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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Specific activation of an I-like element in Drosophila interspecific hybrids.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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The non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon I, which belongs to the I superfamily of non-LTR retrotransposons, is well known in Drosophila because it transposes at a high frequency in the female germline cells in I-R hybrid dysgenic crosses of Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we report the occurrence and the upregulation of an I-like element in the hybrids of two sister species belonging to the repleta group of the genus Drosophila, D. mojavensis, and D. arizonae. These two species display variable degrees of pre- and postzygotic isolation, depending on the geographic origin of the strains. We took advantage of these features to explore the transposable element (TE) dynamics in interspecific crosses. We fully characterized the copies of this TE family in the D. mojavensis genome and identified at least one complete copy. We showed that this element is transcriptionally active in the ovaries and testes of both species and in their hybrids. Moreover, we showed that this element is upregulated in hybrid males, which could be associated with the male-sterile phenotype.
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Genomic regions harboring insecticide resistance-associated Cyp genes are enriched by transposable element fragments carrying putative transcription factor binding sites in two sibling Drosophila species.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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In the present study, an in silico analysis was performed to identify transposable element (TE) fragments inserted in Cyps with functions associated with resistance to insecticides and developmental regulation as well as in neighboring genes in two sibling species, Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans. The Cyps associated with insecticide resistance and their neighboring non-Cyp genes have accumulated a greater number of TE fragments than the other Cyps or a random sample of genes, predominantly in the 5-flanking regions. Most of the insertions were due to DNA transposons, with DNAREP1 fragments being the most common. These fragments carry putative binding sites for transcription factors, which reinforces the hypothesis that DNAREP1 may influence gene regulation and play a role in the adaptation of the Drosophila species.
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Short interspersed CAN SINE elements as prognostic markers in canine mammary neoplasia.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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The genome of mammals is characterized by a large number of non-LTR retrotransposons, and among them, the CAN SINEs are characteristics of the canine species. Small amounts of DNA freely circulate in normal blood serum and high amounts are found in human patients with cancer, characterizing it as a candidate tumor-biomarker. The aim of this study was to estimate, through its absolute expression, the number of copies of CAN SINE sequences present in free circulating DNA of female dogs with mammary cancer, in order to correlate with the clinical and pathological characteristics and the follow-up period. The copy number of CAN SINE sequences was estimated by qPCR in 28 female dogs with mammary neoplasia. The univariate analysis showed an increased number of copies in female dogs with mammary tumor in female dogs >10 years old (p=0.02) and tumor time >18 months (p<0.05). The Kaplan-Meier test demonstrated a negative correlation between an increased number of copies and survival time (p=0.03). High amounts of CAN SINE fragments can be good markers for the detection of tumor DNA in blood and may characterize it as a marker of poor prognosis, being related to female dogs with shorter survival times. This estimate can be used as a prognostic marker in non-invasive breast cancer research and is useful in predicting tumor progression and patient monitoring.
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Analysis of HCV quasispecies dynamic under selective pressure of combined therapy.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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The quasispecies composition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) could have important implications with regard to viral persistence and response to interferon-based therapy. The complete NS5A was analyzed to evaluate whether the composition of NS5A quasispecies of HCV 1a/1b is related to responsiveness to combined interferon pegylated (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin therapy.
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Transcriptional activity, chromosomal distribution and expression effects of transposable elements in coffea genomes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Plant genomes are massively invaded by transposable elements (TEs), many of which are located near host genes and can thus impact gene expression. In flowering plants, TE expression can be activated (de-repressed) under certain stressful conditions, both biotic and abiotic, as well as by genome stress caused by hybridization. In this study, we examined the effects of these stress agents on TE expression in two diploid species of coffee, Coffea canephora and C. eugenioides, and their allotetraploid hybrid C. arabica. We also explored the relationship of TE repression mechanisms to host gene regulation via the effects of exonized TE sequences. Similar to what has been seen for other plants, overall TE expression levels are low in Coffea plant cultivars, consistent with the existence of effective TE repression mechanisms. TE expression patterns are highly dynamic across the species and conditions assayed here are unrelated to their classification at the level of TE class or family. In contrast to previous results, cell culture conditions per se do not lead to the de-repression of TE expression in C. arabica. Results obtained here indicate that differing plant drought stress levels relate strongly to TE repression mechanisms. TEs tend to be expressed at significantly higher levels in non-irrigated samples for the drought tolerant cultivars but in drought sensitive cultivars the opposite pattern was shown with irrigated samples showing significantly higher TE expression. Thus, TE genome repression mechanisms may be finely tuned to the ideal growth and/or regulatory conditions of the specific plant cultivars in which they are active. Analysis of TE expression levels in cell culture conditions underscored the importance of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathways in the repression of Coffea TEs. These same NMD mechanisms can also regulate plant host gene expression via the repression of genes that bear exonized TE sequences.
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On hepatitis C virus evolution: the interaction between virus and host towards treatment outcome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Hepatitis C is a disease spread throughout the world. Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the etiological agent of this disease, is a single-stranded positive RNA virus. Its genome encodes a single precursor protein that yields ten proteins after processing. NS5A, one of the non-structural viral proteins, is most associated with interferon-based therapy response, the approved treatment for hepatitis C in Brazil. HCV has a high mutation rate and therefore high variability, which may be important for evading the immune system and response to therapy. The aim of this study was to analyze the evolution of NS5A quasispecies before, during, and after treatment in patients infected with HCV genotype 3a who presented different therapy responses.
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msechBari, a new MITE-like element in Drosophila sechellia related to the Bari transposon.
Genet Res (Camb)
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
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A few occurrences of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) have been reported in species of the genus Drosophila. Here, we describe msechBari, a MITE-like element in Drosophila sechellia. The element is short, approximately 90 bp in length, AT-rich and occurs in association with, or close to, genes, characteristics that are typical for MITEs. The identification was performed in silico using the sequenced genome of D. sechellia and confirmed in a laboratory strain. This short element is related to the Bari_DM transposon of Drosophila melanogaster, having terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) of a similar length and a high identity with the full-length Bari_DM element. The estimated recent origin of the element and the homogeneity observed between copies found in the genome suggests that msechBari could be active in D. sechellia.
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Tropical Africa as a cradle for horizontal transfers of transposable elements between species of the genera Drosophila and Zaprionus.
Mob Genet Elements
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2011
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We have recently reported numerous cases of horizontal transfers of transposable elements between species of drosophilids. These studies revealed a substantial number of horizontal transfers between species of the subgroup melanogaster of the genus Drosophila and between these species and species of the genus Zaprionus. In this review, these transfers and similar, previously reported events are discussed and reanalysed to portray the interrelationships between the species that allowed the occurrence of so many horizontal transfers. The paper also addresses problems that may arise in drawing inferences about the time period during which the horizontal transfers occurred and the factors that may be associated with these transfers are discussed.
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Vertical inheritance and bursts of transposition have shaped the evolution of the BS non-LTR retrotransposon in Drosophila.
Mol. Genet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
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The history of transposable elements over evolutionary time can often be partially reconstructed on the basis of genome analysis. In this study, we identified and extensively characterized the NLTR BS retrotransposon in 12 sequenced Drosophila genomes, by its sequence diversity within and among genomes, its degeneration pattern and its transcriptional activity. We show that the BS element has a variable copy number and patchy distribution within the Drosophila genus, that it is at distinct stages of the evolutionary cycle in the different Drosophila species and that its evolution is characterized by vertical transmission and by bursts of transposition in certain species.
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Copia retrotransposon in the Zaprionus genus: another case of transposable element sharing with the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup.
J. Mol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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Copia is a retrotransposon that appears to be distributed widely among the Drosophilidae subfamily. Evolutionary analyses of regulatory regions have indicated that the Copia retrotransposon evolved through both positive and purifying selection, and that horizontal transfer (HT) could also explain its patchy distribution of the among the subfamilies of the melanogaster subgroup. Additionally, Copia elements could also have transferred between melanogaster subgroup and other species of Drosophilidae-D. willistoni and Z. tuberculatus. In this study, we surveyed seven species of the Zaprionus genus by sequencing the LTR-ULR and reverse transcriptase regions, and by using RT-PCR in order to understand the distribution and evolutionary history of Copia in the Zaprionus genus. The Copia element was detected, and was transcriptionally active, in all species investigated. Structural and selection analysis revealed Zaprionus elements to be closely related to the most ancient subfamily of the melanogaster subgroup, and they seem to be evolving mainly under relaxed purifying selection. Taken together, these results allowed us to classify the Zaprionus sequences as a new subfamily-ZapCopia, a member of the Copia retrotransposon family of the melanogaster subgroup. These findings indicate that the Copia retrotransposon is an ancient component of the genomes of the Zaprionus species and broaden our understanding of the diversity of retrotransposons in the Zaprionus genus.
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Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite genotypes: a limited variation or new subspecies with major biological consequences?
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
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Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite variants have been identified in several geographical areas. The real implication of the genetic variation in this region of the P. vivax genome has been questioned for a long time. Although previous studies have observed significant association between VK210 and the Duffy blood group, we present here that evidences of this variation are limited to the CSP central portion.
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Scenario of the spread of the invasive species Zaprionus indianus Gupta, 1970 (Diptera, Drosophilidae) in Brazil.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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Zaprionus indianus was first recorded in Brazil in 1999 and rapidly spread throughout the country. We have obtained data on esterase loci polymorphisms (Est2 and Est3), and analyzed them, using Landscape Shape Interpolation and the Monmonier Maximum Difference Algorithm to discover how regional invasion occurred. Hence, it was apparent that Z. indianus, after first arriving in São Paulo state, spread throughout the country, probably together with the transportation of commercial fruits by way of the two main Brazilian freeways, BR 153, to the south and the surrounding countryside, and the BR 116 along the coast and throughout the north-east.
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Genetic diversity of NS5A protein from hepatitis C virus genotype 3a and its relationship to therapy response.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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The quasispecies nature of HCV may have important implications for viral persistence, pathogenicity and resistance to antiviral agents. The variability of one of the viral proteins, NS5A, is believed to be related to the response to IFN therapy, the standard treatment for infection. In this study we analyzed the quasispecies composition of NS5A protein in patients infected with HCV genotype 3a, before IFN therapy.
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Quasispecies of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 and treatment outcome with peginterferon and ribavirin.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2009
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The majority of patients with chronic hepatitis C fail to respond to antiviral therapy. The genetic basis of this resistance is unknown. The quasispecies nature of HCV may have an important implication concerning viral persistence and response to therapy. The HCV nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein has been controversially implicated in the inherent resistance of HCV to interferon (IFN) antiviral therapy. To evaluate whether the NS5A quasispecies pre-treatment composition of HCV 1a/1b is related to responsiveness to combined pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and Ribavirin therapy, detailed analyses of the complete NS5A were performed. Fifteen full-length NS5A clones were sequenced from 11 pre-treatment samples of patients infected with genotype 1 HCV (3 virological sustained responders, 4 non-responders, and 4 end-of-treatment responders). Our study could not show a significant correlation between the mean number of mutations in HCV NS5A before treatment and treatment outcome, and the phylogenetic construction of complete NS5A sequences obtained from all patients failed to show any clustering associated with a specific response pattern. No single amino acid position was associated with different responses to therapy in any of the NS5A regions analyzed, and mutations were clustered downstream the ISDR, primarily in the V3 region. We observed that the CRS and NLS regions of the NS5A protein were conflicting for some variables analyzed, although no significant differences were found. If these two regions can have antagonistic functions, it seems viable that they present different mutation profiles when compared with treatment response. The patient sample that presented the lowest genetic distance values also presented the smallest number of variants, and the most heterogeneous pattern was seen in the end-of-treatment patients. These results suggest that a detailed molecular analysis of the NS5A region on a larger sample size may be necessary for understanding its role in the therapy outcome of HCV 1a/1b infection.
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The protist Trichomonas vaginalis harbors multiple lineages of transcriptionally active Mutator-like elements.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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For three decades the Mutator system was thought to be exclusive of plants, until the first homolog representatives were characterized in fungi and in early-diverging amoebas earlier in this decade.
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Multiple invasions of Gypsy and Micropia retroelements in genus Zaprionus and melanogaster subgroup of the genus Drosophila.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
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The Zaprionus genus shares evolutionary features with the melanogaster subgroup, such as space and time of origin. Although little information about the transposable element content in the Zaprionus genus had been accumulated, some of their elements appear to be more closely related with those of the melanogaster subgroup, indicating that these two groups of species were involved in horizontal transfer events during their evolution. Among these elements, the Gypsy and the Micropia retroelements were chosen for screening in seven species of the two Zaprionus subgenera, Anaprionus and Zaprionus.
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The evolutionary dynamics of the Helena retrotransposon revealed by sequenced Drosophila genomes.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Several studies have shown that genomes contain a mixture of transposable elements, some of which are still active and others ancient relics that have degenerated. This is true for the non-LTR retrotransposon Helena, of which only degenerate sequences have been shown to be present in some species (Drosophila melanogaster), whereas putatively active sequences are present in others (D. simulans). Combining experimental and population analyses with the sequence analysis of the 12 Drosophila genomes, we have investigated the evolution of Helena, and propose a possible scenario for the evolution of this element.
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Estimating genomic instability mediated by Alu retroelements in breast cancer.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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Alu-PCR is a relatively simple technique that can be used to investigate genomic instability in cancer. This technique allows identification of the loss, gain or amplification of gene sequences based on the analysis of segments between two Alu elements coupled with quantitative and qualitative analyses of the profiles obtained from tumor samples, surgical margins and blood. In this work, we used Alu-PCR to identify gene alterations in ten patients with invasive ductal breast cancer. Several deletions and insertions were identified, indicating genomic instability in the tumor and adjacent normal tissue. Although not associated with specific genes, the alterations, which involved chromosomal bands 1p36.23, 1q41, 11q14.3, 13q14.2, occurred in areas of well-known genomic instability in breast and other types of cancer. These results indicate the potential usefulness of Alu-PCR in identifying altered gene sequences in breast cancer. However, caution is required in its application since the Alu primer can produce non-specific amplification.
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FISH using a gag-like fragment probe reveals a common Ty3-gypsy-like retrotransposon in genome of Coffea species.
Genome
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The genus Coffea possesses about 100 species, and the most economically important are Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica. The latter is predominantly self-compatible with 2n = 4x = 44, while the others of the genus are diploid with 2n = 2x = 22 and mostly self-incompatible. Studies using molecular markers have been useful to detect differences between genomes in Coffea; however, molecular and cytogenetic studies have produced only limited information on the karyotypes organization. We used DOP-PCR to isolate repetitive elements from genome of Coffea arabica var. typica. The pCa06 clone, containing a fragment of 775 bp length, was characterized by sequencing and used as a probe in chromosomes of C. arabica and six other species: C. canephora, Coffea eugenioides, Coffea kapakata, Coffea liberica var. dewevrei, Coffea racemosa, and Coffea stenophylla. This insert shows similarities with a gag protein of the Ty3-gypsy-like super-family. Dot blot and FISH analyses demonstrated that pCa06 is differentially accumulated between species and chromosomes. Signals appeared scattered and clustered on the chromosomes and were also associated with heterochromatic regions. While the literature shows that there is a high karyotype similarity between Coffea species, our results point out differences in the accumulation and dispersion of this Ty3-gypsy-like retrotransposon during karyotype differentiation of Coffea.
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Diversity and adaptation of human respiratory syncytial virus genotypes circulating in two distinct communities: public hospital and day care center.
Viruses
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HRSV is one of the most important pathogens causing acute respiratory tract diseases as bronchiolitis and pneumonia among infants. HRSV was isolated from two distinct communities, a public day care center and a public hospital in São José do Rio Preto - SP, Brazil. We obtained partial sequences from G gene that were used on phylogenetic and selection pressure analysis. HRSV accounted for 29% of respiratory infections in hospitalized children and 7.7% in day care center children. On phylogenetic analysis of 60 HRSV strains, 48 (80%) clustered within or adjacent to the GA1 genotype; GA5, NA1, NA2, BA-IV and SAB1 were also observed. SJRP GA1 strains presented variations among deduced amino acids composition and lost the potential O-glycosilation site at amino acid position 295, nevertheless this resulted in an insertion of two potential O-glycosilation sites at positions 296 and 297. Furthermore, a potential O-glycosilation site insertion, at position 293, was only observed for hospital strains. Using SLAC and MEME methods, only amino acid 274 was identified to be under positive selection. This is the first report on HRSV circulation and genotypes classification derived from a day care center community in Brazil.
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Taxonomic and evolutionary analysis of Zaprionus indianus and its colonization of Palearctic and Neotropical regions.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
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Zaprionus indianus is a dipteran (Drosophilidae) with a wide distribution throughout the tropics and temperate Palearctic and Nearctic regions. There have been proposals to reclassify the genus Zaprionus as a subgenus or group of the genus Drosophila because various molecular markers have indicated a close relationship between Zaprionus species and the immigrans-Hirtodrosophila radiation within Drosophila. These markers, together with alloenzymes and quantitative traits, have been used to describe the probable scenario for the expansion of Zaprionus indianus from its center of dispersal (Africa) to regions of Asia (ancient dispersal) and the Americas (recent dispersal). The introduction of Z. indianus into Brazil was first reported in 1999 and the current consensus is that the introduced flies came from high-latitude African populations through the importation of fruit. Once in Brazil, Z. indianus spread rapidly throughout the Southeast and then to the rest of the country, in association with highway-based fruit commerce. These and other aspects of the evolutionary biology of Z. indianus are addressed in this review, including a description of a probable route for this species dispersal during its recent expansion.
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Ancestral polymorphism and recent invasion of transposable elements in Drosophila species.
BMC Evol. Biol.
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During the evolution of transposable elements, some processes, such as ancestral polymorphisms and horizontal transfer of sequences between species, can produce incongruences in phylogenies. We investigated the evolutionary history of the transposable elements Bari and 412 in the sequenced genomes of the Drosophila melanogaster group and in the sibling species D. melanogaster and D. simulans using traditional phylogenetic and network approaches.
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Losing identity: structural diversity of transposable elements belonging to different classes in the genome of Anopheles gambiae.
BMC Genomics
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Transposable elements (TEs), both DNA transposons and retrotransposons, are genetic elements with the main characteristic of being able to mobilize and amplify their own representation within genomes, utilizing different mechanisms of transposition. An almost universal feature of TEs in eukaryotic genomes is their inability to transpose by themselves, mainly as the result of sequence degeneration (by either mutations or deletions). Most of the elements are thus either inactive or non-autonomous. Considering that the bulk of some eukaryotic genomes derive from TEs, they have been conceived as "TE graveyards." It has been shown that once an element has been inactivated, it progressively accumulates mutations and deletions at neutral rates until completely losing its identity or being lost from the host genome; however, it has also been shown that these "neutral sequences" might serve as raw material for domestication by host genomes.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.