1-year old birch can synthesize betulin and oleanolic acid. In addition, betulin and oleanolic acids were mainly distributed in the bark, while the content in the root skin and leaf was very low. The content of betulin and oleanolic acid in birch varied in different seasons. The content of betulin and oleanolic acid and their corresponding LUS and ?-AS gene expression were very low in 1-year old birch. With increasing age of birch, betulin content was increased, while oleanolic acid was decreased. Similar changes were also observed for their corresponding synthesis genes LUS and ?-AS. In the leaf of 1-year old plant, the highest expression of CAS1 and CAS2 occurred at end of September, while expression of LUS and the ?-AS was low from June to October. In the stem skin,high expression of ?-AS and the LUS genes occurred from the end of July to September. In the root, high expression of the ?-AS gene was observed at the end of October. These results indicated that triterpenoid gene expression was similar to the triterpene accumulation. Expression of LUS gene and ?-AS gene in birch with different ages were corresponding to the betulinic and oleanolic acid accumulation. Expression of CAS1 and CAS2 genes were elevated with increasing age of birch. This study provides molecular mechanisms of triterpenes synthesis in birch plants.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Orientobilharzia turkestanicum supports its affinity with African Schistosoma spp.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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Orientobilharzia turkestanicum is a blood fluke of many mammals and causes orientobilharziasis that is also a neglected parasitic zoonosis because the cercaria of O. turkestanicum can infect humans and cause cercarial dermatitis. The present study determined the complete sequence of mt genome of O. turkestanicum and revised its phylogenetic position based on mt gene content and arrangement. The complete mtDNA sequence of O. turkestanicum was 14,755 bp in length, which is slightly larger than the mtDNA genomes of three species of the blood flukes, Schistosoma mekongi (14,072 bp), Schistosoma japonicum (14,085 bp) and Schistosoma mansoni (14,415 bp), but smaller than Schistosoma haematobium (15,003 bp) and Schistosoma spindale (16,901 bp). The mt genome of O. turkestanicum contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes, but lacks an atp8 gene, consistent with that of Schistosoma species. The mt genome arrangement of O. turkestanicum contains an AT-rich region and two non-coding regions (NCRs), including long non-coding region (LNR) and short non-coding region (SNR). Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acids sequences showed that O. turkestanicum belonged to the genus Schistosoma, and is phylogenetically closer to the African schistosome group (S. haematobium, S. spindale and S. mansoni) than to the Asian group (S. mekongi and S. japonicum). But the arrangement of mtDNA protein-coding genes for O. turkestanicum is the same as Asian group, and distinct from the African species. Combining content and arrangement of mtDNA for O. turkestanicum, we conclude that O. turkestanicum should be considered a member of the Schistosoma genus, which shares a closer affinity to the African schistosomes than the Asian species, and gene order of mt genome in O. turkestanicum would be considered sympleisiomorphic (perhaps retained from the ancestor).
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Characterization of role of the toxR gene in the physiology and pathogenicity of Vibrio alginolyticus.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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toxR, a conserved virulence-associated gene in vibrios, is identified in Vibrio alginolyticus ZJ51-O, a pathogenic strain isolated from diseased fish. To reveal the role of ToxR in the pathogenicity of V. alginolyticus, a deletion mutant was constructed by allelic exchange. The mutant showed the same level of growth in trypticase soy broth (TSB) and iron-limiting condition, as the wild type strain. However, deletion of toxR severely reduced resistance against bile salts and the capability of biofilm formation. Outer-membrane protein (OMP) analysis showed that a 37-kD protein was absent and a 43-kD protein was decreased in the mutant. By MS/MS, the two proteins are identified as the homologues of OmpT and OmpN, respectively. These data suggest that ToxR might have enhanced the bile resistance and biofilm formation through modulating the production of OMP without affecting the ability of iron acquisition and the virulence to the fish via injection. These results indicate that ToxR may assist V. alginolyticus to colonize on the surface of the fish intestine which is crucial for the initiation of the infection, though it may not be involved in the proliferation of the bacteria in the host tissue.
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Application of ultrasound contrast in identification and diagnosis of ocular spaceoccupying lesions.
Int J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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To analyze the application significance of ultrasound contrast agent in identification and diagnosis of ocular spaceoccupying lesions, and mainly analyze its advantages and problems.
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SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR targeting the rpoX gene for sensitive and rapid detection of Vibrio alginolyticus.
Mol. Cell. Probes
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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rpoX, a Vibrio alginolyticus specific stress regulating gene, was used to detect this fish pathogen by SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR. The specificity of the detection was confirmed in different samples. The minimum level of detection was 10(3) cells from pure culture and 10(2) cells from seawater.
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Genomics and molecular genetics of Clonorchis sinensis: current status and perspectives.
Parasitol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Clonorchiasis caused by Clonorchis sinensis is an important foodborne parasitosis of humans and animals, and is predominantly a hepatobiliary disease. Globally, nearly 35 million people were infected with C. sinensis, with approximately 15 million being in China. Patients would chronically present fatigue, jaundice, abdominal discomfort, along with the increased risk of developing into a form of cholangiocarcinoma that is fatal to humans. Treatment of clonorchiasis by praziquantel has been very successful, but this is dependent on early accurate diagnosis and correct species identification. The present article reviews the current status of knowledge in genomics and functional genomics of C. sinensis, and summarizes the main DNA-based techniques for the specific diagnosis of C. sinensis infection and studies of genetic variation in C. sinensis, and provides perspectives for future studies. The advances in genomics and molecular genetics of C. sinensis shed new sight on our understanding of population structure of C. sinensis as well as the prevention and control of clonorchiasis.
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Heart fatty acid-binding protein may not be an early biomarker for anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in rabbits.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
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The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using serum heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) concentrations as an early biomarker for doxorubicin-induced myocardial damage. Forty-four male rabbits were randomly divided into a control (8 rabbits) or one of four doxorubicin groups (8 rabbits in each group). Rabbits in the control group received saline, whereas rabbits in the doxorubicin group received 2 mg/kg doxorubicin weekly for 1-8 weeks. Rabbits in the doxorubicin groups received doxorubicin 2 mg/kg for one (Group 1, 8 rabbits), two (Group 2, 8 rabbits), four (Group 3, 9 rabbits), or eight (Group 4, 11 rabbits) weeks. Echocardiography was performed to measure left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), shortening fraction (FS), and E/A ratio. Cardiotoxicity scores were assessed by light microscopy using Billinghams method and also by electron microscopy. Serum H-FABP concentrations were quantified by a rabbit-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Decreased LVEF, FS, and E/A ratio were detected in Group 4 (P < 0.05). Billingham cardiomyopathy scores of the rabbits in Group 3 were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of rabbits in the control group or Groups 1 or 2. Billingham cardiomyopathy scores in Group 4 were the highest of all groups (P < 0.05). Myocardial injury was demonstrable by electron microscopy in rabbits in Groups 2, 3, and 4. Compared with the control group, serum H-FABP concentrations increased only in Group 4 (P < 0.05). Serum H-FABP concentrations may not be a sensitive method for assessing early cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin.
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2,2-(p-Phenyl-ene)bis-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-3-ium) bis-(3-nitro-benzoate).
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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In the title compound, C(12)H(16)N(4) (+)·2C(7)H(4)NO(4) (-), the complete 2,2-(p-phenyl-ene)bis-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-3-ium) (bib) dication is generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry. The bib cations reside on crystallographic inversion centers, which coincide with the centroids of the respective benzene rings. In the cation, the imidazole ring adopts an envelop conformation with the flap atom displaced by 0.082?(3)?Å from the plane through the other ring atoms. In the crystal, the cations and anions are linked through inter-molecular N-H?O hydrogen bonds, forming chains running along the a axis. C-H?O inter-actions also occur. Weak ?-? contacts between the imidazole rings of bib and between the benzene rings of NB [centroid-centroid distances = 3.501?(1) and 3.281?(2)?Å, respectively] may further stabilize the structure.
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[Expression of c-myb in reflux esophagitis, Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2010
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To investigate the expression of c-myb in reflux esophagitis, Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.
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Compounds from Kadsura angustifolia with anti-HIV activity.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
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Four new cycloartane triterpenoids, angustific acid A (1), angustific acid B (2), angustifodilactone A (3) and angustifodilactone B (4) were isolated from the branches of Kadsura angustifolia together with six known compounds, micranoic acid B (5), nigranoic acid (6), schisandrin (7), schisantherin D (8), interiotherin B (9), schisantherin B (10). Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analyses and comparison with spectroscopic data reported. Compound 1, characterized by the presence of a C-16/C-17, C-20/C-21 conjugated diene and a C-1/C-7 ester bridge formed in rings A and B, provided a novel structural skeleton for 3,4-secocycloartane triterpenoid derivatives. In addition, the anti-HIV activities of these compounds were determined in infected C8166 cells, and it was found that angustific acid A (1) exhibited the most potent anti-HIV activity with an EC(50) value of 6.1 ?g/mL and a therapeutic index of more than 32.8.
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A case-controlled validation study of a blood-based seven-gene biomarker panel for colorectal cancer in Malaysia.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is key to CRC prevention and mortality reduction, but patient compliance with CRC screening is low. We previously reported a blood-based test for CRC that utilizes a seven-gene panel of biomarkers. The test is currently utilized clinically in North America for CRC risk stratification in the average-risk North American population in order to improve screening compliance and to enhance clinical decision making.
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Genome-wide association study identifies susceptibility loci for polycystic ovary syndrome on chromosome 2p16.3, 2p21 and 9q33.3.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common metabolic disorder in women. To identify causative genes, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PCOS in Han Chinese. The discovery set included 744 PCOS cases and 895 controls; subsequent replications involved two independent cohorts (2,840 PCOS cases and 5,012 controls from northern Han Chinese; 498 cases and 780 controls from southern and central Han Chinese). We identified strong evidence of associations between PCOS and three loci: 2p16.3 (rs13405728; combined P-value by meta-analysis P(meta) = 7.55 × 10?²¹, odds ratio (OR) 0.71); 2p21 (rs13429458, P(meta) = 1.73 × 10?²³, OR 0.67); and 9q33.3 (rs2479106, P(meta) = 8.12 × 10?¹?, OR 1.34). These findings provide new insight into the pathogenesis of PCOS. Follow-up studies of the candidate genes in these regions are recommended.
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Deletion of valR, a homolog of Vibrio harveyi? luxR generates an intermediate colony phenotype between opaque/rugose and translucent/smooth in Vibrio alginolyticus.
Biofouling
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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A previous study has shown that Vibrio alginolyticus ZJ-51 undergoes colony phase variation between opaque/rugose (Op) and translucent/smooth (Tr). The AI-2 quorum-sensing master regulator ValR, a homolog to V. harveyi LuxR, was suggested to be involved in the transition. To investigate the role of ValR in the variation and in biofilm formation, an in-frame deletion of valR in both Op and Tr backgrounds was carried out. The mutants in both backgrounds showed an intermediate colony morphotype, where the colonies were less opaque/rugose but not fully translucent/smooth either. They also showed an intermediate level of motility. However, biofilm formation was severely decreased in both mutants and polar flagella were depleted also. Quantitative PCR showed that most of the genes related to flagellar and polysaccharide biosynthesis were upregulated in the mutant of Op background (Delta valR/Op) but downregulated in the mutant of Tr background (Delta valR/Tr) compared with their parental wild-type strains. This suggests that ValR may control biofilm formation by regulating flagellar biosynthesis and affect the expression of the genes involved in colony phase variation in V. alginolyticus.
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The type III secretion system of Vibrio alginolyticus induces rapid apoptosis, cell rounding and osmotic lysis of fish cells.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2010
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Vibrio alginolyticus is a Gram-negative bacterium and has been recognized as an opportunistic pathogen in humans as well as marine animals. However, the virulence mechanisms for this species of Vibrio have not been elucidated. This study characterized multiple mechanisms that induce cell death in fish cells upon infection with a V. alginolyticus strain, ZJO. The bacterium required its type III secretion system (T3SS) to cause rapid death of infected fish cells. Dying cells exhibited some features of apoptotic cells, such as membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. Further studies showed that caspase-3 was activated by the T3SS of the ZJO strain, confirming that infection with V. alginolyticus rapidly induces T3SS-dependent apoptosis in fish cells. Infection with the ZJO strain also led to membrane pore formation and release of cellular contents from infected fish cells, as evidenced by lactate dehydrogenase release and the uptake of a membrane-impermeable dye. Importantly, inhibition of apoptosis did not prevent ZJO-infected cells from releasing cellular contents and did not block cell rounding. Taken together, these data demonstrate that infection with V. alginolyticus may promote at least three different T3SS-dependent events, which lead to the death of fish cells. This study provides an important insight into the mechanism used by Vibrio species to cause host-cell death.
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Copper-rich framework sulfides: A(4)Cu(8)Ge(3)S(12) (A = K, Rb) with cubic perovskite structure.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
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Two copper-rich open-framework sulfides, K(4)Cu(8)Ge(3)S(12) (1) and Rb(4)Cu(8)Ge(3)S(12) (2), have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural and contain icosahedral [Cu(8)S(12)](16-) clusters as basic building blocks. These clusters are primitive cubic packed and connect to one another by discrete Ge(4+) ions to generate 3D copper-rich Cu-Ge-S framework and form 3D channels along 100 directions where the alkali metal cations reside. These two open-framework sulfides crystallize in cubic perovskite structure.
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[Spatial characteristics of soil organic carbon and nitrogen storages in Songnen Plain maize belt].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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By using the data of 382 typical soil profiles from the second soil survey at national and county levels, and in combining with 1:500000 digital soil maps, a spatial database of soil profiles was established. Based on this, the one meter depth soil organic carbon and nitrogen storage in Songnen Plain maize belt of China was estimated, with the spatial characteristics of the soil organic carbon and nitrogen densities as well as the relationships between the soil organic carbon and nitrogen densities and the soil types and land use types analyzed. The soil organic carbon and nitrogen storage in the maize belt was (163.12 +/- 26.48) Tg and (9.53 +/- 1.75) Tg, respectively, mainly concentrated in meadow soil, chernozem, and black soil. The soil organic carbon and nitrogen densities were 5.51-25.25 and 0.37-0.80 kg x m(-2), respectively, and the C/N ratio was about 7.90 -12.67. The eastern and northern parts of the belt had much higher carbon and nitrogen densities than the other parts of the belt, and upland soils had the highest organic carbon density [(19.07 +/- 2.44) kg x m(-2)], forest soils had the highest nitrogen density [(0.82 +/- 0.25) kg x m(-2)], while lowland soils had the lower organic carbon and nitrogen densities.
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(H(2)en)(2)Cu(8)Sn(3)S(12): a trigonal CuS(3)-based open-framework sulfide with interesting ion-exchange properties.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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(H(2)en)(2)Cu(8)Sn(3)S(12) contains a trigonal CuS(3)-based framework into which Sn(4+) ions are incorporated, and exhibits multiple channel systems and interesting ion-exchange properties.
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An evolutionarily conserved PTEN-C/EBPalpha-CTNNA1 axis controls myeloid development and transformation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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Loss of function of tumor suppressor genes, such as PTEN, CEBPAlpha, and CTNNA1 (encoding the alpha-catenin protein), has been found to play an essential role in leukemogenesis. However, whether these genes genetically interact remains largely unknown. Here, we show that PTEN-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling acts upstream to dictate the ratio of wild-type p42 C/EBPalpha to its dominant-negative p30 isoform, which critically determines whether p30 C/EBPalpha (lower p42/p30 ratio) or p42 C/EBPalpha (higher p42/p30 ratio) binds to the proximal promoter of the retained CTNNA1 allele. Binding of p30 C/EBPalpha recruits the polycomb repressive complex 2 to suppress CTNNA1 transcription through repressive H3K27me3 modification, whereas binding of p42 C/EBPalpha relieves this repression and promotes CTNNA1 expression through activating H3K4me3 modification. Loss of Pten function in mice and zebrafish induces myelodysplasia with abnormal invasiveness of myeloid progenitors accompanied by significant reductions in both wild-type C/EBPalpha and alpha-catenin protein. Importantly, frame-shift mutations in either PTEN or CEBPA were detected exclusively in the primary LICs with low CTNNA1 expression. This study uncovers a novel molecular pathway, PTEN-C/EBPalpha-CTNNA1, which is evolutionarily conserved and might be therapeutically targeted to eradicate LICs with low CTNNA1 expression.
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TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and colorectal cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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Colorectal cancer constitutes a significant proportion of the global burden of cancer morbidity and mortality. A number of studies have been conducted to explore whether TP53 codon 72 polymorphism is associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility. However, controversial results were obtained. In order to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, we systematically searched Medline, Google scholar, and Ovid database for studies reported before May 2010. A total of 3603 colorectal cancer cases and 5524 controls were included. TP53 codon 72 polymorphism was not associated with colorectal cancer risk in all genetic models (for dominant model: OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.86-1.15; for recessive model: OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.81-1.23; for Arg/Pro vs. Arg/Arg: OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.87-1.15; for Pro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg: OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.76-1.25). In the subgroup analyses by ethnic groups and sources of controls, no significant associations were found in all models. Taken together, this meta-analysis suggested that the biologically usefulness of TP53 codon 72 polymorphism as a selection marker in colorectal cancer susceptibility may be very limited.
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Dielectric barrier discharge plasma as a novel approach for improving 1,3-propanediol production in Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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Dielectric barrier discharge plasma was used to generate a stable strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae (designated to as Kp-M2) with improved 1,3-propanediol production. The specific activities of glycerol dehydrogenase, glycerol dehydratase and 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase in the crude cell extract increased from 0.11, 9.2 and 0.15 U mg(-1), respectively, for wild type to 0.67, 14.4 and 1.6 U mg(-1) for Kp-M2. The glycerol flux of Kp-M2 was redistributed with the flux to the reductive pathway being increased by 20% in batch fermentation. The final 1,3-propanediol concentrations achieved by Kp-M2 in batch and fed-batch fermentations were 19.9 and 76.7 g l(-1), respectively, which were higher than those of wild type (16.2 and 49.2 g l(-1)). The results suggested that dielectric barrier discharge plasma could be used as an effective approach to improve 1,3-propanediol production in K. pneumoniae.
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Down-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 gene expression by short interfering RNA attenuates bone cancer pain in a rat model.
Mol Pain
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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This study demonstrates a critical role in CNS innate immunity of the microglial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the induction and maintenance of behavioral hypersensitivity in a rat model of bone cancer pain with the technique of RNA interference (RNAi). We hypothesized that after intramedullary injection of Walker 256 cells (a breast cancer cell line) into the tibia, CNS neuroimmune activation and subsequent cytokine expression are triggered by the stimulation of microglial membrane-bound TLR4.
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Two new lignans from the fruits of Schisandra sphenanthera.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2009
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Two new lignans, (8R,8R)-8- hydroxy-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-methylenedioxy-7-oxolignan (1) and (7R,8S)-3,4-methylenedioxy-3,4-dimethoxy -7,8-seco-7,7-epoxylignan-7,8-dione (2), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the fruits of Schisandra sphenanthera, along with ten known compounds. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS analysis. This is the first report of the occurrence of secolignans in Schisandra.
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[Tissue engineering of vascular graft from decellularized arterial matrix and mesenchymal stem cells.].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2009
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To investigate the method of constructing small-diameter vascular grafts from xenogenic decellularized arterial matrices and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).
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Sensitive and rapid identification of Vibrio vulnificus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.
Microbiol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2009
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Vibrio vulnificus is a serious bacterial pathogen for humans and aquatic animals. We developed a rapid, sensitive and specific identification method for V. vulnificus using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique. A set of primers, composed of two outer primers and two inner primers, was designed based on the cytolysin gene sequence of V. vulnificus. The LAMP reaction was processed in a heat block at 65 degrees C for 60 min. The amplification products were detected by visual inspection using SYBR Green I, as well as by electrophoresis on agarose gels. Our results showed that the LAMP reaction was highly specific to V. vulnificus. This method was 10-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR. In conclusion, the LAMP assay was extremely rapid, simple, cost-effective, sensitive and specific for the rapid identification of V. vulnificus.
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[Preliminary application of PCR-based assay for the detection of Neospora caninum in bovine aborted fetus].
Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
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To establish a PCR diagnostic method based on Nc-5 gene of Neospora caninum, for being used to detect Neospora in brain tissues of bovine aborted fetus.
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[Cloning, expression and immunogenicity analysis of cathepsin L-like protease of Fasciola hepatica].
Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
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To clone and express the cathepsin L-like protease gene of Fasciola hepatica (FhCL) and investigate the immunogenicity of the recombinant FhCL protein.
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Streptavidin-biotin binding in the presence of a polymer spacer. A theoretical description.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2009
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The binding of streptavidin to biotin located at the terminal ends of poly(ethylene oxide) tethered to a planar surface is studied using molecular theory. The theoretical model is applied to mimic experiments (Langmuir 2008, 24, 2472) performed using drop-shape analysis to study receptor-ligand binding at the oil/water interface. Our theoretical predictions show very good agreements with the experimental results. Furthermore, the theory enables us to study the thermodynamic and structural behavior of the PEO-biotin + streptavidin layer. The interfacial structure, shown by the volume fraction profiles of bound proteins and polymers, indicates that the proteins form a thick layer supported by stretched polymers, where the thickness of the layer is greater than the height of the protein. When the polymer spacer is composed of PEO (3000), a thick layer with multilayers of proteins is formed, supported by the stretched polymer chains. It was found that thick multilayers of proteins are formed when long spacers are present or at very high protein surface coverages on short spacers. This shows that the flexibility of the polymer spacer plays an important role in determining the structure of the bound proteins due to their ability to accommodate highly distorted conformations to optimize binding and protein interactions. Protein domains are predicted when the amount of bound proteins is small due to the existence of streptavidin-streptavidin attractive interactions. As the number of proteins is increased, the competition between attractive interactions and steric repulsions determines the stability and structure of the bound layer. The theory predicts that the competition between these two forces leads to a phase separation at higher protein concentrations. The point where this transition happens depends on both spacer length and protein surface coverage and is an important consideration for practical applications of these and other similar systems. If the goal is to maximize protein binding, it is favorable to be above the layer transition, as multiple layers can accommodate greater bound protein densities. On the other hand, if the goal is to use these bound proteins as a linker group to build more complex structures, such as when avidin or streptavidin serves as a linker between two biotinylated polymers or proteins, the optimum is to be below the layer transition such that all bound linker proteins are available for further binding.
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1,4-Bis(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzene-terephthalic acid-water (1/1/4).
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2009
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The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(12)H(14)N(4)·C(8)H(6)O(4)·4H(2)O, consists of one half of the 1,4-bis-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzene (bib) mol-ecule, one half of the terephthalic acid (TA) mol-ecule and two water mol-ecules. Both the bib and the TA mol-ecules reside on crystallographic inversion centers, which coincide with the centroids of the respective benzene rings. The bib and the TA, together with the water mol-ecules, are linked through inter-molecular O-H?O, O-H?N and N-H?O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network of stacked layers. Weak inter-molecular C-H?O contacts support the stability of the crystal structure.
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Tuning of apoptosis-mediator gene transcription in HepG2 human hepatoma cells through an adenosine signal.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2009
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Extracellular adenosine-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line, in a concentration (0.1-20mM)- and treatment (24-72h)-dependent manner by activating caspase-3, -8, and -9. In the gene expression assay using a DNA microalley, adenosine upregulated mRNAs for tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF receptor 1-associated death domain protein (TRADD), TNF related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2), TRADD/receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD), and caspase-9, involving activation of caspase-8 and -9 followed by the effector caspase-3. The results of the present study suggest that adenosine induces HepG2 cell apoptosis by activating those caspases as a result from tuning apoptosis-mediator gene transcription.
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1,4-Bis(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzene-4-amino-benzene-sulfonic acid-water (1/2/2).
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(12)H(14)N(4)·2C(6)H(7)NO(3)S·2H(2)O, contains one half of a centrosymmetric 1,4-bis-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzene (bib) molecule, one 4-amino-benzene-sulfonic acid molecule and one water mol-ecule. In the bib molecule, the imidazole ring adopts an envelope conformation. The benzene rings of bib and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid are oriented at a dihedral angle of 21.89?(4)°. In the crystal structure, inter-molecular N-H?O, O-H?N and O-H?O inter-actions link the mol-ecules into a three-dimensional network. Weak ?-? contacts between the benzene and imidazole rings and between the benzene rings [centroid-centroid distances = 3.895?(1) and 3.833?(1)?Å, respectively] may further stabilize the structure.
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[Regulation of c-fos gene expression in hepatic stellate cells by transforming growth factor beta].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
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To investigate the effects of transforming growth factor beta (TGF ) on c-fos gene expression in hepatic stellate cells.
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Bis[2,6-bis-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)pyridine]manganese(II) bis-(per-chlorate) acetonitrile solvate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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In the cation of the title compound, [Mn(C(11)H(13)N(5))(2)](ClO(4))(2)·CH(3)CN, the metal atom is located on a twofold rotation axis and is six-coordinated by six N atoms from two different 2,6-bis-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)pyridine (bip) ligands in a distorted octahedral geometry. The O atoms of the perchlorate anions are disordered with occupancies in the ratio 0.593?(10):0.407?(10). In the crystal, mol-ecules are stabilized by two N-H?O hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains along the a axis, which are further inter-connected by N-H?O hydrogen bonds and ?-? inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.50?(1)?Å] into a three-dimensional network.
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Apple sucrose transporter SUT1 and sorbitol transporter SOT6 interact with cytochrome b5 to regulate their affinity for substrate sugars.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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Sugar transporters are central machineries to mediate cross-membrane transport of sugars into the cells, and sugar availability may serve as a signal to regulate the sugar transporters. However, the mechanisms of sugar transport regulation by signal sugar availability remain unclear in plant and animal cells. Here, we report that a sucrose transporter, MdSUT1, and a sorbitol transporter, MdSOT6, both localized to plasma membrane, were identified from apple (Malus domestica) fruit. Using a combination of the split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid, immunocoprecipitation, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, the two distinct sugar transporters were shown to interact physically with an apple endoplasmic reticulum-anchored cytochrome b5 MdCYB5 in vitro and in vivo. In the yeast systems, the two different interaction complexes function to up-regulate the affinity of the sugar transporters, allowing cells to adapt to sugar starvation. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homolog of MdCYB5, AtCYB5-A, also interacts with the two sugar transporters and functions similarly. The point mutations leucine-73 --> proline in MdSUT1 and leucine-117 --> proline in MdSOT6, disrupting the bimolecular interactions but without significantly affecting the transporter activities, abolish the stimulating effects of the sugar transporter-cytochrome b5 complex on the affinity of the sugar transporters. However, the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cytochrome b5 ScCYB5, an additional interacting partner of the two plant sugar transporters, has no function in the regulation of the sugar transporters, indicating that the observed biological functions in the yeast systems are specific to plant cytochrome b5s. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which the plant cells tailor sugar uptake to the surrounding sugar availability.
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Structure and organization of nanosized-inclusion-containing bilayer membranes.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2009
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Based on a considerable amount of experimental evidence for lateral organization of lipid membranes which share astonishingly similar features in the presence of different inclusions, we use a hybrid self-consistent field theory (SCFT)/density-functional theory (DFT) approach to deal with bilayer membranes embedded by nanosized inclusions and explain experimental findings. Here, the hydrophobic inclusions are simple models of hydrophobic drugs or other nanoparticles for biomedical applications. It is found that lipid/inclusion-rich domains are formed at moderate inclusion concentrations and disappear with the increase in the concentration of inclusions. At high inclusion content, chaining of inclusions occurs due to the effective depletion attraction between inclusions mediated by lipids. Meanwhile, the increase in the concentration of inclusions can also cause thickening of the membrane and the distribution of inclusions undergoes a layering transition from one-layer structure located in the bilayer midplane to two-layer structure arranged into the two leaflets of a bilayer. Our theoretical predictions address the complex interactions between membranes and inclusions suggesting a unifying mechanism which reflects the competition between the conformational entropy of lipids favoring the formation of lipid- and inclusion-rich domains in lipids and the steric repulsion of inclusions leading to the uniform dispersion.
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Three new naphthoquinone pigments isolated from the freshwater fungus, Astrosphaeriella papuana.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2009
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Three new naphthoquinones, astropaquinones A-C (1-3), were isolated from cultures of the freshwater fungus Astrosphaeriella papuana YMF 1.01181, together with the known compound, 6-hydroxy-2,4-dimethoxy-7-methylanthraquinone (4). The structures of the compounds were settled mainly by interpretation of their 1D and 2D NMR spectra. Astropaquinone B (2) and C (3) were found to possess a rare pyranonaphthoquinone skeleton containing a lactol ring. Furthermore, compounds 1-4 showed moderate antagonistic activity against nine fungi and four bacterial strains.
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Response of mesenchymal stem cells to shear stress in tissue-engineered vascular grafts.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2009
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Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into endothelial cells. The effect of shear stress on MSC differentiation is incompletely understood, and most studies have been based on two-dimensional systems. We used a model of tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) to investigate the effects of shear stress on MSC differentiation.
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[2,6-Bis(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)pyridine]dichloridomanganese(II).
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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In the title compound, [MnCl(2)(C(11)H(13)N(5))], the Mn(II) ion is five-coordinated in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry, with three N atoms from the neutral tridentate 2,6-bis-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)pyridine ligand and one chloride ion forming the basal plane and the other chloride ion in the apical position. Both dihydro-imidazole rings adopt envelope conformations. In the crystal structure, mol-ecules are linked into a three-dimensional network by N-H?Cl and C-H?Cl hydrogen bonds.
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Two unusual naphthalene-containing compounds from a freshwater fungus YMF 1.01029.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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Two novel naphthalene-containing compounds, colelomycerones A and B (1 and 2, resp.), and three known metabolites, including preussomerin D (3), (2RS,2SR,3E,3SR,4E,8E)-1-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3-hydroxy-2-[(2-hydroxyoctadec-3-enoyl)amino]-9-methyloctadeca-4,8-diene (4), and 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha,8alpha-epidioxyergosta-6,22-diene (5), were isolated from the culture broth of an unidentified freshwater water fungus YMF 1.01029. This fungus was collected from a decaying branch of an unidentified tree near Lake Fuxian in Yunnan Province, China. The structures of these five compounds were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric data. Colelomycerones A and B (1 and 2, resp.) represent unprecendented examples of naphthalene-1,2-diones with novel cyclic acetals. Compounds 1-3 showed noticeable antifungal and antibacterial activities.
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