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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Longitudinal Magnetization Transfer Imaging Evaluation of Brain Injury in a Macaque Model of NeuroAIDS.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Abstract Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging has been explored in prior studies of HIV patients and showed the potential capacity to assess brain injury after HIV infection. In the present study, adult pig-tailed macaques were infected with a highly neuropathogenic virus SIVsmmFGb. MT imaging was exploited to examine the monkey brains before simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) inoculation and 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks post-SIV inoculation. Blood samples were collected from each animal for monitoring CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells before each MRI scan. The MT ratios (MTR) in several brain regions of interest were evaluated longitudinally. Significant reductions of MTR were observed in whole brain and selected regions of interest (genu, splenium, thalamus, caudate, centrum semiovale, frontal white matter, frontal gray matter, and putamen) in the SIV-infected monkeys, consistent with those reported previously in HIV patients. In particular, the longitudinal results indicate that abnormal MTR reduction can be detected as early as in 2 weeks and MTR may be more sensitive to the brain injury in cortical regions than in subcortical regions during acute SIV infection. In addition, MTR reduction in genu, centrum semiovale, and thalamus significantly correlated with the CD4(+) T cell percentage decrease. Also, the MTR reduction in thalamus correlated with the CD8(+) T cell percentage elevation. Taken together, this study reported the longitudinal evolution of MTR in different brain regions during SIV infection and further validates previous findings in HIV patients. The preliminary results suggest that MT imaging could be a robust and sensitive approach to characterize the neurodegeneration after SIV or HIV infection.
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[Effects of Bortezomib Combined with 5-azacytidine on the Apoptosis of K562 Cells and Expression of SHIP mRNA].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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This study was aimed to investigate the effects of bortezomib combined with 5-azacytidine on the apoptosis of K562 cells and expressiom of SHIP mRNA. The K562 cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of bortezomib, 5-azacytidine or their combination for 24 hours. Then, the expression of SHIP mRNA was detected by RT-PCR,the cell proliferation was analyzed by using MTT assay and flow cytometry. The results showed that 5-20 nmol/L bortezomib could effectively inhibit the proliferation of K562 and this inhibitory effect gradually enhanced along with the increase of bortezomib concentration, the group of bortezomib combined with 5-azacytidine showed more inhibitory effect on K562 cells than that of bortezomib or 5-azacytidine alone.The bortezomib could promote the apoptosis of K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner,and this apoptotic effect was higher in group of bortezomib combined with 5-azacytidine than that in group of bortezomib or 5-azacytidine alone.Bortezomib could down-regulated the expression of SHIP mRNA in a dose-dependent manner,and this down-requlated effect was higher in group of bortezomib combined with 5-azacytidine than that in group of bortezomib or 5-azacytidine alone.It is concluded that bortezomib and 5-azacytidine can induce apoptosis by inhibiting the expression of SHIP mRNA in K562 cells.The combination of bortezomib with 5-azacytidine displays a synergetic effect.
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Development of a Colorimetric Sensor Array for the Discrimination of Chinese Liquors Based on Selected Volatile Markers Determined by GC-MS.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A new colorimetric sensor array was developed for the discrimination of 12 high-alcoholic Chinese base liquors from Luzhou Co., Ltd., and 15 commercial Chinese liquor of different brands as well as flavor types. Seventeen volatile compounds within four chemical groups were determined as markers in the base liquor by GC-MS analysis and factor analysis method (FAM). A specialized colorimetric sensor array composed of 20 sensitive dots was fabricated accordingly to obtain sensitive interaction with different types of volatile markers. Discrimination of the liquor samples was subsequently performed using chemometric and statistical methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). The results suggested that facile identification of either base liquors with high-alcoholic volume or commercial liquors of the same flavor types could be achieved by analysis of the color change profiles. The response of the sensor improved significantly in comparison with those that rely on nonspecific interactions, and no misclassification was observed for both liquor samples using two chemometric methods. Besides, it was also found that the discrimination is closely related to the characteristic flavor compounds (esters, aldehydes, and acids) and alcoholic strength in liquors, and its performance was even comparable with that of GC-MS.
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Anti-inflammatory Effects of Propofol on Lipopolysaccharides-Treated Rat Hepatic Kupffer Cells.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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This study is set to explore the role of commonly used intravenous anesthetic propofol on the inflammatory response of rat liver Kupffer cells (KCs) induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The isolated KCs were cultured at the density of 1 × 10(5)/ml, divided into five groups randomly after 48 h culture: group C, control group; group L, KCs were treated with 1 ?g/ml LPS for 24 h; groups P1, P2, P3, KCs were pretreated with propofol at low (25 ?M), medium (50 ?M), high (100 ?M) concentration for 2 h, respectively, and then were stimulated with 1 ?g/ml LPS for 24 h. The expressions of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) mRNA and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) mRNA of every group were measured by RT-PCR. Nuclear NF-?B p65 was determined by Western blot. The concentrations of IL-1? and TNF-? in supernatant were measured by ELISA. Compared with the group C, TNF-? mRNA and IL-1? mRNA in group L were significantly up-regulated and NF-?B p65 was significantly up-regulated after LPS treatment (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, TNF-? and IL-1? were also significantly increased (P < 0.05). With propofol the mRNA expressions of aforementioned inflammatory mediators were significantly down-regulated and NF-?B p65 was significantly inhibited in group P2 and P3 (P < 0.05), compared with group L. However, low propofol concentration did not exhibit any effect (group P1, P > 0.05). Propofol at medium and high concentration can counteract the LPS-induced inflammatory response in KCs by regulating NF-?B p65 protein expression.
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[Preparation and pharmacokinetic evaluation of long-acting injectable oily suspensions for ophiopogonis radix polysaccharide MDG-1].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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To evaluate in vivo pharmacokinetics of Ophiopogonis Radix polysaccharide MDG-1 oily suspension injection prepared with different prescriptions in rats, and explore the feasibility of the long-acting drug delivery of MDG-1 Injection by using the oily suspension drug release system.
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Interaction of nNOS with PSD-95 negatively controls regenerative repair after stroke.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Stroke is a major public health concern. The lack of effective therapies heightens the need for new therapeutic targets. Mammalian brain has the ability to rewire itself to restore lost functionalities. Promoting regenerative repair, including neurogenesis and dendritic remodeling, may offer a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of stroke. Here, we report that interaction of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with the protein postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) negatively controls regenerative repair after stroke in rats. Dissociating nNOS-PSD-95 coupling in neurons promotes neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs), facilitates the migration of newborn cells into the injured area, and enhances neurite growth of newborn neurons and dendritic spine formation of mature neurons in the ischemic brain of rats. More importantly, blocking nNOS-PSD-95 binding during the recovery stage improves stroke outcome via the promotion of regenerative repair in rats. Histone deacetylase 2 in NSCs may mediate the role of nNOS-PSD-95 association. Thus, nNOS-PSD-95 can serve as a target for regenerative repair after stroke.
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[Design and experiment of a needle-to-cylinder electrode structure realizing the negative DC glow discharge in ambient air].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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A new needle-to-cylinder electrode structure was designed to realize the stable glow discharge in ambient air. The stainless steel needle tip with diameter 56.4 microm and the copper cylinder with diameter 4mm were chosen as the cathode and the anode respectively, which were kept parallel by accurate mechanical structure. In the condition that the distance between the needle and the cylinder is 2 mm, the ballasting resistor is 10 M(omega), the discharge resistor is 10 M(omega), the testing resistor is 1 k(omega), and the discharge voltage is -2 740 V, without air flow in ambient air and at room temperature, the stable glow discharge between the needle and the cylinder was realized. Three different discharge modes can be observed: corona discharge, glow discharge and spark, which were verified by the discharge waveform stored in the oscilloscope, and the discharge pictures were recorded by digital camera. The needle-to-cylinder electrode structure is easy to fabricate by the MEMS technology, which can be used as the ion source of the portable analyzing instruments.
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CAPON-nNOS coupling can serve as a target for developing new anxiolytics.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent psychiatric diseases. There is need for a deeper understanding of anxiety control mechanisms in the mammalian brain and for development of new anxiolytic agents. Here we report that the coupling between neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and its carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand (CAPON) can serve as a target for developing new anxiolytic agents. Augmenting nNOS-CAPON interaction in the hippocampus of mice by overexpressing full-length CAPON gave rise to anxiogenic-like behaviors, whereas dissociating CAPON from nNOS by overexpressing CAPON-125C or CAPON-20C (the C-terminal 125 or 20 amino acids of CAPON) or delivering Tat-CAPON-12C (a peptide comprising Tat and the 12 C-terminal amino acids of CAPON) in the hippocampus of mice produced anxiolytic-like effects. Mice subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS) displayed a substantial increase in nNOS-CAPON coupling in the hippocampus and a consequent anxiogenic-like phenotype. Disrupting nNOS-CAPON coupling reversed the CMS-induced anxiogenic-like behaviors. Moreover, small-molecule blockers of nNOS-CAPON binding rapidly produced anxiolytic-like effects. Dexamethasone-induced ras protein 1 (Dexras1)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling was involved in the behavioral effects of nNOS-CAPON association. Thus, nNOS-CAPON association contributes to the modulation of anxiety-related behaviors via regulating Dexras1-ERK signaling and can serve as a target for developing potential anxiolytics.
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Knowledge, perceptions and acceptability of HPV vaccination among medical students in Chongqing, China.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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To evaluate medical students' knowledge of HPV and HPV related diseases and assess their attitudes towards HPV vaccination.
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Analysis of Human TAAR8 and Murine Taar8b Mediated Signaling Pathways and Expression Profile.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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The thyroid hormone derivative 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM) exerts metabolic effects in vivo that contradict known effects of thyroid hormones. 3-T1AM acts as a trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonist and activates Gs signaling in vitro. Interestingly, 3-T1AM-meditated in vivo effects persist in Taar1 knockout-mice indicating that further targets of 3-T1AM might exist. Here, we investigated another member of the TAAR family, the only scarcely studied mouse and human trace-amine-associated receptor 8 (Taar8b, TAAR8). By RT-qPCR and locked-nucleic-acid (LNA) in situ hybridization, Taar8b expression in different mouse tissues was analyzed. Functionally, we characterized TAAR8 and Taar8b with regard to cell surface expression and signaling via different G-protein-mediated pathways. Cell surface expression was verified by ELISA, and cAMP accumulation was quantified by AlphaScreen for detection of Gs and/or Gi/o signaling. Activation of G-proteins Gq/11 and G12/13 was analyzed by reporter gene assays. Expression analyses revealed at most marginal Taar8b expression and no gender differences for almost all analyzed tissues. In heart, LNA-in situ hybridization demonstrated the absence of Taar8b expression. We could not identify 3-T1AM as a ligand for TAAR8 and Taar8b, but both receptors were characterized by a basal Gi/o signaling activity, a so far unknown signaling pathway for TAARs.
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Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine and its correlates among medical students in Southwest China: a multi-center cross-sectional survey.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Since cervical cancer can be prevented and controlled through human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, it is important to train health care providers and provide them with appropriate knowledge. This study aimed to understand the level of HPV related knowledge among medical students and correlates in Southwest China in order to address any potential gap in their knowledge base.
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[Characteristics of arsenic content in the livestock farms' surrounding environment in Shanghai suburbs].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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In the suburbs of Shanghai, selected five large farms and surface water, feed, soil and vegetable samples were collected, and then total and inorganic arsenic were detected to survey the current arsenic level of the livestock farms in Shanghai suburban, as well as the usage situation of organic arsenic as feed additives. The results showed that the total arsenic content in water samples ranged from 0. 00 microgL-1 to 23.00 microg L-1 , below the first standard of surface water quality (50 microg L-1 ) ; total arsenic in feed was among 0.40-12.13 mgkg-1 , in which inorganic arsenic was 10.0% -80.0% ; total arsenic in spot-checking feed samples was 0. 16-21.39 mg kg-1 and inorganic arsenic was 0. 003-10. 67 mgkg-1 , and samples exceeding the limits of arsenic in feed accounted for 16. 7% ; total arsenic content in soils ranged from 8.08-18.50 mgkg-1 , in which 22. 2% samples were higher than the first standard of soil environmental quality, and inorganic arsenic accounted for 44. 2% -78. 9% of total arsenic; vegetables' total arsenic was 0. 003-0. 093 mg kg-1, not higher than the maximal residue limit of 0. 50 mg kg -1 on the current national standard; there were some differences in different parts of the same species vegetables on arsenic content: arsenic content in roots were higher than that in the aboveground part, and the bioconcentration factors showed a significantly positive correlation with the arsenic content in vegetables and a negative correlation with the arsenic content in rhizosphere.
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Association of the IL-1B +3954 C/T polymorphism with the risk of gastric cancer in a population in Western China.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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With an estimate of 380 000 new cases each year, gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequently occurring cancers in China. Genes encoding proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are good candidates for the study of susceptibility to GC. We tested the hypothesis that the polymorphisms of interleukin 1B (IL-1B) and IL-1RN contribute toward host susceptibility to GC. In a matched case-control design, we enrolled 308 pairs of GC and control participants between October 2010 and August 2011. We sequenced IL-1B +3954 C/T, IL-1RN -9876 G/A, -9739 A/G, and IL-1RN -9091 A/C using MALDI-TOF MS and collected demographic data as well as lifestyle factors using a questionnaire. GC patients reported statistically significantly greater proportions with family history of cancer (29.9 vs. 10.7%, P<0.01) and alcohol drinking (54.5 vs. 43.2%, P<0.01) than the controls. The proportion of irregular eaters was statistically higher among the patients than among the controls (66.7 vs. 24.4%, P<0.01). The IL-1B +3954 CT or the TT variant genotype was statistically significantly associated with a risk of GC [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-8.15], whereas variants of IL-1RN -9876 G/A, IL-1RN -9739 A/G, and IL-1RN -9091 A/C were not associated (adjusted OR, 1.29, 95% CI, 0.77-2.16; adjusted OR, 1.25, 95% CI, 0.75-2.07; adjusted OR, 1.09, 95% CI, 0.71-1.67, respectively). Haplotypes established from the three polymorphisms of IL-1RN were not associated with a risk of GC. The IL-1B +3954 C/T polymorphism is associated with a risk of GC in our study. Lifestyle and environmental factors such as drinking, eating irregularly, and family history of cancer increase the risk.
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Evolution of Li2O2 growth and its effect on kinetics of Li-O2 batteries.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Lithium peroxide (Li2O2), the solid and intrinsically electronic insulating discharge product of Li-O2 batteries strongly influences the discharge and charge kinetics. In a series of experiments, we investigated the growth of Li2O2 upon discharge and the corresponding reduction and oxidation processes by varying the depth of discharge. The results indicate that insulating Li2O2 particles with a disc-like shape were formed during the initial discharge stage. Afterward, the nucleation and growth of Li2O2 resulted in the formation of conducting Li2O2 shells. When the discharge voltage dropped below 2.65 V, the Li2O2 discs evolved to toroid-shaped particles and defective superoxide-like phase presumably with high conductivity was formed on the rims of Li2O2 toroids. Both Li2O2 and the superoxide-like phase are unstable in ether-based electrolytes resulting in the degradation of the corresponding cells. Nevertheless, by controlling the growth of Li2O2, the chemical reactivity of the discharge product can be suppressed to improve the reversibility of Li-O2 batteries.
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Draft genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HB-26.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HB-26, a Gram-positive bacterium was isolated from soil in China. SDS-PAGE analysis showed this strain secreted six major protein bands of 65, 60, 55, 34, 25 and 20 kDa. A bioassay of this strain reveals that it shows specific activity against P. brassicae and nematode. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation. The 3,989,358 bp long genome (39 contigs) contains 4,001 protein-coding genes and 80 RNA genes.
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A case of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with ecchymotic lesions on the whole body.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) derived from plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors is a very rare, and characterized by cutaneous and bone marrow involvement and leukemic spread. The neoplasm presents with an aggressive behavior, and the clinical findings include cytopenia, particularly thrombocytopenia. The tumor cells are negative for antigens of T- and B- cell lines. However, these cells express CD4, CD56 and CD123, which are markers of plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and negative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). From this point of view, a 71-year-old man who was initially found to have a cutaneous mass on his face and thorax was reported here, and initially was diagnosed as "eczema". The skin rashes then became aggravated on a trial of low dose topical corticosteroid for 2 months. According to skin biopsy, the tumor cells reveal an immature blastic appearance and positive for CD4 and CD56, negative for CD3, CD20, indicating a diagnosis of BPDCN. Here, we report the dismal course of a patient with BPDCN without accepting further therapy, and only survived 3 months.
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Recurrent inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors harboring PIK3CA and KIT mutations.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) is a relatively rare soft tissue malignancy. It exhibits locally aggressive behavior with a tendency for local recurrence and rare metastasis, and rare recurrent IMTs may show histological progression. The genetic hallmark of IMT is ALK rearrangement from chromosome arm 2p, but gene mutations involved in IMT remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to perform a pairwise comparison of the gene mutations occurring in primary and recurrent IMT from the same patient. We conducted a high-throughput analysis of 238 known mutations of 19 oncogenes in pairwise comparison primary and recurrent samples from 2 patients of IMT using Sequenom MassARRAY technology. Our results revealed 2 mutations in 2 recurrent lesion samples, including one in exon 11 of the KIT gene, resulting in a T-C substitution at position 1727 (L576P), the recurrent sample underwent histologic progression with "pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcoma-like" transformation; the other mutation was in exon 19 of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) gene, resulting in a G-A substitution at position 1624 (E542K). Moreover, no any mutation was found in the primary lesion samples from 2 patients. Our findings suggest that variable genome changes might be present in IMT, especially during the progression from a primary tumour to recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, no such longitudinal study of IMT has been undertaken previously.
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Stereological investigation of the age-related changes of the myelinated fibers in the hippocampus of male rats.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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The decline of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory during normal aging is not associated with neuron death and synapse loss. Until now, age-related changes in the myelinated fibers of the hippocampus have not been investigated. Therefore, in this study, the myelinated fibers in the hippocampi of young (6 months), middle-aged (18 months), and old-aged (28 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied with transmission electron microscope and stereological methods, following spatial learning tests in a Morris water maze. The results showed that hippocampus-dependent spatial learning was impaired in old-aged rats but that the total volume, length, and mean diameter of the myelinated fibers in the hippocampus, as well as the hippocampal volume, remained constant during the normal aging process. Our results suggest that the age-related decline in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning is not attributable to myelinated fiber changes in the hippocampus and that other, undetermined factors are responsible.
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Complex assembly, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the chicken CD8??-BF2*0401 complex.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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In the process of antigen presentation, the MHCI-CD8 complex is important for immune signal transduction by the activation of cytotoxic T cells. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray analysis of the complex of the chicken MHC class I molecule BF2*0401 and CD8?? (CD8??-BF2*0401) are reported. This complex was verified by SDS-PAGE analysis of a CD8??-BF2*0401 crystal, which showed three bands corresponding to the molecular weights of BF2*0401, ?2-microglobulin and CD8?, respectively. The crystal of CD8??-BF2*0401 diffracted to 2.8?Å resolution and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 90.6, b = 90.8, c = 94.9?Å, ? = 98°. The Matthews coefficient and solvent content were calculated to be 2.88?Å(3)?Da(-1) and ?57.3%, respectively.
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Induction of protective immune response against both PPRV and FMDV by a novel recombinant PPRV expressing FMDV VP1.
Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are both highly contagious diseases of small domestic and wild ruminants caused by the PPR virus (PPRV) and the FMD virus (FMDV). In this study, a recombinant PPRV expressing the FMDV VP1 gene (rPPRV/VP1) was generated and FMDV VP1 expression did not impair replication of the recombinant virus in vitro and immunogenicity in inducing neutralizing antibody against PPR in goats. Vaccination with one dose of rPPRV/VP1 induced FMDV neutralizing antibody in goats and protected them from challenge with virulent FMDV. Our results suggest that the recombinant PPRV expressing the FMDV VP1 protein is a potential dual live vectored vaccine against PPRV and FMDV.
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Disruption of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipases C?1 contributes to extracellular matrix synthesis of human osteoarthritis chondrocytes.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by articular cartilage degradation including extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and cell loss. It is known that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase ?1 (PLC?1) can trigger several signaling pathways to regulate cell metabolism. However, whether this kinase is expressive and active in human OA chondrocytes and its role in the pathological progression of OA have not been investigated. The current study was designed to investigate the PLC?1 expression in human OA cartilage, and whether PLC?1 was involved in the ECM synthesis had been further explored using cultured human OA chondrocytes. Our results indicated that PLC?1 was highly expressed in human OA chondrocytes. In our further study using the cultured human OA chondrocytes, the results demonstrated that the disruption of PLC?1 by its inhibitor, U73122, and siRNA contributed to the ECM synthesis of human OA chondrocytes through regulating the expression of ECM-related signaling molecules, including MMP-13, Col II, TIMP1, Sox-9, and AGG. Furthermore, PLC?1/IP3/Ca2+/CaMK II signaling axis regulated the ECM synthesis of human chondrocytes through triggering mTOR/P70S6K/S6 pathway. In summary, our results suggested that PLC-?1 activities played an important role in the ECM synthesis of human OA chondrocytes, and may serve as a therapeutic target for treating OA.
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Human papillomavirus vaccine awareness, acceptability, and decision-making factors among Chinese college students.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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College students are recommended as the target groups for catch-up human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Systematical exploration of awareness, acceptability, and decision-making factors of HPV vaccination among Chinese college students has been limited.
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Interleukin-4 and -8 gene polymorphisms and risk of gastric cancer in a population in Southwestern China.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Gastric carcinogenesis is a complicated process that involves environmental and genetic factors like interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-8. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in their genes are associated with changed levels of gene expression. Here, we investigated the association between IL4-590 C>T and IL8-251T>A and gastric cancer (GC) risk in Sichuan of Southwestern China.
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The synergetic effect of edaravone and borneol in the rat model of ischemic stroke.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Free radical production contributes to the early ischemic response and the neuroinflammatory response to injury initiates the second wave of cell death following ischemic stroke. Edaravone is a free radical scavenger, and borneol has shown anti-inflammatory effect. We investigated the synergistic effect of these two drugs in the rat model of transient cerebral ischemia. Edaravone scavenged OH, NO and ONOO? concentration-dependently, and borneol inhibited ischemia/reperfusion-induced tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions. In the rat model of transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion, the combination of edaravone and borneol significantly ameliorated ischemic damage with an optimal proportion of 4:1. Emax (% inhibition) of edaravone, borneol and two drugs in combination was 55.7%, 65.8% and 74.3% respectively. ED50 of edaravone and borneol was 7.17 and 0.36 mg/kg respectively. When two drugs in combination, ED50 was 0.484 mg/kg, in which edaravone was 0.387 mg/kg (ineffective dose) and borneol was 0.097 mg/kg (ineffective dose). Combination index (CI)<1 among effects observed in experiments, suggesting a significant synergistic effect. Reduced levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and free radicals were probably associated with the synergistic effect of edaravone and borneol. The combination exhibited a therapeutic time window of 6h in ischemia/reperfusion model, and significantly ameliorated damages in permanent ischemia model. Moreover, two drugs in combination promoted long-term effect, including improved elemental vital signs, sensorimotor functions and spatial cognition. Our results suggest that the combination of edaravone and borneol have a synergistic effect for treating ischemic stroke.
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Cumulative effects of the ApoE genotype and gender on the synaptic proteome and oxidative stress in the mouse brain.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Elderly females, particularly those carrying the apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-?4 allele, have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanism for this increased susceptibility remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of the ApoE genotype and gender on the proteome of synaptosomes. We isolated synaptosomes and used label-free quantitative proteomics, to report, for the first time, that the synaptosomal proteomic profiles in the cortex of female human-ApoE4 mice exhibited significantly reduced expression of proteins related to energy metabolism, which was accompanied by increased levels of oxidative stress. In addition, we also first demonstrated that the proteomic response in synaptic termini was more susceptible than that in the soma to the adverse effects induced by genders and genotypes. This suggests that synaptic mitochondria might be 'older' than mitochondria in the soma of neurons; therefore, they might contain increased cumulative damage from oxidative stress. Furthermore, female human-ApoE4 mice had much lower oestrogen levels in the cortex and treatment with oestrogen protected ApoE3 stable transfected C6 neurons from oxidative stress. Overall, this study reveals complex ApoE- and gender-dependent effects on synaptic function and also provides a basis for future studies of candidates based on specific pathways involved in the pathogenesis of AD. The lack of oestrogen-mediated protection regulated by the ApoE genotype led to synaptic mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, which might make older females more susceptible to AD.
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[Synthesis and fluorescence properties of SrZn(WO4)2:Tb3+, Ce3+ phosphors].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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SrZn(1-x) (WO4)2:xTb3+, yCe3+ green fluorescent phosphors for near ultraviolet excitation were prepared using chemical co-precipitation. The phases of different doping ratio samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD). The emission spectrum and excitation spectrum of samples were characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy (PL). The luminescence properties of the rare-earth Tb3+ ion doped and Ce3+ and Tb3+ ion codoped samples were discussed. XRD analysis shows that the main diffraction peaks of samples were consistent with the standard card (JCPDS 08-0490 and the JCPDS 15-0774) of the diffraction peak data. This showed that the doping rare earth ions did not change matrix lattice structure. The excitation spectrum showed that the excitation spectrum peaks at 223 nm which is assigned to the 7F-7D absorption transitions of Tb3+. The emission spectrum excited by 223 nm exhibits sharp lines peaking at 543 nm which was assigned to the 5D4-7F5 transitions of the Tb3+ ions. With Tb3+ and Ce3+ co-doping, the spectrum didn't change much. The intensity of fluorescence reached the strongest when the concentration of Tb3+:Ce3+ arrived at 0.06:0.02 which may means that there was energy transfer between the ions of Ce3+ and Tb3+.
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[Aggressive B-cell lymphomas of gastrointestinal tract: a clinicopathologic analysis of 54 cases].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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To study the histological features, diagnosis, differential diagnoses of aggressive B-cell lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract and to correlate clinical prognosis with pathologic parameters and immunophenotypes with an emphasis on c-myc, Tcl-1 and CD38 expression and their values in predicting the status of c-myc gene translocation.
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Hormonal control of metabolism by the hypothalamus-autonomic nervous system-liver axis.
Front Horm Res
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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The hypothalamus has long been appreciated to be fundamental in the control and coordination of homeostatic activity. Historically, this has been viewed in terms of the extensive neuroendocrine control system resulting from processing of hypothalamic signals relayed to the pituitary. Through these actions, endocrine signals are integrated throughout the body, modulating a vast array of physiological processes. Our understanding of the responses to endocrine signals is crucial for the diagnosis and management of many pathological conditions. More recently, the control emanating from the hypothalamus over the autonomic nervous system has been increasingly recognized as a powerful additional modulator of peripheral tissues. However, the neuroendocrine and autonomic control pathways emanating from the hypothalamus are not separate processes. They appear to act as a single integrated regulatory system, far more subtle and complex than when each is viewed in isolation. Consequently, hypothalamic regulation should be viewed as a summation of both neuroendocrine and autonomic influences. The neural regulation is believed to be fine and rapid, whereas the hormonal regulation is more stable and widespread. In this chapter, we will focus on the hypothalamic control of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism.
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Quality of life in women with cervical precursor lesions and cancer: a prospective, 6-month, hospital-based study in China.
Chin J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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The overall survival of patients with cervical cancer has improved due to detection at an early stage and availability of comprehensive treatments in China. As patients' lives prolonged, it is important to understand their health-related quality of life (QoL) during and after treatment. We used the EQ-5D questionnaire to assess QoL of 194 patients with cervical lesions at Sichuan University West China Second Hospital between May 2010 and January 2011. Patients were surveyed before primary treatment and at 1, 3, and 6 months after primary treatment. Results showed a consistent decline in EQ-5D scores in the spectrum of cervical lesions at each time point after treatment (all P < 0.05). For patients with precursor lesions, there was an increasing trend along the timeline of treatment (P < 0.01). For patients with early-stage cervical cancer, EQ-5D scores declined in the first month (P = 0.01) and gradually increased to higher levels at 6 months post-treatment than those before treatment (P < 0.01). EQ-5D scores followed a similar trend in patients with advanced cervical cancer (P = 0.04), though they did not statistically rebound after 6 months (0.84 ± 0.19 vs. 0.86 ± 0.11, P = 0.62). Regarding advanced cervical cancer, EQ-5D scores for women above 40 years of age appeared to recover more rapidly and reached higher levels than those for women below 40 years (P = 0.03). Caution and extra care are recommended in the early period of cervical cancer treatment given the slight deterioration in the QoL, and in particular, for younger cervical cancer patients. Our study implies that health care providers may need to improve the health-related QoL of cervical cancer patients.
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Longitudinal cerebral metabolic changes in pig-tailed macaques infected with the neurovirulent virus SIVsmmFGb.
J. Neurovirol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Longitudinal cerebral metabolite changes in pig-tailed macaques inoculated with the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsmmFGb were evaluated with in vivo proton MRS at 3 T. Blood sample collection, and MRS were carried out before and 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks after SIV inoculation. Significant reduction of N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios in prefrontal gray matter (PGM) and glutamate/glutamine(Glx)/Cr ratio in striatum, and increase of myo-inositol (mI)/Cr in striatum were observed during acute SIV infection. The metabolite alterations during the SIVsmmFGb infection are largely in agreement with previous findings in other non-human primate models and HIV patients. Also, NAA/Cr in PGM and striatum and Glx/Cr in striatum are negatively correlated with the percentage of CD8+ T cells after the SIV infection, suggesting the interaction between brain metabolite and immune dysfunction. The present study complements previous studies by describing the time course of alterations of brain metabolites during SIVsmmFGb infection. The findings further demonstrate the efficacy of the SIVsmmFGb-infected macaque as a model to characterize central nervous system infection using novel neuroimaging approaches and also as a tool for exploration of novel and advanced neuroimaging techniques in HIV/AIDS studies.
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Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the complement 1qA globular domain from zebrafish, Dare-C1qAgD.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Complement 1q (C1q) is the first component of the complement system which can initiate the classical complement pathway. In human, C1q is composed of 18 polypeptide chains: six C1qA chains, six C1qB chains and six C1qC chains. Each chain has a signal peptide and is comprised of a collagen-like region and a C-terminal C1q globular domain (C1qgD), which is organized as a heterotrimer. C1qgD can recognize antigen-antibody complexes containing IgG and IgM or can bind directly to the C-reactive protein. Although the classical complement pathway is found from fish to mammals, only the human C1qgD structure has been determined. Compared with that of mammals, fish C1q exhibits similar immune functions and genome arrangement. In order to illustrate the structure of C1qgD in fish, zebrafish (Danio rerio) C1qA globular domain (Dare-C1qAgD) was expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected from a crystal to a resolution of 2.05?Å; the crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2?2?2?, with unit-cell parameters a=50.347, b=85.059, c=95.560?Å. It contained three molecules in the asymmetric unit. The Matthews coefficient value VM was 2.31?Å3?Da(-1), with a calculated solvent content of 46.7%. The data will help to give insight into the structural basis of C1qA in fish species.
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Effect of high dose isoflurane on cerebral blood flow in macaque monkeys.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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The effect of high dose isoflurane on cerebral blood flow (CBF) was investigated in adult macaque monkeys receiving 1% to 2% isoflurane with the pseudo continuous arterial-spin-labeling (pCASL) MRI technique. High concentration (2%) of isoflurane resulted in significant increase in the mean CBF of the global, cortical, subcortical regions and the regional CBF in all subcortical structures and most cortical structures (such as motor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, but not media prefrontal cortex). In addition, the changes of regional CBF in the affected regions correlated linearly with increasing isoflurane concentrations. The study demonstrates region-specific CBF abnormal increase in adult macaque monkeys under high dose (2%) isoflurane and suggests that the brain functionality in the corresponding structures may be affected and need to be taken consideration in either human or non-human primate neuroimaging studies.
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Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a single variable domain of the immunoglobulin superfamily in amphioxus, Amphi-IgSF-V.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Amphioxus is regarded as an essential animal model for the study of immune evolution. Discovery of new molecules with the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) variable (V) domain in amphioxus would help in studying the evolution of IgSF V molecules in the immune system. A protein was found which just contains only one IgSF V domain in amphioxus, termed Amphi-IgSF-V; it has over 30% sequence identity to the V domains of human immunoglobulins and mammalian T-cell receptors. In order to clarify the three-dimensional structure of this new molecule in amphioxus, Amphi-IgSF-V was expressed, purified and crystallized, and diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.95?Å. The crystal belonged to space group P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 53.9, c = 135.5?Å. The Matthews coefficient and solvent content were calculated to be 2.58?Å(3)?Da(-1) and 52.38%, respectively. The results will provide structural information to study the evolution of IgSF V molecules in the immune system.
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Compound HRAS/PIK3CA mutations in Chinese patients with alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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The rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common type of soft tissue tumor in children and adolescents; yet only a few screens for oncogenic mutations have been conducted for RMS. To identify novel mutations and potential therapeutic targets, we conducted a high-throughput Sequenom mass spectrometry-based analysis of 238 known mutations in 19 oncogenes in 17 primary formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded RMS tissue samples and two RMS cell lines. Mutations were detected in 31.6% (6 of 19) of the RMS specimens. Specifically, mutations in the NRAS gene were found in 27.3% (3 of 11) of embryonal RMS cases, while mutations in NRAS, HRAS, and PIK3CA genes were identified in 37.5% (3 of 8) of alveolar RMS (ARMS) cases; moreover, PIK3CA mutations were found in 25% (2 of 8) of ARMS specimens. The results demonstrate that tumor profiling in archival tissue samples is a useful tool for identifying diagnostic markers and potential therapeutic targets and suggests that these HRAS/ PIK3CA mutations play a critical role in the genesis of RMS.
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Complex assembly, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the bovine CD8??-BoLA-2*02201 complex.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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In order to clarify the structural characteristics of the bovine MHC class I molecule (BoLA-I) complexed with CD8?? (CD8??-BoLA-I), bovine CD8??, BoLA-I (BoLA-2*02201) and ?2m were expressed and purified, and were then assembled with a peptide derived from Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV-VP1YY9) and crystallized. The crystal diffracted to 1.7?Å resolution and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a=53.9, b=103.8, c=61.8?Å, ?=?=90, ?=96°. The asymmetric unit contained one complex, with a Matthews coefficient of 2.41?Å3?Da(-1) and a solvent content of 48.9%. The rotation-function Z-score and translation-function Z-score for molecular replacement were 3.4 and 8.9, respectively. In addition, SDS-PAGE analysis of CD8??-BoLA-I crystals showed three bands corresponding to the molecular weights of BoLA-I heavy chain, ?2m and CD8?. The structure of the CD8??-BoLA-I complex should be helpful in obtaining insight into the interaction between bovine CD8?? and MHC class I molecules. Structure determination of BoLA-2*02201-FMDV-VP1YY9 will be useful in the design of vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease.
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White matter injuries induced by MK-801 in a mouse model of schizophrenia based on NMDA antagonism.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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The etiology of schizophrenia (SZ) is complex and largely unknown. Neuroimaging and postmortem studies have suggested white matter disturbances in SZ. In the present study, we tested the white matter deficits hypothesis of SZ using a mouse model of SZ induced by NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We found that mice with repeated chronic MK-801 administration showed increased locomotor activity in the open field test, less exploration of a novel environment in the hole-board test, and increased anxiety in the elevated plus maze but no impairments were observed in coordination or motor function on accelerating rota-rod. The total white matter volume and corpus callosum volume in mice treated with MK-801 were significantly decreased compared to control mice treated with saline. Myelin basic protein and 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase were also significantly decreased in the mouse model of SZ. Furthermore, we observed degenerative changes of myelin sheaths in the mouse model of SZ. These results provide further evidence of white matter deficits in SZ and indicate that the animal model of SZ induced by MK-801 is a useful model to investigate mechanisms underlying white matter abnormalities in SZ.
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The hypothalamic neural-glial network and the metabolic syndrome.
Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Despite numerous educational interventions and biomedical research efforts, modern society continues to suffer from obesity and its associated metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, and these diseases show little sign of abating. One reason for this is an incomplete understanding of the pathology of the metabolic syndrome, which obstructs the development of effective therapeutic strategies. While hypothalamic neuropathy is a potential candidate that may contribute to the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, the specific causes of hypothalamic neuropathy remain largely unknown. During different stages of high-calorie diet-induced metabolic syndrome, the hypothalamus undergoes gliosis and angiogenesis, both of which potentially reflect ongoing inflammatory processes. This overview discusses current data suggesting a role for hypothalamic inflammation-like processes in diet-induced metabolic diseases and provides a perspective on how to unravel molecular mechanisms of "hypothalamic inflammation" in order to develop anti-obesity therapeutic strategies.
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Leptin signaling in astrocytes regulates hypothalamic neuronal circuits and feeding.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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We found that leptin receptors were expressed in hypothalamic astrocytes and that their conditional deletion led to altered glial morphology and synaptic inputs onto hypothalamic neurons involved in feeding control. Leptin-regulated feeding was diminished, whereas feeding after fasting or ghrelin administration was elevated in mice with astrocyte-specific leptin receptor deficiency. These data reveal an active role of glial cells in hypothalamic synaptic remodeling and control of feeding by leptin.
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Hypothalamic PGC-1? Protects Against High-Fat Diet Exposure by Regulating ER?.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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High-fat diets (HFDs) lead to obesity and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Estrogens and estrogen receptor ? (ER?) protect premenopausal females from the metabolic complications of inflammation and obesity-related disease. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic PGC-1? regulates ER? and inflammation in vivo. HFD significantly increased palmitic acid (PA) and sphingolipids in the CNS of male mice when compared to female mice. PA, in vitro, and HFD, in vivo, reduced PGC-1? and ER? in hypothalamic neurons and astrocytes of male mice and promoted inflammation. PGC-1? depletion with ER? overexpression significantly inhibited PA-induced inflammation, confirming that ER? is a critical determinant of the anti-inflammatory response. Physiologic relevance of ER?-regulated inflammation was demonstrated by reduced myocardial function in male, but not female, mice following chronic HFD exposure. Our findings show that HFD/PA reduces PGC-1? and ER?, promoting inflammation and decrements in myocardial function in a sex-specific way.
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A fast multiparameter MRI approach for acute stroke assessment on a 3T clinical scanner: preliminary results in a non-human primate model with transient ischemic occlusion.
Quant Imaging Med Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Many MRI parameters have been explored and demonstrated the capability or potential to evaluate acute stroke injury, providing anatomical, microstructural, functional, or neurochemical information for diagnostic purposes and therapeutic development. However, the application of multiparameter MRI approach is hindered in clinic due to the very limited time window after stroke insult. Parallel imaging technique can accelerate MRI data acquisition dramatically and has been incorporated in modern clinical scanners and increasingly applied for various diagnostic purposes. In the present study, a fast multiparameter MRI approach including structural T1-weighted imaging (T1W), T2-weighted imaging (T2W), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), T2-mapping, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and magnetization transfer (MT) imaging, was implemented and optimized for assessing acute stroke injury on a 3T clinical scanner. A macaque model of transient ischemic stroke induced by a minimal interventional approach was utilized for evaluating the multiparameter MRI approach. The preliminary results indicate the surgical procedure successfully induced ischemic occlusion in the cortex and/or subcortex in adult macaque monkeys (n=4). Application of parallel imaging technique substantially reduced the scanning duration of most MRI data acquisitions, allowing for fast and repeated evaluation of acute stroke injury. Hence, the use of the multiparameter MRI approach with up to five quantitative measures can provide significant advantages in preclinical or clinical studies of stroke disease.
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Metastasis of human gastric adenocarcinoma partly depends on phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase ?1 expression.
Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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It is known that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipases ?1(PLC?1) can trigger several signalling pathways to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and metastasis. However, whether this kinase is highly expressive and active in human gastric adenocarcinomas, and whether it can play an important role in the development of the cancer, have not yet been investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of PLC?1 in human gastric adenocarcinoma, while the question of whether PLC?1 can be activated through protein kinase B (Akt) signalling pathways to regulate cell migration was further explored using human gastric adenocarcinoma BGC-823 cell line. The expression of PLC?1 in human adenocarcinoma was detected using immunohistochemical staining. The BGC-823 cells were cultured and treated with inhibitors or transfected with plasmid construction. The cell migration of BGC-823 cells was measured with wound healing assay, cell migration assay, and the ruffling assay. The expression levels of PLC?1 and its related signal molecules in BGC-823 cells were assessed using Western blot analysis or gelatine zymography assay. PLC?1 was highly expressed in humangastric adenocarcinomas, especially in the region with lymph node metastasis. It was shown that migration of BGC-823 cells in vitro depends on PLC?1 activation. This activation is mediated through Akt, an upstream of PLC?1 that triggers the PLC?1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) pathway in BGC-823 cells. PLC?1 activities play an important role in the metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma, and may serve as a potential therapeutic target in this type of cancer.
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Acceptability and Correlates of Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cervical Cancer among Medical Students in Southwest China: Implications for Cancer Education.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To understand knowledge about, and acceptability of, cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccines among medical students; and to explore potential factors that influence their acceptability in China.
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Human leukocyte antigen-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602 alleles are cervical cancer protective factors among Uighur and Han people in Xinjiang, China.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for cervical cancer. However, only some high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV)-infected women progress to cervical cancer, host immunogenetic factors human leukocyte antigen (HLA) may account for viral antigens presenting individually or together in the progression to cervical cancer. This study examined the association between the development of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and the determinant factors including HLA-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602, HR-HPV infection among Chinese Uighur and Han populations. Blood samples, cervical swabs and biopsies were obtained from 287 patients with ICC (192 Uighurs and 95 Hans) and 312 healthy controls (218 Uighurs and 94 Hans). HPV DNA was detected by PCR and HLA-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602 alleles were performed using PCR-SSP method. HPV16 infection rates was significantly higher among Uighur and Han with ICC as compared to healthy controls (OR = 58.317; 95% CI: 39.663-85.744; OR = 33.778; 95% CI: 12.581-90.691; P < 0.05 for all). HLA-DRB1*1501 (OR = 0.305; 95% CI: 0.115-0.813; P < 0.05) and HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype frequencies (OR = 0.274; 95% CI: 0.086-0.874; P < 0.05) were significantly reduced in Han ICC. The HLA-DQB1*0602 frequency significantly decreased among Uighur women with ICC (OR = 0.482; 95% CI: 0.325-0.716; P < 0.05). Similar tendencies were observed for DQB1*0602 with HPV16-positive ICC (OR = 0.550; 95% CI: 0.362-0.837; P < 0.05). This study suggests that HLA-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602 alleles may influence the immune response to HPV16 infection and decrease the risk of ICC among Uighurs and Hans in Xinjiang, China.
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Genetic and Dietary Determinants of Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 and IGF Binding Protein (BP)-3 Levels among Chinese Women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Higher insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and lower IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels have been associated with higher commoncancer risk, including breast cancer. Dietary factors, genetic polymorphisms, and the combination of both may influence circulating IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 serum concentrations.
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Spontaneous brain activity in type 2 diabetics revealed by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and its association with diabetic vascular disease: a resting-state FMRI study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate correlations between altered spontaneous brain activity, diabetic vascular disease, and cognitive function for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI).
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Parachordoma/myoepithelioma of the kidney: first report of a myxoid mimicry in an unusual location.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We report a case of parachordoma (or myoepithelioma) of the right upper kidney in a 56 year-old male patient. Light microscopic features of the tumor exhibited epithelioid, glomoid, and spindle cells with eosinophilic and vacuolated cytoplasm as well as round to oval nuclei. These cells were embedded in a myxoid and hyaline stroma separated by a fibrous tissue with minimal cellular atypia and a few small nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were immunoreactive for epithelial membrane antigen, calponin, vimentin, S-100, and type-IV collagen. All kidney and adrenal were resected, and the patient was carefully followed up. During the 11 months follow-up, recurrence and metastases were not observed. To our knowledge, this study is the first to document a case of parachordoma/myoepithelioma of the kidney. We add this new case to existing tumors and discuss its distinction from other types.
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Abasic site-binding ligands conjugated with cyanine dyes for "off-on" fluorescence sensing of orphan nucleobases in DNA duplexes and DNA-RNA hybrids.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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A series of abasic site-binding ligands conjugated with cyanine dyes have been developed for "off-on" fluorescence sensing of an orphan nucleobase in DNA duplexes and DNA-RNA hybrids.
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Spare mitochondrial respiratory capacity permits human adipocytes to maintain ATP homeostasis under hypoglycemic conditions.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Mitochondrial dysfunction in white adipose tissue plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Emerging evidence specifically suggests that altered oxidative phosphorylation in adipocytes may have a relevant effect on systemic glucose homeostasis, requiring understanding of adipocyte bioenergetics. We analyzed energetic flux of an intact human adipocyte cell model by plate-based respirometry and extracellular acidification. During differentiation, we discovered that glycolytic ATP production was increasingly replaced by mitochondrial oxidative metabolism (from 20 to 60%). This observation was corroborated by simultaneous up-regulation of canonical mitochondrial gene programs, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator ? (PGC1?; 150-fold) and cytochrome c-1 (CytC; 3-fold). Mimicking diabetic phenotypes by exposure to various glucose levels (0, 5, and 25 mM) resulted in immediate adjustments of glycolytic and mitochondrial activity that aimed to maintain intracellular ATP. We conclude that ATP deficits by mitochondrial failure are compensated by glycolytic ATP production, resulting in inefficient conversion of glucose to cellular ATP. Metabolic inefficiency may enhance glucose uptake, therefore improving systemic glucose homeostasis. Notably, mature adipocytes developed a high spare respiratory capacity (increased by 6-fold) permitting rapid adaptation to metabolic changes. Spare respiratory capacity may also allow additional metabolic scope for energy dissipation, potentially offering new therapeutic targets for the treatment of metabolic disease.-Keuper, M., Jastroch, M., Yi, C.-X., Fischer-Posovszky, P., Wabitsch, M., Tschöp, M. H., Hofmann, S. M. Spare mitochondrial respiratory capacity permits human adipocytes to maintain ATP homeostasis under hypoglycemic conditions.
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Duodenal nutrient exclusion improves metabolic syndrome and stimulates villus hyperplasia.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Surgical interventions that prevent nutrient exposure to the duodenum are among the most successful treatments for obesity and diabetes. However, these interventions are highly invasive, irreversible and often carry significant risk. The duodenal-endoluminal sleeve (DES) is a flexible tube that acts as a barrier to nutrient-tissue interaction along the duodenum. We implanted this device in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats to gain greater understanding of duodenal nutrient exclusion on glucose homeostasis.
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Multifunctional Core-Shell Structured Nanocarriers for Synchronous Tumor Diagnosis and Treatment In Vivo.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2013
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Multifunctional, mesoporous, silica-coated upconversion luminescent/magnetic NaGdF4 :Yb/Er@NaGdF4 :Yb@mSiO2 ?PEG (referred to as UCNPS; PEG=polyethylene glycol) nanocomposites were fabricated through a phase-transfer-assisted surfactant-templating coating process, followed by hydrophilic polymer (PEG) functionalization to improve the stability and biocompatibility. The UCNP core imparts the nanomaterials with luminescence and magnetic properties for simultaneous upconversion optical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, whereas the mesoporous shell affords the nanomaterials the ability to load the anticancer drug doxorubicin. Proof-of-principle in vitro and in vivo experiments are presented to demonstrate that the resultant composite nanomaterials can serve as nanotheranostics for synchronous upconversion luminescence/MR dual modal imaging and anticancer drug delivery; this finally realizes the integration of diagnostics and the treatment of cancers.
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Elevated expression patterns and tight correlation of the PLCE1 and NF-?B signaling in Kazakh patients with esophageal carcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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This study investigated the expression of the phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B)-related proteins in Kazakh patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Tissue microarrays of 90 ethnic Kazakh patients with ESCC and exhibiting clinical characteristics were analyzed for protein expression of PLCE1, IKK?, IKB?, p50, and p65 by immunohistochemistry. Correlations between histoscores of PLCE1 and NF-?B-related proteins were determined using Spearmans rank correlation tests. Expression of PLCE1 and NF-?B-related proteins significantly increased in tumor tissues compared with normal esophageal tissues (P = 9.48 × 10(-7), 1.24 × 10(-5), 0.004, 0.003, and 2.83 × 10(-5), respectively). Upregulation of PLCE1 was significantly correlated with advanced tumor-node-metastasis stages (P = 0.018) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.003). Overexpression of IKK? and IKB? was associated with ESCC stages I/II (P = 3.36 × 10(-4) and 0.022, respectively). Increased expression of p50 was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis than without lymph node metastasis (P = 0.048). Elevated expression of p65 protein was significantly correlated with poor and moderately differentiated ESCC and depth of tumor invasion (P = 0.026 and 0.010, respectively). Significant positive correlations were observed between the expression of PLCE1 and NF-?B-related proteins, especially IKK? (r = 0.246 and P = 0.025) and p50 (r = 0.244 and P = 0.024). These results suggest, for the first time, that upregulation of PLCE1 is correlated with increased expression of NF-?B-related proteins in Kazakh patients with ESCC, suggesting that interaction between PLCE1 with the NF-?B signal pathway may be responsible for the carcinogenesis of ESCC, such as ESCC-related inflammation.
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Hormones and diet, but not body weight, control hypothalamic microglial activity.
Glia
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus plays a key role in sensing metabolic feedback and regulating energy homeostasis. Recent studies revealed activation of microglia in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO), suggesting a potential pathophysiological role for inflammatory processes within the hypothalamus. To further investigate the metabolic causes and molecular underpinnings of such glial activation, we analyzed the microglial activity in wild-type (WT), monogenic obese ob/ob (leptin deficient), db/db (leptin-receptor mutation), and Type-4 melanocortin receptor knockout (MC4R KO) mice on either a HFD or on standardized chow (SC) diet. Following HFD exposure, we observed a significant increase in the total number of ARC microglia, immunoreactivity of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (iba1-ir), cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68-ir), and ramification of microglial processes. The ob/ob mice had significantly less iba1-ir and ramifications. Leptin replacement rescued these phenomena. The db/db mice had similar iba1-ir comparable with WT mice but had significantly lower CD68-ir and more ramifications than WT mice. After 2 weeks of HFD, ob/ob mice showed an increase of iba1-ir, and db/db mice showed increase of CD68-ir. Obese MC4R KO mice fed a SC diet had comparable iba1-ir and CD68-ir with WT mice but had significantly more ramifications than WT mice. Intriguingly, treatment of DIO mice with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists reduced microglial activation independent of body weight. Our results show that diet type, adipokines, and gut signals, but not body weight, affect the presence and activity levels of hypothalamic microglia in obesity. GLIA 2013;62:17-25.
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Enriched environment induces higher CNPase positive cells in aged rat hippocampus.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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It had been reported that enriched environment was beneficial for the brain cognition and for the neurons and synapses in hippocampus. Previous study reported that the oligodendrocyte density in hippocampus was increased when the rats were reared in the enriched environment from weaning to adulthood. However, biological conclusions based on density were difficult to interpret because the changes in density could be due to an alteration of total quantity and/or an alteration in the reference volume. In the present study, we used unbiased stereological methods to investigate the effect of enriched environment on the total number of 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) positive cells in CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus in aged rats. Our results indicated that there was significant difference in the total numbers of CNPase positive cells in both CA1 and DG between enriched environment group and standard environment group. The present study provided the first evidence for the protective effects of enriched environment on the CNPase positive cells in aged hippocampus.
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Berberine ameliorates cartilage degeneration in interleukin-1?-stimulated rat chondrocytes and in a rat model of osteoarthritis via Akt signalling.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Berberine, a plant alkaloid used in Chinese medicine, has broad cell-protective functions in a variety of cell lines. Chondrocyte apoptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis (OA). However, little is known about the effect and underlying mechanism of berberine on OA chondrocytes. Here, we assessed the effects of berberine on cartilage degeneration in interleukin-1? (IL-1?)-stimulated rat chondrocytes and in a rat model of OA. The results of an MTT assay and western blotting analysis showed that berberine attenuated the inhibitory effect of IL-1? on the cell viability and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in rat chondrocytes. Furthermore, berberine activated Akt, which triggered p70S6K/S6 pathway and up-regulated the levels of aggrecan and Col II expression in IL-1?-stimulated rat chondrocytes. In addition, berberine increased the level of proteoglycans in cartilage matrix and the thickness of articular cartilage, with the elevated levels of Col II, p-Akt and p-S6 expression in a rat OA model, as demonstrated by histopathological and immunohistochemistry techniques. The data thus strongly suggest that berberine may ameliorate cartilage degeneration from OA by promoting cell survival and matrix production of chondrocytes, which was partly attributed to the activation of Akt in IL-1?-stimulated articular chondrocytes and in a rat OA model. The resultant chondroprotective effects indicate that berberine merits consideration as a therapeutic agent in OA.
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Insulin induces C2C12 cell proliferation and apoptosis through regulation of cyclin D1 and BAD expression.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Insulin is a secreted peptide hormone identified in human pancreas to promote glucose utilization. Insulin has been observed to induce cell proliferation and myogenesis in C2C12 cells. The precise mechanisms underlying the proliferation of C2C12 cells induced by insulin remain unclear. In this study, we observed for the first time that 10 nM insulin treatment promotes C2C12 cell proliferation. Additionally, 50 and 100 nM insulin treatment induces C2C12 cell apoptosis. By utilizing real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis, we found that the mRNA levels of cyclinD1 and BAD are induced upon 10 and 50 nM/100 nM insulin treatment, respectively. The similar results were observed in C2C12 cells expressing GATA-6 or PPAR?. Our results identify for the first time the downstream targets of insulin, cyclin D1, and BAD, elucidate a new molecular mechanism of insulin in promoting cell proliferation and apoptosis.
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GLP-1R agonism enhances adjustable gastric banding in diet-induced obese rats.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Bariatric procedures vary in efficacy, but overall are more effective than behavioral and pharmaceutical treatment. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass causes increased secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and reduces body weight (BW) more than adjustable gastric banding (AGB), which does not trigger increased GLP-1 secretion. Since GLP-1-based drugs consistently reduce BW, we hypothesized that GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists would augment the effects of AGB. Male Long-Evans rats with diet-induced obesity received AGB implantation or sham surgery. GLP-1R agonism, cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1-R) antagonism, or vehicle was combined with inflation to evaluate interaction between AGB and pharmacological treatments. GLP1-R agonism reduced BW in both sham and AGB rats (left uninflated) compared with vehicle-treated animals. Subsequent band inflation was ineffective in vehicle-treated rats but enhanced weight loss stimulated by GLP1-R agonism. In contrast, there was no additional BW loss when CB1-R antagonism was given with AGB. We found band inflation to trigger neural activation in areas of the nucleus of the solitary tract known to be targeted by GLP-1R agonism, offering a potential mechanism for the interaction. These data show that GLP-1R agonism, but not CB1-R antagonism, improves weight loss achieved by AGB and suggest an opportunity to optimize bariatric surgery with adjunctive pharmacotherapy.
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Interleukin-10 gene promoter polymorphisms and risk of gastric cancer in a Chinese population: single nucleotide and haplotype analyses.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Interleukin (IL) -10 is a potent cytokine with a dual ability to immunosuppress or immunostimulate. We aimed to explore the association of IL10 promoter polymorphisms with risk of gastric cancer (GC) in a Han population in Southwestern China.
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Multiple polymorphisms within the PLCE1 are associated with esophageal cancer via promoting the gene expression in a Chinese Kazakh population.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Although recent genome-wide association studies of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) identified a susceptibility locus in phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) in Chinese Han populations, few studies further confirmed these findings in pure Kazakh population in which there are higher incidence and mortality of ESCC. Here, we investigated the potential associations between 19 SNPs of PLCE1 and susceptibility to ESCC in 222 cases and 326 controls from a pure ethnic population of Kazakh. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the PLCE1 expression levels and evaluate their association with PLCE1 polymorphism. We found that only 4 SNPs (rs753724, rs11187842, rs2274223, and rs12263737) with moderate linkage disequilibrium (LD) confer significantly increased risk of ESCC, with the ORs ranging from 1.43 to 2.04, and there was a risk allele dose-dependent increase in ESCC risk (P-trend=0.043). Especially, the risk effects of rs2274223 were more evident in poor differentiation and advanced clinical stages of Kazakh ESCC. Additionally, the significantly lowest PLCE1 mRNA expression was found in the KYSE-150 cell line having no risk alleles compared with other three cell lines having risk alleles, and the normal tissues of both homozygous mutant type of PLCE1 rs12263737 and rs2274223 had a higher PLCE1 staining score than that of homozygous wild type. Our findings suggested that genetic variants in PLCE1 might serve as candidate markers for Kazakh ESCC susceptibility, and these LD variants might influence ESCC risk individually and jointly by promoting the messenger RNA and protein expression of the gene.
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The early changes in behavior and the myelinated fibers of the white matter in the Tg2576 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimers disease.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Recently, increasing evidences have indicated that abnormal behavior and white matter changes had appeared before senile plaques were formed in Alzheimers disease (AD). However, the exact nature of these changes in behavior and white matter structure in early AD are unclear. This study used the Morris water maze, an ELISA assay, a transmission electron microscopic technique and new stereological methods to investigate the behavior, A? protein expression and white matter structure of Tg2576 transgenic mice at four ages. Only 10 months of age, the time latency in the Morris water maze tasks for Tg2576 transgenic mice were significantly longer than that of wild-type mice. The concentration of A?40 protein in the white matter of the Tg2576 transgenic mice was significantly increased in four ages mice, but the A?42 protein was significantly increased only in the 6-month-old mice. In 10-month-old mice, the axon volume in the white matter of the Tg2576 transgenic mice was significantly decreased when compared to the wild-type mice. These results suggest that the deposition of A? in the white matter of Tg2576 transgenic mice appeared before the spatial memory decline. The early detection of the A? content in the white matter of AD might help diagnose suspected AD. In addition, the axon changes in the white matter of AD might be one of the morphological causes of the behavioral deficits observed in 10-month-old transgenic mouse models of AD, and protecting the axons in the white matter might be an important method for delaying the progression of AD.
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Could Pin1 help us conquer essential hypertension at an earlier stage? A promising early-diagnostic biomarker and its therapeutic implications for the disease.
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Essential hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and the early-diagnosis is very important for the prevention of essential hypertension. Previously, we found that Pin1, the only known enzyme isomerizing pSer/pThr-Pro motifs in proteins, may gradually become inactive under conditions of stress such as intracellular acidification and fever. Interestingly, essential hypertension and the dysfunction of Pin1 often synchronously occur with the increasing age. Recent evidence indicates that Pin1 primarily increases the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the production of nitric oxide (NO) in multiple ways, significantly promoting the relaxation response of blood vessels and preventing the elevation of blood pressure. Further, the inhibition of Pin1 results in significantly increased blood pressure in rats. So, we hypothesized and evaluated the potential of Pin1 to be a new early-diagnostic biomarker as well as a therapeutic drug for essential hypertension. The unique activity of Pin1 and some epidemiological and experimental data evidence that the decreased activity of Pin1 may be closely associated with the development of essential hypertension. The factors that may impact the activity of Pin1 and correlate with the risk of essential hypertension were also discussed. These findings indicate that Pin1 plays a key and permanent role in efficiently preventing the development of essential hypertension, and that Pin1 may be a promising early-diagnostic biomarker as well as an effective therapeutic drug for the early-diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of essential hypertension, potentially decreasing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
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Accelerated solvent extraction and pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatographic purification of yunaconitine and 8-deacetylyunaconitine from Aconitum vilmorinianum Kom.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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This study aimed to seek an efficient method to extract and purify yunaconitine and 8-deacetylyunaconitine from Aconitum vilmorinianum Kom. by accelerated solvent extraction combined with pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. The major extraction parameters for accelerated solvent extraction were optimized by an orthogonal test design L9 (3)(4). Then a separation and purification method was established using pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (5:5:2:8, v/v) with 10 mM triethylamine in the upper phase and 10 mM HCl in the lower phase. From 2 g crude extract, 224 mg of 8-deacetylyunaconitine (I) and 841 mg of yunaconitine (II) were obtained with a purity of over 98.0%. The chemical structures were identified by ESI-MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy.
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The orphan receptor Gpr83 regulates systemic energy metabolism via ghrelin-dependent and ghrelin-independent mechanisms.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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The G protein-coupled receptor 83 (Gpr83) is widely expressed in brain regions regulating energy metabolism. Here we report that hypothalamic expression of Gpr83 is regulated in response to nutrient availability and is decreased in obese mice compared with lean mice. In the arcuate nucleus, Gpr83 colocalizes with the ghrelin receptor (Ghsr1a) and the agouti-related protein. In vitro analyses show heterodimerization of Gpr83 with Ghsr1a diminishes activation of Ghsr1a by acyl-ghrelin. The orexigenic and adipogenic effect of ghrelin is accordingly potentiated in Gpr83-deficient mice. Interestingly, Gpr83 knock-out mice have normal body weight and glucose tolerance when fed a regular chow diet, but are protected from obesity and glucose intolerance when challenged with a high-fat diet, despite hyperphagia and increased hypothalamic expression of agouti-related protein, Npy, Hcrt and Ghsr1a. Together, our data suggest that Gpr83 modulates ghrelin action but also indicate that Gpr83 regulates systemic metabolism through other ghrelin-independent pathways.
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12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-1,3-acetate-induced degradation of protein kinase B via ubiquitin- -proteasomal pathway depends on its Ser473 phosphorylation in gastric cancer cells.
Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
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TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-1, 3-acetate) can induce cell apoptosis and cause PKB (protein kinase B) degradation correlated with its phosphorylation in gastric cancer cells. We investigated whether the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway is involved in TPA-induced PKB degradation. The results showed that TPA could induce PKB ubiquitination by inhibiting its phosphorylation at the serine 473 site. Moreover, MG132 (26S proteasome inhibitor) partially inhibited TPA-induced degradation of PKB. Taken together, TPA could degrade PKB via the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway, and the suppression of PKB phosphorylation at the serine 473 site might be a prerequisite for the TPA-induced ubiquitination in gastric cancer cells.
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[Tobacco quality analysis of producing areas of Yunnan tobacco using near-infrared (NIR) spectrum].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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In the present study, tobacco quality analysis of different producing areas was carried out applying spectrum projection and correlation methods. The group of industrial classification data was near-infrared (NIR) spectrum in 2010 year of middle parts of tobacco plant from Hongta Tobacco (Group) Co., Ltd. Twelve hundred seventy six superior tobacco leaf samples were collected from four producing areas, in which three areas from Yuxi, Chuxiong and Zhaotong, in Yunnan province all belong to tobacco varieties of K326 and one area from Dali belongs to tobacco varieties of Hongda. The conclusion showed that when the samples were divided into two parts by the ratio of 2 : 1 randomly as analysis and verification sets, the verification set corresponded with the analysis set applying spectrum projection because their correlation coefficients by the first and second dimensional projection were all above 0.99. At the same time, The study discussed a method to get the quantitative similarity values of different producing areas samples. The similarity values were instructive in tobacco plant planning, quality management, acquisition of raw materials of tobacco and tobacco leaf blending.
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miR-200b targets GATA-4 during cell growth and differentiation.
RNA Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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GATA-4 is an important transcription factor involved in several developmental processes of the heart, such as cardiac myocyte proliferation, differentiation and survival. The precise mechanisms underlying the regulation of GATA-4 remain unclear, this is especially true for the mechanisms that mediate the post-transcriptional regulation of GATA-4. Here, we demonstrate that miR-200b, a member of the miR-200 family, is a critical regulator of GATA-4. Overexpression of miR-200b leads to the downregulation of GATA-4 mRNA and a decrease in GATA-4 protein levels. Moreover, miR-200b not only inhibits cell growth and differentiation but also reverses the growth response mediated by GATA-4, whereas depletion of miR-200b leads to a slight reversal of the anti-growth response achieved by knocking down endogenous GATA-4. More importantly, the cell cycle-associated gene cyclin D1, which is a downstream target of GATA-4, is also regulated by miR-200b. Thus, miR-200b targets GATA-4 to downregulate the expression of cyclin D1 and myosin heavy chain (MHC), thereby regulating cell growth and differentiation.
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Insulin induces proliferation and cardiac differentiation of P19CL6 cells in a dose-dependent manner.
Dev. Growth Differ.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreas. The roles of insulin in energy metabolism have been well studied, with most of the attention focused on glucose utilization, but the roles of insulin in cell proliferation and differentiation remain unclear. In this study, we observed for the first time that 10 nmol/L insulin treatment induces cell proliferation and cardiac differentiation of P19CL6 cells, whereas 50 and 100 nmol/L insulin treatment induces P19CL6 cell apoptosis and blocks cardiac differentiation of P19CL6 cells. By using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting analysis, we found that the mRNA levels of cyclin D1 and ? myosin heavy chain (?-MHC) are induced upon 10 nmol/L insulin stimulation and inhibited upon 50/100 nmol/L insulin treatment, whereas the mRNA levels of BCL-2-antagonist of cell death (BAD) exists a reverse trend. The similar results were observed in P19CL6 cells expressing GATA-6 or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). Our results identified the downstream targets of insulin, cyclin D1, BAD, ?-MHC, and GATA-4, elucidate a novel molecular mechanism of insulin in promoting cell proliferation and differentiation.
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Rational design for cooperative recognition of specific nucleobases using ?-cyclodextrin-modified DNAs and fluorescent ligands on DNA and RNA scaffolds.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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We propose a binary fluorimetric method for DNA and RNA analysis by the combined use of two probes rationally designed to work cooperatively. One probe is an oligonucleotide (ODN) conjugate bearing a ?-cyclodextrin (?-CyD). The other probe is a small reporter ligand, which comprises linked molecules of a nucleobase-specific heterocycle and an environment-sensitive fluorophore. The heterocycle of the reporter ligand recognizes a single nucleobase displayed in a gap on the target labeled with the conjugate and, at the same time, the fluorophore moiety forms a luminous inclusion complex with nearby ?-CyD. Three reporter ligands, MNDS (naphthyridine-dansyl linked ligand), MNDB (naphthyridine-DBD), and DPDB (pyridine-DBD), were used for DNA and RNA probing with 3-end or 5-end modified ?-CyD-ODN conjugates. For the DNA target, the ?-CyD tethered to the 3-end of the ODN facing into the gap interacted with the fluorophore sticking out into the major groove of the gap site (MNDS and DPDB). Meanwhile the ?-CyD on the 5-end of the ODN interacted with the fluorophore in the minor groove (MNDB and DPDB). The results obtained by this study could be a guideline for the design of binary DNA/RNA probe systems based on controlling the proximity of functional molecules.
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Overexpression of PLCE1 in Kazakh esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: implications in cancer metastasis and aggressiveness.
APMIS
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Three recent large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Chinese Han populations have identified an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) susceptibility locus within phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) gene, which encodes a phospholipase involved in intracellular signaling. The expressed PLCE1 in ESCC, however, are inconsistent. This study examined PLCE1 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) from 110 ethnic Kazakh ESCC patients and 50 from adjacent normal esophageal tissues (NETs). The expressed PLCE1 was localized in cytoplasm, especially in the peripheral layers of cancer cell nests, which was significantly higher in tumors than in NETs (p < 0.001). Increased expression of PLCE1 was correlated with advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages (p = 0.015) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.003) in patients with ESCC. Of the 110 patients, we examined 50 paired ESCC tissues and corresponding NETs by quantitative RT-PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and the mean mRNA level of PLCE1 in ESCC was 1.85-fold higher compared with those in corresponding NETs (p = 0.0012). Meanwhile, 4 of 5 ESCC cell lines also showed elevated expression of PLCE1 mRNA. Furthermore, elevated expression of PLCE1 mRNA in Kazakh ESCC was associated with its immunoreactivity (? = 0.297, p = 0.040), lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001), and advanced TNM stages of ESCC (p = 0.013). To our knowledge, this study demonstrates for the first time that PLCE1 overexpression correlates with lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stages of Kazakh ESCC, implicating a role of PLCE1 in cancer metastasis and aggressiveness in ethnic Kazakh patients with ESCC. Furthermore, the current findings may warrant investigations into whether inhibiting PLCE1 could be a strategy for targeted anticancer therapy particularly for Kazakh ESCC.
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Isolation, culture, and characterization of primordial germ cells in Mongolian sheep.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
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This study was performed to culture and preliminarily identify the primordial germ cells (PGCs) isolated from the genital ridge of the Mongolian sheep fetus. The growth characteristics of the sheep PGCs were detected in different culture systems such as culture media, resources, and state and passages of feeder cells. The obtained embryonic germ (EG) cells were identified by morphology, enzymology, and immunofluorescence. The results showed that the sheep EG cell colonies were ridgy, typically nest like, and compact, and had regular edges. Alkaline phosphatase staining reaction was weakly positive. EG cells expressed Kit, Rex-1, Nanog, and Oct-4. Immunofluorescence detection was weakly positive for Oct3/4, whereas positive for SSEA-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-61, and TRA-1-80.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.