In recent years, topically applied semi-solid formulations certified as medicals devices and not as topical drugs are increasingly used for the treatment of skin diseases. Medical devices primarily unfold their therapeutic effect by physical means, not by pharmacological, immunological or metabolic means. Intensified placing of medical devices on the dermatological market may at least partly be explained by a less complex marketing authorization process compared to topical drugs. If the requirements are fulfilled to certify a product as a medical device the opportunity will be offered to quickly introduce innovations onto the market and propagate them. A variety of evidence-based medical devices for several dermatological indications are presented here.
Itraconazole is an antifungal drug from the triazole group with distinct in vitro activity against dermatophytes, yeasts and some molds. Itraconazole has a primarily fungistatic activity. Itraconazole accumulates in the stratum corneum and in nail material due to its high affinity to keratin, as well as in sebum and vaginal mucosa. Together with terbinafine and fluconazole, itraconazole belongs to the modern highly effective systemic antifungal drugs with a favorable risk-benefit ratio and for this reason is a preferred therapy option for fungal infections of skin, nails and mucous membranes. Compared to terbinafine in the treatment of fingernail and toenail fungal infections, itraconazole offers the advantage of a broad antifungal spectrum and better effectiveness against onychomycosis caused by yeasts yet appears inferior with regard to the more common dermatophyte infections. Itraconazole constitutes an important therapy option, along with fluconazole, terbinafine, ketoconazole and griseofulvin, for the treatment of dermatophyte infections of glabrous skin (tinea pedis, tinea manuum, tinea corporis and tinea cruris) in adults following unsuccessful topical therapy. In the oral therapy of tinea capitis, itraconazole plays an especially important role, in particular for disease caused by Microsporum canis (for children, however, only off-label use is feasible currently). In the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis, candidiasis of the skin and vulvovaginal candidiasis, itraconazole and fluconazole are the preferred treatment options in cases in which topical therapy has proven unsuccessful.
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