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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The effect of position of (S)-2-octyloxy tail on the formation of frustrated blue phase and antiferroelectric phase in Schiff base liquid crystals.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Two series of chiral salicylaldimine-based liquid crystals which differ from each other in the position of the (S)-2-octyloxy tail have been synthesized and characterized by polarizing optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and electrical switching. Compounds (n = 6-7) having (S)-2-octyloxy tail close to the salicylaldimine core and compounds (n = 6-11) having (S)-2-octyloxy tail far from the salicylaldimine core exhibit polymorphism of mesophases including frustrated blue phase and antiferroelectric (SmC) phases. Notably, as compared with structurally similar Schiff base compounds (n = 7), intramolecular hydrogen bonding in antiferroelectric salicylaldimine-based compounds (n = 7) induces the frustrated blue phase. However, as compared with structurally similar Schiff base compounds (n = 8), the lack of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in Schiff base compounds (n = 8) suppresses antiferroelectric properties.
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High serum iron is associated with increased cancer risk.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Epidemiologic studies linking high serum iron with cancer risks are limited and inconclusive, despite evidence implicating body iron in human carcinogenesis. A cohort of 309,443 adults in Taiwan who had no history of cancer had serum iron levels tested at the time of recruitment (1997-2008). Initially measured iron levels were associated with subsequent cancer risk by linking individuals with the National Cancer Registry and National Death File. HRs were calculated by the Cox model. One third of males (35%) and one fifth of females (18%) had high serum iron (?120 ?g/dL), which was associated with a 25% increase in risk for incidence of all cancers [HR, 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.16-1.35] and with a 39% increase in risk for mortality from all cancers (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.23-1.57). The relationship between serum iron and cancer risk was a J-shaped one, with higher cancer risk at both ends, either at lower than 60 ?g/dL or higher than 120 ?g/dL. At the higher end, cancer risk increased by 4% for every 10 ?g/dL increment above 80 ?g/dL, showing a dose-response relationship, with 60 to 79 ?g/dL as a reference level. In a sensitivity analysis, the increases in risk were still observed after the first 5 years of cancer cases were excluded. Liver cancer risk was increased in HBV (-) non-hepatitis B carrier (3-fold) and HBV (+) hepatitis B carrier (24-fold). Lifestyle risks such as smoking, drinking, or inactivity interacted synergistically with high serum iron and significantly increased the cancer risks. The liver (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.97-3.16) and the breast (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.01-1.70) were the two major cancer sites where significant cancer risks were observed for serum iron either ?120 ?g/dL or ?140 ?g/dL, respectively. This study reveals that high serum iron is both a common disorder and a marker of increased risk for several cancers. Cancer Res; 74(22); 6589-97. ©2014 AACR.
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Rumphellols A and B, new caryophyllene sesquiterpenoids from a Formosan gorgonian coral, Rumphella antipathies.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Two new marine-derived caryophyllene-type sesquiterpenoids, rumphellols A and B (1 and 2), were obtained from the gorgonian coral, Rumphella antipathies, collected off the waters of Taiwan. Although caryophyllene-type sesquiterpenes are rarely found in marine organisms, compounds of this type could be principal components of R. antipathies. The structures of new Compounds 1 and 2 were determined by analysis of their spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Caryophyllene 1 and 2 were evaluated in terms of their anti-inflammatory activity by examining their inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anions and the release of elastase by human neutrophils.
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Development of calcium phosphate/sulfate biphasic cement for vital pulp therapy.
Dent Mater
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Bioactive calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been used widely to repair bone defects because of its excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. However, the poor handling properties, low initial mechanical strength, and long setting time of CPC limit its application in vital pulp therapy (VPT). The aim of this study was to synthesize biphasic calcium phosphate/sulfate cements and evaluate the feasibility of applying these cements in VPT.
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Lowered cutoff points of obesity indicators are better predictors of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in premenopausal Taiwanese women.
Obes Res Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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In previous study, we found that in order to prevent MS in women aged <65 years, the cutoff points of obesity indicators should be lowered.
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Rumphellaones B and C, new 4,5-seco-caryophyllane sesquiterpenoids from Rumphellan antipathies.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Two new 4,5-seco-caryophyllane sesquiterpenoids, rumphellaones B (1) and C (2), which were found to possess unprecedented ?-lactone moieties, were obtained from the gorgonian coral Rumphella antipathies. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and compound 2 was found to display modest inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anions and the release of elastase by human neutrophils at a concentration of 10 ?g/mL.
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The first imported human case of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O1 septicemia presents with acute appendicitis-like syndrome in Taiwan.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Human nonplague yersiniosis occurs more commonly in temperate regions than in tropical or subtropical regions. In Taiwan, which is located in a subtropical region of Southeast Asia, only environmental isolates and human infection of Yersinia enterocolitica were reported, but a human case of Y. pseudotuberculosis infection had not been identified. We report the first person with Y. pseudotuberculosis serotype O1 septicemia who presented with acute appendicitis-like syndrome and who was probably contracted the infection via ingestion of raw foods in a barbecue restaurant in Japan.
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Validation of the Chinese version OSA-18 quality of life questionnaire in Taiwanese children with obstructive sleep apnea.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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The OSA-18 questionnaire is one of the most widely-used sleep quality measurements in children. We tested the applicability and cross-cultural validation of the traditional Chinese version OSA-18 questionnaire.
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The efficacy and safety of cilostazol in ischemic stroke patients with peripheral arterial disease (SPAD): protocol of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial.
Int J Stroke
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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It is not uncommon for patients with ischemic stroke to have peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients with polyvascular diseases carry greater burden of atherosclerosis and higher risks of developing vascular events and death. More effective regimens, such as dual antiplatelet agents, may be more effective for controlling progression of atherosclerosis in secondary prevention.
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Recombinant Derp5 allergen with ?S1-casein signal peptide secreted in murine milk protects against dust mite allergen-induced airway inflammation.
J. Dairy Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Recent advances in recombinant technology make transgenic animals that produce pharmaceutical proteins in their milk more feasible. The group 5 allergen isolated from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Derp5) is one of the most important dust mite allergens in humans. The aims of this study were to develop transgenic mice that could secrete recombinant Derp5-containing milk and to demonstrate that ingesting recombinant milk protects against allergic airway inflammation. Two transgenes were constructed separately. The ?-LA-Derp5f transgene consisted of the bovine ?-lactalbumin (?-LA) promoter and full-length Derp5 cDNA. The ?-LA-CN-Derp5t transgene included the ?-LA promoter, a leader sequence of ?S1-casein (CN), and signal peptide-truncated Derp5 cDNA. Both species of transgenic mice were confirmed to have successful transgene integration and stable germline transmission. Western blot analysis of the milk obtained from the offspring of transgenic mice demonstrated that recombinant Derp5 was secreted successfully in the milk of ?LA-CN-Derp5t transgenic mice but not in that of ?LA-Derp5f transgenic mice. This study provides new evidence that transgenic mice can secrete recombinant Derp5 efficiently in milk by adding a signal peptide of ?S1-casein. The antigenic activity of recombinant Derp5 milk was demonstrated to have a protective effect against allergic airway inflammation in a murine model in which the ingestion of recombinant Derp5-containing milk was used as pretreatment.
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The role of Sequence Type (ST) 131 in adult community-onset non-ESBL-producing Escherichia coli bacteraemia.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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BackgroundTo compare the epidemiological and clinical features and outcome in clonal group O25b/ST131 and non-clonal group O25b/ST131 in adult patients with non-extended-spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteraemia.MethodsWe collected 371 consecutive isolates with community-onset non-ESBL producing E. coli bloodstream infection in 2010 in a 1200-bed hospital in Taiwan. Twenty adult patients with clonal group O25b/ST131 and 40 patients with non-clonal group O25b/ST131 were compared.ResultClonal group O25b/ST131 accounted for 5.9% of total isolates. The underlying disease and healthcare-associated risk factors were similar in the case and control groups. Patients with the clonal group O25b/ST131 were less likely to have intra-abdominal infection (0% vs. 22.5%; p¿<¿0.05) than patients from the control group. The Day 30 mortality rate was similar in the case and control groups (15% vs. 12.5%).ConclusionsClonal group O25b/ST131 was found in both multidrug-resistant and susceptible E. coli strains, causing community-onset bloodstream infection. Although O25b/ST131 does not lead to a higher mortality than other isolates, choosing an appropriate antimicrobials in the empirical therapy of community-onset E. coli bacteraemia has become more challenging.
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Medical specialty-related adherence to anti-osteoporotic regimens in fragility hip fracture patients.
J. Bone Miner. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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There is poor adherence in the management of osteoporotic fractures. We designed a study to investigate adherence to osteoporotic regimens among osteoporotic hip fracture patients and to analyze the risk factors associated with poor compliance. This retrospective chart-review study was carried out using a database of osteoporotic hip fracture patients at a medical center in Taiwan for the period 2001-2007. Adherence was assessed using compliance and persistence. Compliance was calculated by the medication possession ratio (MPR) and persistence by the time from treatment initiation to discontinuation. The MPR and corresponding risk factors for poor compliance (MPR < 80 %) were evaluated for year 1. The year 2 results were analyzed only for those subjects with good compliance (MPR ? 80 %) at the end of year 1. There were 366 osteoporotic hip fracture patients (323 women, 43 men) with a mean age of 73.9 ± 7.6 years. Of these, 53.8 % had good compliance for year 1 and 68.5 % for year 2. During 2 years of follow-up, the overall persistence ratio was 33.1 %. The risk factor associated with poor compliance in the first year was index prescription by orthopedists [odds ratio (OR) 1.69, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.59]. Subjects with hypertension (OR 0.69, 95 % CI 0.46-0.99) had good compliance. Index prescription by orthopedists (OR 2.44, 95 % CI 1.31-4.51) was the sole risk factor for poor compliance in year 2. In conclusion, although adherence to osteoporotic regimens was sub-optimal in hip fracture patients, the majority of patients' decreased adherence occurred within the first year. Medical specialties showed different adherences in both year 1 and year 2.
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A Chinese herbal medicine, jia-wei-xiao-yao-san, prevents dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (JWXYS) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is widely used to treat neuropsychological disorders. Only a few of the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS have been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS on dimethylnitrosamine- (DMN-) induced chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis in rats and to clarify the mechanism through which JWXYS exerts these effects. After the rats were treated with DMN for 3 weeks, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) levels were significantly elevated, whereas the albumin level decreased. Although DMN was continually administered, after the 3 doses of JWXYS were orally administered, the SGOT and SGPT levels significantly decreased and the albumin level was significantly elevated. In addition, JWXYS treatment prevented liver fibrosis induced by DMN. JWXYS exhibited superoxide-dismutase-like activity and dose-dependently inhibited DMN-induced lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in the liver of rats. Our findings suggest that JWXYS exerts antifibrotic effects against DMN-induced chronic hepatic injury. The possible mechanism is at least partially attributable to the ability of JWXYS to inhibit reactive-oxygen-species-induced membrane lipid peroxidation.
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Rotating night shifts too quickly may cause anxiety and decreased attentional performance, and impact prolactin levels during the subsequent day: a case control study.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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We investigated circadian changes and effects on mood, sleep-related hormones and cognitive performance when nurses worked consecutive night shifts in a rapidly rotating shift system. Daytime cognitive function, sleep propensity and sleep-related hormones (growth hormone, cortisol, prolactin, thyrotropin) were compared after participants worked two and four consecutive night shifts.
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Discrepancy between Objective and Subjective Outcomes after Adenotonsillectomy in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Adenotonsillectomy (T&A) is the first line therapy for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); however, inconsistency between objective and subjective outcomes perplexes physicians. This study investigates changes of objective and subjective outcomes in children with OSA after T&A, in particular, to elucidate correlations and discrepancies between these 2 measures.
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Gallstone disease and the risk of stroke: a nationwide population-based study.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Gallstone disease (GD) and stroke share a number of risk factors including diabetes and hyperlipidemia. This nationwide population-based study was designed to estimate the risk of stroke after a diagnosis of GD.
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Quality of life after adenotonsillectomy for children with sleep-disordered breathing: a linear mixed model analysis.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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To study changes in quality of life (QoL) after adenotonsillectomy (T&A) in children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), and to elucidate discrepancies in QoL improvements after T&A in children of different gender, age, adiposity status, and disease severity.
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The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) predicts care need in older Taiwanese: results of a national cohort study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The present study determined the ability of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) to predict care need in older people. We analysed the datasets of the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. The 1999 survey containing the MNA items served as the baseline and the 2003 survey served as the endpoint. Of the 4440 participants, 2890 were aged  ? 65 years and served as subjects in the present study. After excluding 150 subjects having incomplete data, 2740 were rated for nutritional status with the normalised long-form (LF) and short-form (SF) MNA-Taiwan version 1 (T1) and version 2 (T2) and evaluated with logistic regression analysis for cross-sectional associations of the rated nutritional status with care need, controlled for age, sex, education level, living arrangement and physical activity. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated for evaluating the ability of the MNA to predict care need. After further excluding 250 subjects who had care need at baseline and seventy-six who were lost to follow-up, 2414 were evaluated for the ability of the MNA to predict subsequent care need with logistic regression analysis. The results demonstrated that all the MNA predicted concurrent and subsequent care need well. The OR for needing subsequent care in the 'at-risk' and 'malnourished' groups were, respectively, 2·04 and 3·33 for the MNA-T1-LF, 2·10 and 5·35 for the MNA-T2-LF, 1·49 and 2·48 MNA-T1-SF, and 1·80 and 3·44 for the MNA-T2-SF (all P< 0·05), and the respective Nagelkerke R 2 values were 0·190, 0·191, 0·184 and 0·192. In conclusion, all the four MNA have the ability to predict future care need, including the MNA-T2-SF, which appears to have great potential for practical applicability.
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Periodic Lateralized Epileptiform Discharges Associated With Irreversible Hyperglycemic Hemichorea-Hemiballism.
Clin EEG Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) on electroencephlography (EEG) usually indicate an acute, diffuse, and severe cerebral insult. Although hyperglycemic hemichorea-hemiballisum (HCHB) and striatal hyperintensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images is an accepted clinical entity, PLEDs have not previously been reported. Herein, we report a 74-year-old man with hyperglycemic HCHB, hyperintense putamen on T1-MR images and PLEDs on EEG. Aggressive sugar control with neuroleptic treatment only slightly improved the severity of HCHB. We also tried titrated oral and intravenous haloperidol, clonazepam, and propranolol sequentially and in combination; however, the effects were poor. Unlike the generally reversibility of hyperglycemic HCHB, the condition was still present 6 months later. Hyperglycemia can cause HCHB and produce subcortical type-PLEDs, which may explain the findings in our patient. In conclusion, PLEDs can be found in patients with hyperglycemic HCHB and striatal hyperintensity on T1-weighted MR images, and the appearance of PLEDs may indicate an irreversible outcome. EEG should be considered in such circumstances.
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Functional connectivity between parietal cortex and the cardiac autonomic system in uremics.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Although the central autonomic network (CAN) has been well researched in animal models, the CAN in humans is still unclear, especially for cardiovascular control. This study aimed to investigate which areas of the cerebral cortices are associated with the peripheral cardiac autonomic control involved in the CAN in uremic patients with autonomic dysfunction and normal controls. The central and peripheral autonomic network in 19 uremic patients with significant autonomic dysfunction and 24 age- and sex-matched controls [mean age ± standard deviation (SD), 55.16 ± 10.45 years and 55.42 ± 5.42 years, respectively] were evaluated by simultaneous spectral analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography recording (ECG), along with serial autonomic tests [autonomic questionnaire and orthostatic blood pressure (BP) change]. Only frequency-domain heart rate variability (f-HRV) during the deep-breathing stage could differentiate the two groups. Although there is no significant difference in f-HRV during the quiet-breathing stage, different patterns of central oscillation and their correlation with peripheral cardiac autonomic indices could be found for the two groups. Although the power of specific EEG bands under electrode T3 and T6 correlated significantly with the power of peripheral HRV indices in the control group, those under electrodes P3 and Pz had significant correlations in the uremic group suggesting a role of functional connectivity between them. In addition, sympathetic activity is correlated with slow wave EEG (theta/delta) power whereas parasympathetic activity is correlated with fast wave EEG (beta) power. In conclusion, there is functional connectivity between the parietal cortex and the peripheral cardiac autonomic system (PAN) in uremics and the pattern of central autonomic connectivity differs between uremic patients with autonomic dysfunction and normal controls.
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Novel Link of Anti-apoptotic ATF3 with Pro-apoptotic CTMP in the Ischemic Brain.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-induced transcription factor with diverse functions under disease states in multiple cell types. ATF3 has neuroprotective action against cerebral ischemia, which may involve caspase 3. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ATF3 regulation of apoptosis are largely unknown. Here, we used gain- and loss-of-function and rescue approaches to demonstrate ATF3 attenuating hypoxic neuronal apoptosis. As well, the protective effect of ATF3 was mediated by downregulation of carboxyl-terminal modulator protein (CTMP), a pro-apoptotic factor that inhibits the anti-apoptotic Akt/PKB cascade. ATF3 (1) downregulated the mRNA and protein levels of CTMP; (2) its temporal expression pattern was reciprocal to that of CTMP; and (3) nuclear localization suggested that ATF3 may regulate CTMP transcription following hypoxic insult. Reporter assays demonstrated that ATF3 suppressed CTMP transcription, whereas ATF3 fusion with VP16, converting ATF3 to transcriptional activator, boosted CTMP transcription. By contrast, NF-?B increased CTMP transcription, and degradation-resistant I?B? decreased CTMP transcription. ChIP assays further confirmed that binding of ATF3 to the ATF/CREB site hindered NF-?B binding to the CTMP promoter, which repressed CTMP expression. Furthermore, CTMP siRNA treatment reduced hypoxic neuronal apoptosis by increasing p-Akt (Ser473) levels and leaving the upstream ATF3 level unchanged. We have identified an endogenous neuroprotective ATF3?CTMP signal cascade that may be a therapeutic target for reducing ischemic brain injury.
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Effects of AST-120 on blood concentrations of protein-bound uremic toxins and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in chronic dialysis patients.
Blood Purif.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Removal of protein-bound uremic toxins by dialysis therapy is limited. The effect of oral adsorbent AST-120 in chronic dialysis patients has rarely been investigated.
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Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24?h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ER ? protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ER ? protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies.
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High incidence of stroke in young women with sleep apnea syndrome.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Patients with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) carry a higher stroke risk. The differential stroke risk between sex and among different age groups has not yet been specifically addressed in previous studies.
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Parallel improvement of cognitive functions and P300 latency following donepezil treatment in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a case-control study.
J Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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To evaluate the effect of donepezil, one of the cholinesterase inhibitors, on P300 measurements in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and investigate the relationship between the subfactors of cognitive performance and P300 components.
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The Epstein-Barr virus-encoded microRNA MiR-BART9 promotes tumor metastasis by targeting E-cadherin in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small RNA molecules that negatively regulate the expression of protein-coding genes and play critical roles in orchestrating diverse cellular processes. This regulatory mechanism is also exploited by viruses to direct their life cycle and evade the host immune system. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus that is closely associated with multiple human diseases, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which is a highly metastatic type of tumor and is frequently reported in South Asia. Several viral proteins have been found to promote the migration and invasiveness of NPC cells. However, not all tumor tissues express these viral oncoproteins, suggesting that other mechanisms may contribute to the aggressive behavior of NPC tumor cells. A previous sequencing study by our group revealed that the EBV miRNA miR-BART9 was expressed at high levels in all EBV-positive NPC tissues. In the present study, we used gain- and loss-of-function approaches to investigate the effect of miR-BART9 in EBV-negative and EBV-positive NPC cells. We discovered that miR-BART9 promotes the migration and invasiveness of cultured NPC cells. The promigratory activity observed in vitro was manifested as an enhanced metastatic ability in vivo. Computational analysis revealed that miR-BART9 may target E-cadherin, a membrane protein that is pivotal in preserving cell-cell junctions and the epithelial phenotype. Through biochemical assays and functional rescue analysis, we confirmed that miR-BART9 specifically inhibits E-cadherin to induce a mesenchymal-like phenotype and promote the migration of NPC cells. These results indicated that miR-BART9 is a prometastatic viral miRNA and suggested that high levels of miR-BART9 in EBV-positive NPC cells may contribute to the aggressiveness of tumor cells.
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Calcification of the aortic arch predicts cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients.
Cardiorenal Med
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Cardiovascular calcification represents a marker of cardiovascular risk in chronic dialysis patients. In the general population, aortic arch calcification (AAC) can predict cardiovascular mortality. We conducted a prospective study to investigate factors associated with AAC in hemodialysis patients and examined its prognostic value in long-term outcome.
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Feasibility of stereotactic body radiation therapy with volumetric modulated arc therapy and high intensity photon beams for hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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To report technical features, early outcome and toxicity of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatments with volumetric modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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SNP rs10248565 in HDAC9 as a novel genomic aberration biomarker of lung adenocarcinoma in non-smoking women.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Numerous efforts have been made to elucidate the etiology and improve the treatment of lung cancer, but the overall five-year survival rate is still only 15%. Although cigarette smoking is the primary risk factor for lung cancer, only 7% of female lung cancer patients in Taiwan have a history of smoking. Since cancer results from progressive accumulation of genetic aberrations, genomic rearrangements may be early events in carcinogenesis.
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The relationship between Helicobacter pylori and cancer risk.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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This study investigated the correlation between Helicobacter pylori (HP) and cancer risk. We compared the age, sex, and comorbidity of cancer patients both infected and not infected by HP.
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Development of CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides for effective activation of rabbit TLR9 mediated immune responses.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) are potent immune stimuli being developed for use as adjuvants in different species. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is the cellular receptor for CpG-ODN in mammalian cells. The CpG-ODN with 18-24 deoxynucleotides that are in current use for human and mouse cells, however, have low activity with rabbit TLR9. Using a cell-based activation assay, we developed a type of CpG-ODN containing a GACGTT or AACGTT motif in 12 phosphorothioate-modified deoxynucleotides with potent stimulatory activity for rabbit TLR9. The developed CpG-ODN have higher activities than other developed CpG-ODN in eliciting antigen-nonspecific immune responses in rabbit splenocytes. When mixed with an NJ85 peptide derived from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, they had potent activities to boost an antigen-specific T cell activation and antibody production in rabbits. Compared to Freund's adjuvant, the developed CpG-ODN are capable of boosting a potent and less toxic antibody response. The results of this study suggest that both the choice of CpG-motif and its length are important factors for CpG-ODN to effectively activate rabbit TLR9 mediated immune responses.
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Impacts of endoscopic gastroesophageal flap valve grading on pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gastroesophageal flap valve (GEFV) endoscopic grading is reported to be associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in adults; however its role in pediatric groups remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the significance of GEFV grading and the associations to multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring (MII-pH) in children with GERD.
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Using hemoglobin A1C as a predicting model for time interval from pre-diabetes progressing to diabetes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The early identification of subjects at high risk for diabetes is essential, thus, random rather than fasting plasma glucose is more useful. We aim to evaluate the time interval between pre-diabetes to diabetes with anti-diabetic drugs by using HbA1C as a diagnostic tool, and predicting it using a mathematic model.
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Clinical characteristics of Q fever and etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in a tropical region of southern Taiwan: a prospective observational study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The clinical characteristics of Q fever are poorly identified in the tropics. Fever with pneumonia or hepatitis are the dominant presentations of acute Q fever, which exhibits geographic variability. In southern Taiwan, which is located in a tropical region, the role of Q fever in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has never been investigated.
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TCDD promotes lung tumors via attenuation of apoptosis through activation of the Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a multiple-site, multiple-species carcinogen that induces cancer in multiple organs. The molecular mechanisms underlying TCDD-induced lung tumorigenesis remain unclear. In the present study, a two-stage lung tumorigenesis model was established by administrating a single low dose of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) combined with TCDD to female A/J mice. The results indicated that TCDD combined with low-dose NNK has a significant tumor-promoting effect compared with TCDD or low-dose NNK alone. Resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer and is thought to be one of the tumor-promoting mechanisms regulated by TCDD. We performed an additional series of experiments in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell line Beas2B cells, in which TCDD was combined with the apoptosis inducer staurosporine. Our in vitro results confirmed that TCDD could rescue cells from apoptosis induced by staurosporine. The inhibition of apoptosis is likely mediated by the activation of the Akt and ERK1/2 pathways, as determined by the effectiveness of pathway-specific inhibitors in abrogating the anti-apoptotic activity of TCDD. In conclusion, we demonstrated that TCDD promoted NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis and revealed that TCDD inhibits staurosporine-induced apoptosis, at least in part, through the Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.
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Human spotted fever group rickettsioses are underappreciated in southern Taiwan, particularly for the species closely-related to Rickettsia felis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Despite increased identification of spotted fever group rickettsioses (SFGR) in animals and arthropods, human SFGR are poorly characterized in Taiwan.
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Effects of green tea extract on insulin resistance and glucagon-like peptide 1 in patients with type 2 diabetes and lipid abnormalities: a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of green tea extract on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and lipid abnormalities on glycemic and lipid profiles, and hormone peptides by a double-blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial. This trial enrolled 92 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and lipid abnormalities randomized into 2 arms, each arm comprising 46 participants. Of the participants, 39 in therapeutic arm took 500 mg green tea extract, three times a day, while 38 in control arm took cellulose with the same dose and frequency to complete the 16-week study. Anthropometrics measurements, glycemic and lipid profiles, safety parameters, and obesity-related hormone peptides were analyzed at screening and after 16-week course. Within-group comparisons showed that green tea extract caused a significant decrease in triglyceride and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index after 16 weeks. Green tea extract also increased significantly high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The HOMA-IR index decreased from 5.4±3.9 to 3.5±2.0 in therapeutic arm only. Adiponectin, apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein B100 increased significantly in both arms, but only glucagon-like peptide 1 increased in the therapeutic arm. However, only decreasing trend in triglyceride was found in between-group comparison. Our study suggested that green tea extract significantly improved insulin resistance and increased glucagon-like peptide 1 only in within-group comparison. The potential effects of green tea extract on insulin resistance and glucagon-like peptide 1 warrant further investigation. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01360567.
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Increased risk of stroke after septicaemia: a population-based longitudinal study in Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Inflammation and infection have been noted to increase stroke risk. However, the association between septicaemia and increased risk of stroke remains unclear. This population-based cohort study, using a National Health Insurance database, aimed to investigate whether patients with septicaemia are predisposed to increased stroke risk. The study included all patients hospitalised for septicaemia for the first time between 2000 and 2003 without prior stroke. Patients were followed until the end of 2010 to evaluate incidence of stroke. An age-, gender- and co-morbidities-matched cohort without prior stroke served as the control. Cox's proportional hazards regressions were used to assess differences in stroke risk between groups. Based on hazard ratios (HRs), patients with septicaemia had greater stroke risk, especially in the younger age groups (age <45: HR = 4.16, 95% CI: 2.39-7.24, p<0.001; age 45-64: HR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.41-2.19, p<0.001; age ? 65: HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.91-1.22, p>0.05). Haemorrhagic stroke was the dominant type (ischaemic stroke: HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06-1.37, p<0.01; haemorrhagic stroke: HR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.35-2.46, p<0.001) and patients without co-morbidities were at slightly higher risk (without co-morbidities: HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.02-2.17, p<0.05; with co-morbidities: HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.10-1.41, p<0.001). The impact of septicaemia on stroke risk was highest within 6 months of the event and gradually declined over time. Our results suggest that septicaemia is associated with an increase in stroke risk, which is greatest in haemorrhagic stroke. Closer attention to patients with history of septicaemia may be warranted for stroke preventive measures, especially for younger patients without co-morbidities.
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Impact of hypoalphalipoproteinemia on quality of life in Taiwanese women with central obesity.
Qual Life Res
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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To investigate the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and different cutoff value of low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in Taiwanese women with different definition of obesity.
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Hexahydro-?-Acids Potently Inhibit 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-Acetate-Induced Skin Inflammation and Tumor Promotion in Mice.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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We previously reported that hexahydro-beta-acids (HBAs), reduced derivatives of beta-acids (BA) from hop (Humulus lupulus L.), displayed more potent anti-inflammatory activity than BA in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages. In this study, we investigated the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of hexahydro-?-acids (HBAs) on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated mouse skin inflammation and in the two-stage carcinogenesis model. Female ICR mice pretreated with HBA at 1 and 10 ?g significantly reduced ear edema, epidermal hyperplasia, and infiltration of inflammatory cells caused by TPA. Molecular analysis exhibited that HBA suppressed iNOS, COX-2, and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) protein and gene expression through interfering with mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatidylinositiol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling as well as the activation of transcription factor NF-?B. Furthermore, application of HBA (1 and 10 ?g) prior to each TPA treatment (17.2 ± 0.9 tumors/mouse) resulted in the significant reduction of tumor multiplicity (5.1 ± 1.2, P < 0.01 and 2.3 ± 1.2, P < 0.001, respectively) in 7,12-dimethyl-benzanthracene (DMBA)-initiated mouse skin. The tumor incidence was significantly lowered to 75% (P < 0.05) and 58.7% (P < 0.01) by HBA pretreatment, respectively, and significantly reduced the tumor weight (0.34 ± 0.14 g, P < 0.01 and 0.09 ± 0.10 g, P < 0.001, respectively) as compared to DMBA/TPA-induced tumors (0.76 ± 0.04 g).
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Natural clovanes from the gorgonian coral Rumphella antipathies.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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Three natural clovane-related sesquiterpenoids, 2beta-acetoxyclovan-9alpha-ol (1), 9alpha-acetoxyclovan-2beta-ol (2) and clovan-2beta,9beta-diol (3), were isolated from the gorgonian coral Rumphella antipathies. The structures of clovanes 1-3 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and by comparison of the spectral data with those of known clovane analogues. This is the first time that clovanes 1-3 have been isolated from a natural source. Clovanes 1 and 2 displayed inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anions and the release of elastase by human neutrophils.
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TLR-induced PAI-2 expression suppresses IL-1? processing via increasing autophagy and NLRP3 degradation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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The NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a multiprotein complex, triggers caspase-1 activation and maturation of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18 upon sensing a wide range of pathogen- and damage-associated molecules. Dysregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activity contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases, but its regulation remains poorly defined. Here we show that depletion of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2), a serine protease inhibitor, resulted in NLRP3- and ASC (apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a C-terminal caspase recruitment domain)-dependent caspase-1 activation and IL-1? secretion in macrophages upon Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 engagement. TLR2 or TLR4 agonist induced PAI-2 expression, which subsequently stabilized the autophagic protein Beclin 1 to promote autophagy, resulting in decreases in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, NLRP3 protein level, and pro-IL-1? processing. Likewise, overexpressing Beclin 1 in PAI-2-deficient cells rescued the suppression of NLRP3 activation in response to LPS. Together, our data identify a tier of TLR signaling in controlling NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reveal a cell-autonomous mechanism which inversely regulates TLR- or Escherichia coli-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and IL-1?-driven inflammation.
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Isolated Aphasic Status Epilepticus as Initial Presentation of Nonketotic Hyperglycemia.
Clin EEG Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Diagnosis of aphasic status epilepticus is sometimes not easy because of its rarity and electroclinical dissociation. Although most cases are associated with organic brain lesions, nonketotic hyperglycemia (NKH)-related aphasic status epilepticus is rare, especially if it is isolated (without other clinical seizure activity). On the other hand, unlike other metabolic disorders, or hypoglycemia-related generalized seizures, focal motor seizure and epilepsia partialis continua can occur in 25% of NKH, with seizures being the initial manifestation in up to 50% of patients. However, the presentation of epileptic aphasia is rare in NKH patients. We report a rare case of NKH presenting initially as persistent and isolated aphasic status epilepticus. Brain magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any focal lesion, but ictal electroencephalography (EEG) disclosed left frontotemporal continuous theta to delta waves, intermingled with epileptiform discharges. Correcting the hyperglycemia failed to improve the language disorder, and the seizure was controlled only by the addition of carbamazepine. Patients with NKH may initially present with isolated aphasic status epilepticus. Unlike stroke-related aphasia, accurate diagnosis is difficult if based solely on neurologic examination and brain neuroimaging. Use of EEG and blood sugar determination should be helpful in this special condition.
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Factors related with the ability to maintain wakefulness in the daytime after fast and forward rotating shifts.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive function, sleep propensity, and sleep-related hormones (growth hormone, cortisol, prolactin, and thyrotropin) and to investigate the factors related to the ability to maintain wakefulness in the daytime after one block of fast forward rotating shift work (2 days, 2 evenings, and 2 nights). Twenty female nurses (mean age: 26.0 ± 2.0 years; range: 22-30 years) were recruited from an acute psychiatric ward. The nurses completed the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), State Anxiety Inventory (SAI), Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Symbol Searching Test, Taiwan University Attention Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) four times throughout the day at 2-hour intervals, and their hormone levels were measured at the same time. There was no time of day effect on sleep propensity as measured by the MWT or MSLT despite an increase in self-reported sleepiness. Anxiety state and neuropsychological tasks, including executive function, attention, and perceptual and motor abilities were not affected during the daytime sleep restriction period. The number of omissions and perceptual and motor abilities showed a practice effect. The thyrotropin levels were significantly elevated, and cortisol levels significantly decreased during the daytime sleep restriction period. There were no significant changes in growth hormone or prolactin throughout the daytime period. Age was negatively associated with the mean sleep latency (MSL) of the MWT and positively associated with the MSL of the MSLT. The perseverative errors in WCST and SSS scores were negatively associated with the MSL of the MWT. SAI scores and thyrotropin levels were positively associated with the MSL of the MWT. In conclusion, there was no change in sleep propensity in the daytime after one block of rotating shift work. An attempt to preserve daytime alertness was also related to maintaining neuropsychological performance. Maintaining this ability was related to thyrotropin and age, and this cognition required a high attentive load.
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The impact of chemotherapy in cancer patients: reflection on traditional chinese symptom complex, cancer-related fatigue, and quality of life.
Holist Nurs Pract
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Traditional Chinese medicine is a trend in cancer holistic care. We found that patients undergoing chemotherapy had more traditional Chinese medicine symptom complexes with qi and blood deficiency and led poor quality of life and experienced fatigue. The traditional Chinese medicine theory based on qi and blood supply in cancer care deserves further research.
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A chinese medicine, kuan-sin-yin decoction, improves liver function in hepatitis B virus carriers: a randomized, controlled study.
J Altern Complement Med
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Abstract Objective: To examine the effects of a Chinese medical herb complex formula, Kuan-Sin-Yin (KSY) decoction, on hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. Methods: Of 86 HBV carriers, 57 who met the inclusion criteria completed this study from February 2011 to December 2011 in Taipei City Hospital, Taiwan. The participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the KSY group (n=29) and a control group (n=28) that received KSY diluted 16 times. The participants took one packet of decoction per day after dinner for 6 weeks. The major outcome measurements were the percentage reduction in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and the log of the HBV DNA level. The other measurements included seroconversion of hepatitis B e antigen and responses to the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) and Short-Form-12. The measurements were collected before the first treatment and 6 weeks later. Results: In the KSY group, AST and ALT levels decreased significantly and the score on the physical component of WHOQOL-BREF increased significantly. However, in the control group, there was no significant change after 6 weeks of treatment. Only the KSY group had a significant percentage reduction in ALT (change, -25.2% versus -0.74% in the control group) after 6 weeks of treatment. No major adverse effects occurred after 6 weeks of treatment. Conclusions: KSY significantly improved ALT levels. The study suggests that a longer-term study testing the efficacy of KSY in a larger sample is warranted.
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Renin angiotensin system blockade ameliorates lead nephropathy.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Lead intoxication is usually insidious and may cause a variety of complications such as kidney damage and hypertension. The role of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in lead-induced nephropathy has not been investigated. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with water containing 250ppm of lead acetate (lead group) and deionized water (control group) for 4weeks. Another two groups started to receive intraperitoneal captopril (50mg/kg/d) or losartan (10mg/kg/d) after 2weeks of lead feeding and continued for another 2weeks. Immunoblotting was used to analyze the protein amount of intrarenal RAS components and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?). Compared with control group, lead exposure resulted in increased proteinuria after 2-week treatment (4.2±0.9mg/100g vs. 1.8±0.8mg/100g, p<0.05) and 4-week (5.2±1.7mg/100g, p<0.05). Serum creatinine level was increased (0.40±0.2 vs. 0.3 ±.04mg/dL, p<0.05) and calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was decreased (2.68±1.03 vs. 3.37±0.11mL/min, p<0.05). Intrarenal angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II (ANG II), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) were upregulated in lead group. Captopril and losartan administration reduced proteinuria significantly (3.0±0.50mg/100g of captopril and 2.7±0.4mg/100g of losartan group) and lowered systolic blood pressure when compared with lead group. Furthermore, serum creatinine levels and GFR were improved by RAS blockade. Captopril treatment significantly reduced protein abundance of ACE, ANG II, AT1R and TGF-?. Losartan treatment also decreased ANG II and TGF-?. We concluded that lead exposure elicited intrarenal RAS activation with associated proteinuria and impaired renal function. RAS blockade was effective in alleviating lead-associated kidney injury and lowering blood pressure.
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The association among leukocyte apoptosis, autoantibodies and disease severity in systemic lupus erythematosus.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Both apoptosis and autoantibodies are important factors associated with disease activity in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study tested the hypothesis that increased leukocyte apoptosis is associated with elevated levels of autoantibodies and the disease activity of SLE.
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Sleep disturbance correlates with white matter hyperintensity in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) caused by small-artery disease, and hypoperfusion is a major cause of vascular cognitive impairment. Little is known about the relationship between sleep disturbance and white matter hyperintensity (WMH). We investigated the association between sleep disturbance and WMH, measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in patients with SIVD.
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Pulmonary sequestration-differences in diagnosis and treatment in a single institution.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is a rare congenital lung malformation. In this study, we evaluated the diagnosis and treatment of PS in 31 adult patients at a single institution.
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Glutathione S-transferase mu2 suppresses cancer cell metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Glutathione S-transferase mu2 (GST-M2) is a phase II detoxification enzyme. Low expression of GST-M2 in lung cancers is due to hypermethylation of its promoter. Lung cancer with the GST mu-null genotype is associated with shorter survival. However, a correlation between GST-M2 and important clinical parameters, as well as the migration of GST-M2-defective cells in lung cancer, has not been established. In the present study, we investigate the role of GST-M2 in cell migration and actin disassembly in lung cancer cells. GST-M2 and CCN2 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors when compared with matched normal lung tissues in 82 patients with NSCLC. We found that high expressions of both GST-M2 and CCN2 are correlated with favorable survival of patients with lung cancer when compared with similar patients without GST-M2 or CCN2 expression. GST-M2 can induce CCN2 expression by driving the CCN2 proximal promoter. Overexpression of GST-M2 decreases the formation of filopodia, resulting in remodeling of the reorganized cytoskeletons. Overexpression of GST-M2 significantly suppressed cancer cell migration on wound-healing assay. In addition, overexpression of GST-M2 dramatically reduced tumor growth and metastasis in a xenograft mouse model. These data highlight the potential of GST-M2 as a novel tumor suppressor. GST-M2 increases the expression of CCN2 in lung cancer cells, which inhibits cancer cell migration in lung cancer and animal models.
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Molecular level activation insights from a NR2A/NR2B agonist.
J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a subclass of glutamate receptors have broad actions in neural transmission for major brain functions. Overactivation of NMDARs leading to "excitotoxicity" is the underlying mechanism of neuronal death in a number of neurological diseases, especially stroke. Much research effort has been directed toward developing pharmacological agents to modulate NMDAR actions for treating neurological diseases, in particular stroke. Here, we report that Alliin, a sulfoxide in fresh garlic, exhibits affinity toward NR2A as well as NR2B receptors based on virtual screening. Biological activities of Alliin on these two receptors were confirmed in electrophysiological studies. Ligand-binding site closure, a structural change precluding ion channel opening, was observed with Alliin during 100?ns molecular dynamics simulation. Alliin interactions with NR2A and NR2B suggest that residues E/A413, H485, T690, and Y730 may play important roles in the conformation shift. Activation of NR2A and NR2B by Alliin can be differentiated from that caused by glutamate, the endogenous neurotransmitter. These characteristic molecular features in NR2A and NR2B activation provide insight into structural requirements for future development of novel drugs with selective interaction with NR2A and NR2B for treating neurological diseases, particularly stroke.
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TPX2 expression is associated with cell proliferation and patient outcome in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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The molecular and genetic changes underlying esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tumor formation and rapid progression are poorly understood. Using high-throughput data analysis, we examined molecular changes involved in ESCC pathogenesis and investigated their clinical relevance.
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Ingestion of milk containing the Dp2 peptide, a dust mite allergen, protects mice from allergic airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness.
Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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Allergen-specific immunotherapy has been demonstrated to have potential for the treatment of allergic diseases. Transgenic animals are currently the best available bioreactors to produce recombinant proteins, which can be secreted in milk. It has not been clearly demonstrated whether milk from transgenic animals expressing recombinant allergens has immunomodulatory effects on allergic asthma.
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Nurses working on fast rotating shifts overestimate cognitive function and the capacity of maintaining wakefulness during the daytime after a rotating shift.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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The objective of our study was to explore changes in cognitive functions, sleep propensity, and sleep-related hormones (growth hormone [GH], cortisol, prolactin [PRL], thyrotropin [TSH]) in the daytime of nurses working on fast rotating shifts.
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Ganoderma tsugae Extract Inhibits Growth of HER2-Overexpressing Cancer Cells via Modulation of HER2/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Ganoderma, also known as Lingzhi or Reishi, has been used for medicinal purposes in Asian countries for centuries. It is a medicinal fungus with a variety of biological properties including immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which Ganoderma tsugae (GT), one of the most common species of Ganoderma, inhibits the proliferation of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. Here, we show that a quality assured extract of GT (GTE) inhibited the growth of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of antitumor drugs (e.g., taxol and cisplatin) in these cells. We also demonstrate that GTE induced cell cycle arrest by interfering with the HER2/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, GTE curtailed the expression of the HER2 protein by modulating the transcriptional activity of the HER2 gene and the stability/degradation of the HER2 protein. In conclusion, this study suggests that GTE may be a useful adjuvant therapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer cells that highly express HER2.
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Biomarkers associated with vascular and valvular calcification in chronic hemodialysis patients.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Cardiovascular calcification, including arterial intimal and medial calcification (AIC and AMC) and valvular calcification (VC) are important predictors of outcome in chronic dialysis patients. We aimed to compare their prevalence and analyze respective risk factors in hemodialysis (HD) patients.
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The effects of comorbidities on the trajectory of depressive symptoms among older adults in Taiwan.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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This study aimed to identify depressive symptoms among older Taiwanese adults and to explore the relationships between different comorbidities and depressive symptoms.
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Manipulation of micro-particles through optical interference patterns generated by integrated photonic devices.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Micro-particle transport and switch governed by guided-wave optical interference are presented. The optical interference, occurring in a directional coupler and a multi-mode interferometer made by inverted rib waveguides, results in a specific evanescent field dependent on wavelength. Through a detailed theoretical analysis, the field of induced optical force shows a correlative pattern associated with the evanescent field. Experimental results demonstrate that 10 ?m polystyrene beads are propelled with a trajectory subject to the interference pattern accordingly. By launching different wavelengths, the polystyrene beads can be delivered to different output waveguide ports. Massive micro-particle manipulation is applicable.
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High vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations with heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in meticillin-resistant S. aureus bacteraemia patients.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Patients with high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) infection are associated with treatment failure and poor outcomes. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hVISA on patient outcome, considering both the high vancomycin MIC and the existence of heteroresistant phenotypes. From January 2005 to December 2009, consecutive meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates from 284 cases of MRSA bacteraemia receiving glycopeptide therapy were collected for further MIC and hVISA testing. The demographic distribution, clinical features and outcomes in bacteraemia patients with different vancomycin MICs and hVISA status in MRSA isolates were subsequently compared. Subjects were divided into three groups: low vancomycin MIC (<1.5mg/L) with vancomycin-sensitive S. aureus (VSSA) (n=50); high vancomycin MIC (?1.5mg/L) with VSSA (n=218); and high vancomycin MIC with hVISA (n=16). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the high MIC with VSSA group exhibited significantly higher 30-day mortality than the low MIC with VSSA group [odds ratio (OR)=2.349, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.078-5.118]. The high MIC with hVISA phenotype was not associated with higher mortality but was independently associated with persistent MRSA bacteraemia (OR=5.996, 95% CI 1.438-25.005). To summarise, although hVISA is correlated with persistent bacteraemia, higher mortality in high vancomycin MIC infections could not be explained by the existing hVISA phenotype. Facing persistent bacteraemia under glycopeptide therapy for 7 days, clinicians should consider shifting to an alternative class of antibiotics to treat hVISA infection.
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18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the initial evaluation and monitoring of therapeutic response in bilateral adrenal histoplasmosis.
Clin Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) of a 74-year-old man showed high FDG uptake in bilateral adrenal histoplasmosis. Four months after the administration of an appropriate antifungal treatment, we observed a significant decrease in FDG uptake into the lesions, with a 40% reduction in activity (maximal standardized uptake value). This imaging result indicated partial resolution of the disease and was consistent with clinical outcome. Our study results suggest that FDG-PET is a useful modality for initial whole-body evaluation, selection of an appropriate antifungal treatment regimen, and monitoring of therapeutic response in bilateral adrenal histoplasmosis.
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Group A streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis in the emergency department.
J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Group A Streptococcal (GAS) necrotizing fasciitis is a critical emergency. Patients with necrotizing fasciitis principally present to emergency departments (EDs), but most studies are focused on hospitalized patients.
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Different impacts of metabolic syndrome components on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Objective. To examine the different impacts of MS components on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Methods. A number of subjects (144) who met the criteria of (1) age between 30 and 75 years, (2) had type 2 diabetes for more than one year, and (3) taking gliclazide and metformin for more than 6 months were enrolled. All subjects were assigned to one of the four HOMA index categories. The HOMA index quartile 4 denotes the highest insulin resistance. The main outcome evaluated is the odds ratios (ORs) of different MS components on HOMA index quartile 4. The characteristics in HOMA index quartiles and groups of nonmetabolic syndrome (NMS; number of components < 2), metabolic syndrome A (MSA; number of components = 2), and metabolic syndrome B (MSB; number of components > 2) were also evaluated. Results. The results showed that both MSA and MSB groups had higher ORs (5.9 and 13.8 times, resp.) than the NMS group; and that subjects with large waist circumference (LWC) and high triglyceride (HTG) level have higher ORs (6.1 and 2.6 times, resp.) in developing higher insulin resistance than normal control subjects. Conclusion. Type 2 diabetic patients with greater number of MS components have higher ORs in developing increased insulin resistance.
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Differences in adherence to osteoporosis regimens: a 2-year analysis of a population treated under specific guidelines.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Patients adherence to antiosteoporotic drug therapy is essential to prevent fracture and complications of osteoporosis over the long term. The guidance given in treating osteoporosis can potentially enhance adherence.
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Risk of stroke with thiazolidinediones: a ten-year nationwide population-based cohort study.
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) - rosiglitazone and pioglitazone - a class of insulin sensitizer for treating type 2 diabetes, have been reported to exhibit neuroprotective effects in preclinical studies and have good effects in the control of blood sugar for diabetic patients with insulin resistance. However, clinical trials and observational studies have raised the possibility of higher stroke risk in patients treated with rosiglitazone. Whether pioglitazone poses similar stroke risk remains uncertain. Most of the studies on cardiovascular effects of TZDs were based on studies in the USA and Europe. The present study aimed to compare the stroke risk among diabetic patients on TZD to those on non-TZD medications in an Asian population.
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Combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring assists the diagnosis of sliding hiatal hernia in children with gastroesophageal reflux disease.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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The role of combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring (MII-pH) in diagnosing sliding hiatal hernia in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) children remains unclear. We aimed to explore the clinical efficacy of MII-pH as a supplement diagnostic method for sliding hiatal hernia.
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Functional connectivity between lateral premotor-parietal circuits and the cardiac autonomic system in Parkinsons disease.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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This study aimed to investigate which cerebral cortices are involved in the central autonomic network and how they are linked to the peripheral (cardiac) autonomic network in Parkinsons disease (PD) patients and normal controls. 26 PD patients with autonomic dysfunction and 23 age- and sex-matched controls were evaluated by simultaneous spectral analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) recording along with autonomic questionnaires. Although the PD group has significantly more symptoms of autonomic dysfunction, frequency-domain HRV can not differentiate these two groups. However, different patterns of central oscillation and their correlation with peripheral autonomic indices could be found for the two groups. While the power of specific EEG bands under electrodes F4, F7, Cz and Pz (parietal-lateral premotor cortex, which is considered as a compensatory area for the relative deficiency of mesial frontal-striatal circuits in PD) correlated significantly with the power of peripheral heart rate variability (HRV) indices in the PD group, those under electrodes C3, P3, P4 and F8 had significant correlation in the control group. In conclusion, functional connectivity between areas of cerebral cortex and peripheral autonomic system can be measured and differs between PD patients with autonomic dysfunction and healthy controls. The central autonomic network may play a role in brain re-organization in PD patients with autonomic dysfunction.
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Non-adherence to anti-osteoporotic medications in Taiwan: physician specialty makes a difference.
J. Bone Miner. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Adherence to anti-osteoporotic regimens gradually decreases over time. We hypothesized that the determinants of non-compliance or non-persistence at different times vary and identified these differences. We used an outpatient database to retrieve information on anti-osteoporotic medications prescribed by a medical centre in southern Taiwan during 2001-2007. Compliance was defined as a medication possession ratio (MPR) ?80 %. Persistence was determined as continuous use, allowing for a refill gap of 30 days. A multivariate Cox regression model evaluated potential predictors of non-adherence. A total of 3589 patients were included. In the multivariate analyses, non-compliance for both year 1 and year 2 was more likely in patients with non-vertebral non-hip fractures, respiratory disorders, prescription of the first anti-osteoporotic regimen by an orthopedist; and less likely in patients with follow-up bone densitometry and switched regimens. Risks for non-persistence at year 1 and year 2 were generally similar to those for non-compliance; insurance coverage and malignancy were associated with a lower risk of non-persistence at year 1 and year 2, respectively. In the subgroup with an MPR ?80 % at year 1, an index prescription by an orthopedist was the only independent predictor of non-compliance and non-persistence at year 2. In conclusion, the positive or negative determinants of non-adherence were different at year 1 and year 2, which indicated that clinicians might deliver effective interventions to improve adherence via different precautions annually. This study also provided evidence that physician specialty had a significant effect on adherence to osteoporosis care.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.