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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Chrysin Protects against Focal Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice through Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Inflammation and oxidative stress play an important part in the pathogenesis of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, resulting in neuronal death. The signaling pathways involved and the underlying mechanisms of these events are not fully understood. Chrysin, which is a naturally occurring flavonoid, exhibits various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective properties of chrysin in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). To this end, male C57/BL6 mice were pretreated with chrysin once a day for seven days and were then subjected to 1 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Our data show that chrysin successfully decreased neurological deficit scores and infarct volumes, compared with the vehicle group. The increases in glial cell numbers and proinflammatory cytokine secretion usually caused by ischemia/reperfusion were significantly ameliorated by chrysin pretreatment. Moreover, chrysin also inhibited the MCAO-induced up-regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), compared with the vehicle. These results suggest that chrysin could be a potential prophylactic agent for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury mediated by its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.
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The Role of an Aligned Nanofiber Conduit in the Management of Painful Neuromas in Rat Sciatic Nerves.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Capping techniques have been used as a treatment modality for the prevention of neuroma formation and the management of neuropathic pain. However, the results are inconsistent and unpredictable. We hypothesize that this situation may be attributable, in part, to the disparities in the type of materials used to manufacturing of the conduits.
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Screening candidate genes associated with bladder cancer using DNA microarray.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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The aim of the present study was to screen candidate genes that are closely associated with bladder cancer and to select the most distinct candidate target genes in order to provide theoretical evidence and direction for improved treatment of bladder cancer. The gene microarray dataset GSE45184 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. There were a total of six expression prolife microarrays from three pairs of freshly frozen bladder cancer tissues and corresponding normal adjacent tissues. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the limma package in R software and then subjected to further biological information analysis, including hierarchical clustering analysis and gene ontology enrichment analysis. Co?expression networks and functional interaction networks were established using the up? and downregulated genes. Pathway enrichment analysis was then performed for the genes in the functional interaction networks. A total of 522 DEGs were identified, including 223 upregulated and 299 downregulated genes. Functional enrichment analysis of the target genes indicated that downregulated genes were associated with the regulation of biological processes, while the upregulated genes participated in the processes involved in the cell cycle. The functional network of the upregulated genes comprised 1,518 connections and 92 gene nodes that were associated with 10 closely?related functions, while the network of the downregulated genes consisted of 129 connections and 24 gene nodes involving 11 significantly related functions. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the downregulated genes were mainly involved in the mitogen?activated protein kinase signaling pathway, while the upregulated genes were closely associated with the cell cycle. These DEGs and the relevant cell cycle pathways have the potential to be used as targets for the treatment of bladder cancer.
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Stage-specific regulation of oligodendrocyte development by Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Oligodendrocytes are myelin-forming glia that ensheath the axons of neurons in the CNS. Recent studies have revealed that Wnt/?-catenin signaling plays important roles in oligodendrocyte development and myelin formation. However, there are conflicting reports on the specific function of Wnt signaling components in oligodendrocyte specification and differentiation. In the present study, we demonstrate that activation of ?-catenin in neural progenitor cells before gliogenesis inhibits the generation of oligodendrocyte progenitors (OLPs) in mice. Once OLPs are formed, ?-catenin becomes necessary for oligodendrocyte differentiation. Disruption of ?-catenin signaling instead leads to a significant delay of oligodendrocyte maturation. These findings suggest that Wnt/?-catenin pathway regulates oligodendrocyte development in a stage-dependent manner.
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Amputation Stump Revision Using a Free Sural Neurocutaneous Perforator Flap.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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The development of microsurgery and the concept of the surgical flap have enabled orthopedic surgeons to deal with various soft tissue defects and compositions during limb salvage procedures. However, severely damaged bony structures with accompanying soft tissue deficiencies often result in amputation. When performing amputations, surgeons must preserve the stump length to maximize functional ambulation, even during the posttraumatic phase and chronic period when a fillet flap is not an option.
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Effect of dietary fiber/starch balance on the cecal proteome of growing rabbits.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Dietary fiber/starch imbalance can lead to diarrhea in rabbits. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown, and this is the first study on the proteome profile of the cecal tissue of diarrheic rabbits. In this study, one group of weanling rabbits was fed a high fiber/starch diet (control group), and another group was fed a low fiber/starch diet (diarrhea group). We applied 2-D gel electrophoresis, coupled with histological and biochemical analyses, to study dynamic changes in the proteome of the cecal tissue from healthy and diarrheic growing rabbits. We identified 29 protein spots showing differential abundance between the two groups. We identified the proteins and found that they participated in key biological processes, including absorption, digestion and transport; cell structure and motility; inflammatory response; glucose and energy metabolism; mineral and vitamin metabolism; stress response and cell redox homeostasis. Moreover, the results of our proteomics analysis revealed continuous impairment and compensatory intestinal repair in the rabbits with diarrhea. Therefore, these findings shed light on the main mechanisms and the main proteins involved in intestinal degradation in diarrhea. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanism of cecal damage and repair in diarrhea in rabbits caused by dietary factors.
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The effect of autologous endothelial progenitor cell transplantation combined with extracorporeal shock-wave therapy on ischemic skin flaps in rats.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been used to revascularize ischemic tissues, but only limited effect can be achieved. Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) is a promising angiogenic strategy. We hypothesized that EPC transplantation combined with ESWT would greatly benefit the survival of ischemic skin flaps.
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Mechanisms of nerve capping technique in prevention of painful neuroma formation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nerve capping techniques have been introduced as a promising treatment modality for the treatment of painful neuroma with varied outcomes; however, its exact mechanism is still unknown. RhoA is one of the members of the RAS superfamily of GTPases that operate as molecular switches and plays an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration. Our aim was to investigate the structural and morphologic mechanisms by which the nerve capping technique prevents the formation of painful neuromas after neuroectomy. We also hoped to provide a theoretical basis for this treatment approach. An aligned nanofiber conduit was used for the capping procedure and the sciatic nerve of Sprague-Dawley rats was selected as the animal model. Behavioral analysis, extent of neuroma formation, histological assessment, expressions of pain markers of substance P and c-fos, molecular biological changes as well as ultrastructural features were investigated and compared with the findings in a no-capping control group. The formation of traumatic neuromas was significantly inhibited in the capping group with relatively "normal" structural and morphological features and no occurrence of autotomy and significantly lower expression of pain markers compared to the no-capping group. The gene expression of RhoA was consistently in a higher level in the capping group within 8 weeks after surgery. This study shows that capping technique will alter the regeneration state of transected nerves and reduce painful neuroma formation, indicating a promising approach for the treatment of painful neuroma. The initiation of the "regenerative brake" induced by structural as well as morphological improvements in the severed nerve is theorized to be most likely a key mechanism for the capping technique in the prevention of painful neuroma formation.
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Versatility of the Reversed Superficial Peroneal Neurocutaneous Island Flap in the Coverage of Ankle and Foot.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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In the last decades, the skin island flap supplied by the vascular axis of sensitive superficial nerves, like the sural and saphenous nerves, has emerged as one of the most ideal reconstructive options for soft tissue coverage of lower limbs. The nutrient vessels of reversed superficial peroneal neurocutaneous island flap have been well described; however, it is still not commonly clinically applied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of reversed superficial peroneal neurocutaneous island flap for coverage of ankle and foot.
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Versatility of the Greater Saphenous Fasciocutaneous Perforator Flap in Coverage of the Lower Leg.
J Reconstr Microsurg
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Paucity of soft tissue locally available for reconstruction of defects in the leg and foot remains a challenge. Greater saphenous fasciocutaneous perforator flap in reconstruction of the lower leg has been used effectively to cover these defects. In many situations, it is a viable alternative to free flaps and cross-leg flap reconstruction. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of the greater saphenous fasciocutaneous perforator flap for reconstruction of the medial and anterior lower leg, medial malleolus, and hind foot. A total of 26 patients with soft tissue defects of the medial and anterior lower leg, medial malleolus, and hind foot were evaluated. Preoperative data, age, sex, defect etiology, defect size, flap dimension, postoperative results, and complications were recorded. All patients were followed up postoperatively. The procedure was uneventful in 25 of 26 patients. The one unsuccessful flap developed partial necrosis of the distal edge due to venous congestion, and secondary healing was achieved by conservative treatment. No patient showed signs of infection. The defect etiology in all patients was trauma of the lower extremity or its complications, most frequently open fracture (19 patients), followed by osteomyelitis of the tibia (2 patients). The greater saphenous fasciocutaneous perforator flap is versatile, reliable, and useful in coverage of medial and anterior lower leg, malleolus, and hind foot defects. This surgical technique is a safe, short-duration alternative to microsurgical reconstruction.
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Complex Heel Reconstruction with a Sural Fasciomyocutaneous Perforator Flap.
J Reconstr Microsurg
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Reconstruction of weight-bearing surfaces at the foot and ankle is controversial. Free tissue transfer and local fasciocutaneous perforator flaps are preferred for plantar reconstruction, but high rates of flap breakdown and ulceration have caused unsatisfactory functional outcomes. We present a modified "sural fasciomyocutaneous perforator flap" and its functional outcome. Between January 2007 and September 2010, 19 patients were treated for soft-tissue defects in the weight-bearing area with sural fasciomyocutaneous perforator flaps. The gastrocnemius, preserved in the base of the flap, was applied as padding under the calcaneus. In follow-up from 9 to 25 months (mean 13.8 months), each patients pain score, defect size, ulcer formation, protective sensation recovery, and normal footwear were analyzed. The majority of the flaps survived with satisfactory aesthetic and functional results. One case of partial flap loss and one case of delayed ulceration were noted. With partial weight bearing at 4 weeks, satisfactory gait recovery was obtained at 5 to 8 months (in conjunction with protective sensation recovery). Sural fasciomyocutaneous perforator flap is a reliable modality in heel construction, showing advantages of low ulceration rate, durability, and good protective sensation recovery compared with conventional free tissue transfer and local fasciocutaneous perforator flap.
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Management of degloving injuries of the foot with a defatted full-thickness skin graft.
J Bone Joint Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Degloving injuries of the foot with involvement of the heel and sole occur relatively rarely but pose an extreme challenge to the reconstructive surgeon due to the unique anatomy of the foot. Very limited studies are available regarding the outcomes of reattachment of the degloved skin as a full-thickness graft.
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Intakes of total and individual flavonoids by US adults.
Int J Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Abstract Knowing the dietary flavonoid intake of individuals and populations is the first step to clearly understand their health effects. Dietary flavonoid intake studies have been hampered by the lack of flavonoid food composition data. The objectives of this study were to estimate intakes of individual, classes and total flavonoids in the US adults; to evaluate the effects of socio-demographic factors on the flavonoid consumption patterns; and to establish major dietary sources of flavonoids. We calculated flavonoid intakes using the most updated USDA flavonoid and isoflavone databases, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III 24-h dietary recall (DR). Estimated mean total flavonoid intake by US adults was 344.83?±?9.13?mg/day. The flavan-3-ols (191.99?±?6.84?mg/day) were the most abundant flavonoid class. The three most dominant individual flavonoids were catechin, epicatechin and polymers. Tea, wine, beer, citrus fruits and apples were the most important sources of total flavonoid intakes in the US adults.
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The dose-effect relationship in extracorporeal shock wave therapy: the optimal parameter for extracorporeal shock wave therapy.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been demonstrated to have the angiogenic effect on ischemic tissue. We hypothesize that ESWT exerts the proangiogenesis effect with an energy density-dependent mode on the target cells.
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Distally based saphenous neurocutaneous perforator flap for reconstructive surgery in the lower leg and the foot: a long-term follow-up study of 70 patients.
J Reconstr Microsurg
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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The management of soft-tissue defects in the distal third of the lower leg and foot remains disputed. In this article, we describe a long-term follow-up research study on the clinical results and complications of using this flap for the reconstruction of soft-tissue defects around the lower leg and foot.
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Proximal-based saphenous neurocutaneous flaps: a novel tool for reconstructive surgery in the proximal lower leg and knee.
J Reconstr Microsurg
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Soft tissue defects around the knee region are usually complex and require adequate reconstruction with flaps. In this article, we present our experience using the proximal-based saphenous neurocutaneous flap for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects around the knee and the proximal lower leg.
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Dynamic compression plating versus locked intramedullary nailing for humeral shaft fractures: a meta-analysis of RCTs and nonrandomized studies.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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There is no consensus regarding treatment of humeral shaft fracture. In this meta-analysis, we pooled studies to compare dynamic compression plate with locked intramedullary nail for this injury.
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Aligned SF/P(LLA-CL)-blended nanofibers encapsulating nerve growth factor for peripheral nerve regeneration.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Artificial nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) containing bioactive neurotrophic factors and topographical structure to biomimic native tissues are essential for efficient regeneration of nerve gaps. In this study, aligned SF/P(LLA-CL) nanofibers encapsulating nerve growth factor (NGF), which was stabilized by SF in core, were fabricated via a coaxial electrospinning technique. The controlled release of NGF from the nanofibers was evaluated using enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) and PC12 cell-based bioassay over a 60-day time period. The results demonstrated that NGF presented a sustained release and remained biological activity over 60 days. Nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) were fabricated by reeling the aligned SF/P(LLA-CL) nanofibrous scaffolds encapsulating NGF and then used as a bridge implanted across a 15-mm defect in the sciatic nerve of rats to promote nerve regeneration. The outcome in terms of regenerated nerve at 12 weeks was evaluated by a combination of electrophysiological assessment, histochemistry, and electron microscopy. All results clarified that the NGF-encapsulated-aligned SF/P(LLA-CL) NGCs promoted peripheral nerve regeneration significantly better than the aligned SF/P(LLA-CL) NGCs, suggesting that the released NGF from nanofibers could effectively promote the regeneration of peripheral nerve. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
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A laboratory evaluation of medicinal herbs used in china for the treatment of hand, foot, and mouth disease.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). During recent epidemics of HFMD in China, medicinal herbals and preparations containing herbal extracts have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy with relative safety profiles. There have been no microbiological studies to validate their usefulness for HFMD. We selected 12 commonly used herbs for HFMD from government recommended guidelines as well as published reports and tested for their antiviral activity and anti-inflammatory activity. A water extract of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT) inhibited EV71 infection significantly and was marginally active against CVA16 infection. The IC50 (concentration to have 50% inhibitory effect) values of HCT against a Fuyang strain and a BrCr strain of EV71 were determined at 8.9? ? g/mL and 20.6? ? g/mL, respectively. Mentha haplocalyx Briq. (MHB) water extract was active against CVA16, with an IC50 value of 70.3? ? g/mL. The extract did not exhibit activity against EV71 infection. Although the majority of the extracts showed no activity against viral infection, several extracts demonstrated activity in blocking proinflammatory response by viral infection. This study therefore validates the effectiveness of Chinese herbs for HFMD since some formulations containing the correct combination of the herbs can block viral replication as well as proinflammatory response of HFMD.
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Primary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the kidney: the first case report in a child and literature review.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a distinct vascular tumor with low malignant biologic behavior that is very rare in the kidney. Only 3 adult patients have been reported to date in English-language reports. We report the case of a 9-year-old boy who presented with painless gross hematuria. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography demonstrated a primary mass in the left kidney. The pathologic diagnosis of the tumor was epithelioid hemangioendothelioma after radical nephrectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary renal epithelioid hemangioendothelioma in the pediatric age group.
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The management of degloving injury of lower extremities: technical refinement and classification.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Degloving injuries are severe and frequently underestimated lesions. Lower extremities are the most commonly affected limbs. This injury is associated with a high morbidity and mortality if mismanaged. The treatment of such patients still varies, clinical indicators for its prognosis are scarce, and some technical protocols are also controversial.
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Meta-analysis comparing locking plate fixation with hemiarthroplasty for complex proximal humeral fractures.
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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BACKGROUND: There remains no consensus on the surgical treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures. In this meta-analysis, we pool available trials to compare the clinical outcomes of locking plate fixation and hemiarthroplasty for this injury. METHODS: A literature search between January 1990 and May 2012 in the main medical search engines (Pubmed, Medline, Embase search, and the Cochrane library) was included. We selected available trials that compared locking plate fixation and hemiarthroplasty in patients with complex proximal humeral fractures and that reported on functional outcomes, revisions, and method-related complications. The quality of the studies was assessed, and meta-analyses were performed with the Cochrane Collaborations REVMAN 5.0 software. RESULTS: A total of 567 patients from 9 trials were included in this meta-analysis (302 fractures treated with locking plate and 265 with hemiarthroplasty). In this comparison, we found that patients with locking plate fixation had better Constant-Murley score than with hemiarthroplasty, and hemiarthroplasty could reduce the rate of revisions and the method-related complications significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with hemiarthroplasty, patients with locking plate fixation could obtain more favorable functional outcomes, but technical detail was critical to minimize the risk of implant failure, avascular necrosis, and re-operation. As the possible significant bias and inconclusive evidence arising from the included trials, further randomized trials and observational studies should be recommended to support these finding.
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Comparative study of two types of distally based sural neurocutaneous flap for reconstruction of lower leg, ankle, and heel.
J Reconstr Microsurg
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Soft-tissue defects in the lower leg, ankle, and heel often require reconstruction with local or free flaps. We try to compare the clinical outcome and complications following transfer of a perforator pedicle-based sural neurocutaneous flap (P-NCF) or a fascia pedicle-based sural neurocutaneous flap (F-NCF).
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Wound Healing Improvement with PHD-2 Silenced Fibroblasts in Diabetic Mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? is the central regulator of the hypoxia-induced response which results in the up-regulation of angiogenic factors. Its activity is under precise regulation of prolyl-hydroxylase domain 2. We hypothesized that PHD2 silenced fibroblasts would increase the expression of angiogenic factors, which might contribute to the improvement of the diabetic wound healing.
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[Comparative study on different pedicles based sural neurofasciocutaneous flaps].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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To investigate a best method of obtaining the sural neurofasciocutaneous flap by observing the models of different pedicles based sural neurofasciocutaneous flaps in rabbits and the effect of different pedicles on the survival of the flaps.
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MiR-138 suppresses expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma 786-O cells.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2011
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Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1a) is widely considered to be one of the key regulators in cancer cells. Here, we investigated a microRNA regulating expression of HIF-1a and explored its functions in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells.
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Expression of miR-143 reduces growth and migration of human bladder carcinoma cells by targeting cyclooxygenase-2.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Systemic chemotherapy is the only current modality that provides the potential for long-term survival in bladder carcinoma patients with metastatic disease. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 COX-2 induces expression of immune- and cell proliferation-related genes and is associated with the grade, prognosis and recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. There is abundant evidence that aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is implicated in numerous disease states and miRNAs have the potential to be used for cancer therapeutics. Here, we found expression of miR-143 to be low in a series of human bladder carcinomas as compared to background tissue. In addition, restoration of miR-143 by cell transfection in T24 cancer cells led to decreased COX-2 expression, reduced proliferation and mobility. Our findings will help to further understand the functions of miRNAs in cancer cells and point to a specific potential of miR-143 may be employed as a therapeutic agent for bladder carcinoma. The results provide insights into the development of novel tumor markers or new therapeutic strategies.
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Effects and relationship of ERK1 and ERK2 in interleukin-1?-induced alterations in MMP3, MMP13, type II collagen and aggrecan expression in human chondrocytes.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Interleukin (IL)-1? plays an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and catabolic processes in articular cartilage. Growing evidence suggests that ERK1/2 activation is involved in IL-1?-mediated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 3, MMP13, type II collagen and aggrecan expression in chondrocytes. To investigate the respective effects and the relationship of ERK1 and ERK2, knockdown of ERK1 and/or ERK2 was performed in human chondrocytes using specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and the cells were treated with IL-1? (10 ng/ml) for 24 h. Uninfected chondrocytes treated with IL-1? (10 ng/ml) were used as a positive control. Other cells cultured without IL-1? or siRNA treatment were used as a negative control. The mRNA levels of MMP3, MMP13, type II collagen and aggrecan were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. The protein levels of MMP3 and MMP13 in the culture medium were examined by ELISA. The protein levels of type II collagen, aggrecan, ERK1/2 and phospho-ERK1/2 were evaluated by western blotting. The results indicate that IL-1? enhances MMP3 and MMP13 expression and inhibits type II collagen and aggrecan expression. Activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway was observed. Knockdown of ERK1 or ERK2 significantly reversed these effects to similar degree. Combined knockdown of ERK1 and ERK2 displayed synergistic effects. ERK1 and phospho-ERK1 or ERK2 and phospho-ERK2 were inhibited by knockdown of ERK1 or ERK2, respectively. No compensatory effect by up-regulation of the opposite isoform was observed. The combined knockdown suppressed ERK1/2 and phospho-ERK1/2. The data suggest that although inhibition of both ERK1 and ERK2 is more effective, inhibition of either ERK isoform may be sufficient and could be used for novel therapies or as drug targets for pharmacological intervention in cartilage breakdown in osteoarthritis.
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Tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy is associated with less pain and shorter hospitalization compared with standard or small bore drainage: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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To assess the efficacy and safety of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) compared with standard or small-bore PCNL with a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.
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Use of Caenorhabditis elegans for preselecting Lactobacillus isolates to control Salmonella Typhimurium.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Host-specific probiotics have been used to control enteric pathogens, including foodborne pathogens, in food animal production. However, evaluation of the efficacy of these probiotics requires costly in vivo assays in the target animal. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used for prescreening of antimicrobial agents and for studies of host-pathogen interactions. In the present study, 17 Lactobacillus isolates from chicken and pig intestines were tested with C. elegans, and the ability of these isolates to prevent death from Salmonella infection was variable. Two Lactobacillus isolates (S64, which gave full protection, and CL11, which gave no protection) were further studied. Both isolates exhibited a similar colonization profile in the C. elegans intestine. Although different culture fractions of CL11 were not protective, both live and heat-killed S64 cells provided full or partial protection of C. elegans from death caused by Salmonella infection. In contrast, different culture fractions from both isolates had similar effects on the colonization of the nematode intestine by Salmonella Typhimurium DT104. Our preliminary results from a pig performance trial revealed a correlation between the degree of protection in the C. elegans survival assay and the performance of 35-day-old weaned piglets that were treated with the same Lactobacillus isolates, suggesting that C. elegans can be used as a laboratory animal model for preselecting probiotics for control of Salmonella infections.
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Differential miRNA expression profiles in bladder urothelial carcinomas.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2010
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The urothelial carcinoma is the most common pathological type of bladder tumor. Creation of lists of miRNAs differentially expressed between this tumor type and normal tissue might help identify new diagnostic and prognostic markers. We therefore performed the present miRNA microarray analysis with 25 cases of bladder urothelial carcinomas and adjacent normal bladder tissue. The results showed a panel of 51 differentially expressed miRNAs with at least 2-fold differences in expression compared with the normal controls, including 20 up-regulated and 31 down-regulated examples. The expression levels of ten of the top dysregulated miRNAs, mir-1, mir-145, mir-143, mir-100, mir-200b, mir-708, mir-133a, mir-133b, mir-125b and mir-99 were experimentally verified using real-time RT-PCR analysis. These findings suggest that these miRNAs may be involved in bladder urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis and have potential as biomarkers.
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Analysis of isoform specific ERK signaling on the effects of interleukin-1? on COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in human chondrocytes.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2010
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The MAPK/ERK pathway is involved in IL-1?-induced cyclooxygenase (COX-2) expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production; two factors that play important roles in OA pathogenesis. In the present study, we find that IL-1? induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in human chondrocytes via a process that required the activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway. To evaluate the respective roles and relationship of ERK1 and ERK2 on IL-1? induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production, small interfering RNA was used to knockdown ERK1, ERK2 or both in human chondrocytes. COX-2 expression and PGE2 production were significantly suppressed to a similar degree by the silencing of ERK1 or ERK2 alone. Moreover, the combined knockdown displayed a synergistic effect. Simultaneously, Western blotting indicated that the knockdown of ERK1 or ERK2 down regulated phospho-ERK1 and ERK1 or phospho-ERK2 and ERK2 levels, respectively. No significant compensatory mechanism through the upregulation of the other phospho-ERK and ERK isoform was observed. The combined silencing suppressed both phospho-ERK1/2 and ERK1/2. In conclusion, each ERK isoform similarly influenced IL-1?-mediated COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in human chondrocytes, and ERK1 and ERK2 displayed synergistic effects. Although, inhibition of both ERK1 and ERK2 would be a more effective, each ERK isoform may sufficiently regulate these effects in human chondrocytes. ERK1 or ERK2 may be potential therapeutic target for the inflammatory process of OA.
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[Study on animal model of perforator sural neurocutaneous flap].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2010
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To establish the experimental animal model of perforator sural neurocutaneous flap for laying a foundation of further study on its physiology and haemodynamics.
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Rosuvastatin, identified from a zebrafish chemical genetic screen for antiangiogenic compounds, suppresses the growth of prostate cancer.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in males in Western countries. Despite improvements in standard treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, many patients still progress to advanced stages. Recent clinical trials have shown encouraging results regarding the application of angiogenic inhibitors in the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent diseases, paving the way for novel PCa therapies.
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Significance of interictal occipital epileptiform discharges in children.
Epileptic Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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Interictal occipital epileptiform abnormalities have not been well characterized. The objective of this pilot study was to assess their significance in children.
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Efficient inhibition of the formation of joint adhesions by ERK2 small interfering RNAs.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2009
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Transforming growth factor-beta1 and fibroblast growth factor-2 play very important roles in fibroblast proliferation and collagen expression. These processes lead to the formation of joint adhesions through the SMAD and MAPK pathways, in which extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)2 is considered to be crucial. Based on these theories, we examined the effects of a lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting ERK2 on the suppression of joint adhesion formation in vivo. The effects were assessed in vivo from different aspects including the adhesion score, histology and joint contracture angle. We found that the adhesions in the ERK2 siRNA group became soft and weak, and were easily stretched. Accordingly, the flexion contracture angles in the ERK2 siRNA group were also reduced (P<0.05 compared with the control group). The animals appeared healthy, with no signs of impaired wound healing. In conclusion, local delivery of a lentivirus-mediated siRNA targeting ERK2 can ameliorate joint adhesion formation effectively and safely.
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[Metabolism of Escherichia coli is interfered by Bacillus subtilis glnA gene].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2009
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A recombinant strain Escherichia coli DH5alpha(pMD19-glnA) including Bacillus subtilis glnA gene was constructed. Capillary electrophoresis and nuclear magnetic resonance were used to determine qualitatively the product of transformation by recombinant strain, and the relative level of mRNA expression of glnA was also determined by fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. Subsequently, SDS-PAGE (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) was used to analysis the relative level of protein. Surprisingly, there was no increase of glutamine production in this recombinant strain, but an obvious increase in the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid ) production. It was showed in the experiment that protein expression of the glutamine synthetase did not increase, although glnA gene can be transcribed normally in this recombined strain. The phenomenon of exogenous glnA gene interfering metabolism of Escherichia coli was worthy of further study.
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HER2 codon 655 polymorphism and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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To evaluate the association between HER2 codon 655 polymorphism and breast cancer risk in this meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was performed to identify all case-control studies investigating such association. Statistical analyses were conducted with software MIX 1.54. Twenty eligible reports, including 10,642 cases/11,259 controls, were identified. In overall analysis, the Val allele frequency in cases was significantly higher than that in controls (OR = 1.0921, 95% CI: 1.0013-1.191, P = 0.0466), while no associations were found in both recessive and dominant models. In subgroup analysis, HER2 codon 655 polymorphism was weakly associated with breast cancer risk in recessive (OR = 2.4624, 95% CI: 1.0619-5.7104, P = 0.0357), dominant (OR = 1.2781, 95% CI: 1.0353-1.5779, P = 0.0225), and co-dominant genetic models (OR = 1.2947, 95% CI: 1.0682-1.5693, P = 0.0085) in Asian population, respectively. Meanwhile, the susceptibility to breast cancer in people aged < or =45 was significantly increased in both recessive (OR = 2.2408; 95% CI: 1.2876-3.8998, P = 0.0043), and dominant models (OR = 1.2902, 95% CI: 1.1035-1.5085, P = 0.0014). No significant associations were observed in Caucasian, European, and Family history subgroups. So our analyses suggest HER2 codon 655 Val allele is weakly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and SNP at HER2 codon 655 could be considered as a susceptibility biomarker for breast cancer for Asian females or women age 45 years or younger.
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Laparoscopic versus open nephroureterectomy for the treatment of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: a systematic review and cumulative analysis of comparative studies.
Eur. Urol.
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Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) has increasingly been used as a minimally invasive alternative to open nephroureterectomy (ONU), but studies comparing the efficacy and safety of the two surgical procedures are still limited.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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