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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mediterranean diet and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction: a case-control study from Italy.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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To add epidemiological data on the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a Southern European population.
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Effects of sapropterin on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with CADASIL: a randomized controlled trial.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by NOTCH3 mutations, is characterized by vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells abnormalities, altered vasoreactivity, and recurrent lacunar infarcts. Vasomotor function may represent a key factor for disease progression. Tetrahydrobiopterin, essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthesis in endothelial cells, ameliorates endothelial function. We assessed whether supplementation with sapropterin, a synthetic tetrahydrobiopterin analog, improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in CADASIL patients.
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Smoking and body mass index and survival in pancreatic cancer patients.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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The objective of this study was to provide further information on the role of personal characteristics and lifestyle factors, including obesity, diabetes, and tobacco smoking, on survival from pancreatic cancer.
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Allium vegetable intake and gastric cancer: A case-control study and meta-analysis.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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To provide new epidemiological data and summarize evidence on the association between allium vegetable intake and gastric cancer risk.
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Genetic polymorphisms and risk of recurrent wheezing in pediatric age.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Wheezing during early life is a very common disorder, but the reasons underlying the different wheezing phenotypes are still unclear. The aims of this study were to analyse the potential correlations between the risk of developing recurrent wheezing and the presence of specific polymorphisms of some genes regulating immune system function, and to study the relative importance of the associations of different viruses and genetic polymorphisms in causing recurrent episodes.
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Alcohol drinking and risk of leukemia-a systematic review and meta-analysis of the dose-risk relation.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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The association between alcohol and leukemia risk has been addressed in several studies in the past two decades, but results have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the dose-risk relation. Through the literature search up to August 2013, we identified 18 studies, 10 case-control and 8 cohorts, carried out in a total of 7142 leukemia cases. We derived pooled meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models, taking into account the correlation between estimates, and we performed a dose-risk analysis using a class of nonlinear random-effects meta-regression models. Stratified analyses were carried out on leukemia subtypes and groups, in order to identify possible etiologic differences. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risks (RRs) for all leukemia were 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-1.03], 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80-1.01) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.81-1.02) for any, light (? 1 drink/day) and moderate to heavy (>1 drink/day) alcohol drinking, respectively. The summary RRs for any alcohol drinking were 1.47 (95% CI, 0.47-4.62) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 0.94 (95% CI 0.77-1.15) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.86-1.21) for acute myeloid leukemia and 0.93 (95% CI 0.75-1.14) for chronic myeloid leukemia. The subgroup analysis on geographical area for all leukemia combined showed RRs of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.76-0.93), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.83-1.01) and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.02-1.70) for studies conducted in America, Europe and Asia, respectively. We did not find an increased risk of leukemia among alcohol drinkers. If any, a modest favorable effect emerged for light alcohol drinking, with a model-based risk reduction of approximately 10% in regular drinkers.
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Colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps in relation to allium vegetables intake: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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To provide updated quantitative estimates of the associations between allium vegetables intake and risk of colorectal cancer and colorectal adenomatous polyps.
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The stomach cancer pooling (StoP) project: study design and presentation.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Gastric cancer affects about one million people per year worldwide, being the second leading cause of cancer mortality. The study of its etiology remains therefore a global issue as it may allow the identification of major targets, besides eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, for primary prevention. It has however received little attention, given its comparatively low incidence in most high-income countries. We introduce a consortium of epidemiological investigations named the 'Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project'. Twenty-two studies agreed to participate, for a total of over 9000 cases and 23 000 controls. Twenty studies have already shared the original data set. Of the patients, 40% are from Asia, 43% from Europe, and 17% from North America; 34% are women and 66% men; the median age is 61 years; 56% are from population-based case-control studies, 41% from hospital-based ones, and 3% from nested case-control studies derived from cohort investigations. Biological samples are available from 12 studies. The aim of the StoP Project is to analyze the role of lifestyle and genetic determinants in the etiology of gastric cancer through pooled analyses of individual-level data. The uniquely large data set will allow us to define and quantify the main effects of each risk factor of interest, including a number of infrequent habits, and to adequately address associations in subgroups of the population, as well as interaction within and between environmental and genetic factors. Further, we will carry out separate analyses according to different histotypes and subsites of gastric cancer, to identify potential different risk patterns and etiological characteristics.
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Alcohol drinking and multiple myeloma risk--a systematic review and meta-analysis of the dose-risk relationship.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The role of alcohol intake in the risk for multiple myeloma (MM) is unclear, although some recent findings suggest an inverse relationship. To summarize the information on the topic, we carried out a systematic review and a dose-risk meta-analysis of published data. Through the literature search until August 2013, we identified 18 studies, eight case-control and 10 cohort studies, carried out in a total of 5694 MM patients. We derived pooled meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models, taking into account the correlation between estimates, and we carried out a dose-risk analysis using a class of nonlinear random-effects meta-regression models. The relative risk for alcohol drinkers versus non/occasional drinkers was 0.97 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-1.10] overall, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.74-1.24) among case-control studies, and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.89-1.13) among cohort studies. Compared with nondrinkers, the pooled relative risks were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.81-1.13) for light (i.e. ? 1 drink/day) and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.74-1.07) for moderate-to-heavy (i.e. >1 drink/day) alcohol drinkers. The dose-risk analysis revealed a model-based MM risk reduction of about 15% at two to four drinks/day (i.e. 25-50 g of ethanol). The present meta-analysis of published data found no strong association between alcohol drinking and MM risk, although a modest favorable effect emerged for moderate-to-heavy alcohol drinkers.
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Genetic polymorphisms and sepsis in premature neonates.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes involved in sepsis may help to clarify the pathophysiology of neonatal sepsis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between sepsis in pre-term neonates and genes potentially involved in the response to invasion by infectious agents. The study involved 101 pre-term neonates born between June 2008 and May 2012 with a diagnosis of microbiologically confirmed sepsis, 98 pre-term neonates with clinical sepsis and 100 randomly selected, otherwise healthy pre-term neonates born during the study period. During the study, 47 SNPs in 18 candidate genes were genotyped on Guthrie cards using an ABI PRISM 7900 HT Fast real-time and MAssARRAY for nucleic acids instruments. Genotypes CT and TT of rs1143643 (the IL1? gene) and genotype GG of rs2664349GG (the MMP-16 gene) were associated with a significantly increased overall risk of developing sepsis (p?=?0.03, p?=?0.05 and p?=?0.03), whereas genotypes AG of rs4358188 (the BPI gene) and CT of rs1799946 (the DEF?1 gene) were associated with a significantly reduced risk of developing sepsis (p?=?0.05 for both). Among the patients with bacteriologically confirmed sepsis, only genotype GG of rs2664349 (the MMP-16 gene) showed a significant association with an increased risk (p?=?0.02). Genotypes GG of rs2569190 (the CD14 gene) and AT of rs4073 (the IL8 gene) were associated with a significantly increased risk of developing severe sepsis (p?=?0.05 and p?=?0.01). Genotype AG of rs1800629 (the LTA gene) and genotypes CC and CT of rs1341023 (the BPI gene) were associated with a significantly increased risk of developing Gram-negative sepsis (p?=?0.04, p?=?0.04 and p?=?0.03). These results show that genetic variability seems to play a role in sepsis in pre-term neonates by influencing susceptibility to and the severity of the disease, as well as the risk of having disease due to specific pathogens.
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Fiber intake and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Some studies examined the inverse relation between nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) risk and dietary fibers in endemic populations. By means of a hospital-based case-control study, we verified whether this association was also present in Italy in connection with various types of dietary fibers. Cases were 198 patients with incident, histologically confirmed, NPC admitted to major teaching and general hospitals during 1992-2008. Controls were 594 patients admitted for acute, nonneoplastic conditions to the same hospital network of cases. Information was elicited using a validated food frequency questionnaire including 78 foods, food groups, or dishes. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for quartiles of intake of different types of fiber after allowance for energy intake and other potential confounding factors. Total fiber intake was inversely related to risk of NPC (OR = 0.58 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile of intake; 95% CI: 0.34-0.96). We found an inverse association for total soluble (OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-0.96) and total insoluble fiber (OR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.33-0.95), in particular cellulose (OR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.33-0.96), and lignin (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.31-0.85). In conclusion, this study suggests that dietary intake of soluble and insoluble fibers is inversely related to NPC risk in a nonendemic southern population.
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Cancer prevention in Europe: the Mediterranean diet as a protective choice.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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In the coming years, European death rates because of cancer will further decline, but the overall number of cases will increase, mostly as a consequence of the ageing of the population. The target for cancer prevention in Europe will remain a healthy diet and control of obesity in addition to a decrease in smoking. A healthy diet model in European countries is the traditional Mediterranean diet, which is based on abundant and variable plant foods, high consumption of cereals, olive oil as the main (added) fat, low intake of (red) meat and moderate consumption of wine. The Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The biological mechanisms for cancer prevention associated with the Mediterranean diet have been related to the favourable effect of a balanced ratio of omega 6 and omega 3 essential fatty acids and high amounts of fibre, antioxidants and polyphenols found in fruit, vegetables, olive oil and wine. The Mediterranean diet also involves a Mediterranean way of drinking, that is, regular, moderate consumption of wine mainly with food. This pattern of drinking increases longevity, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and does not appreciably influence the overall risk of cancer. However, heavy alcohol drinking is associated with digestive, upper respiratory tract, liver and breast cancers; therefore, avoidance or restriction of alcohol consumption to two drinks/day in men and one drink/day in women is a global public health priority.
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Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of endometrial cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Carbohydrates and the dietary glycemic index (GI) influence insulin secretion and insulin-like growth factors, and may exert relevant effects on obesity and diabetes, both of which are important risk factors for endometrial cancer. We studied the association between dietary GI and glycemic load (GL) and endometrial cancer using data from an Italian case-control study. This included 454 women with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer and 908 controls admitted to the same hospitals for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. Multivariate odds ratios were obtained after allowance for major potential confounding factors, including noncarbohydrate energy intake. We updated a meta-analysis on this issue, including a recent US cohort study, which contributed about a quarter of all cases, besides our case-control study. In the case-control study, the odds ratios of endometrial cancer for the highest versus the lowest quintile were 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67-1.58] for GI and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.64-1.61) for GL. No heterogeneity was found across the strata of diabetes and other selected covariates. The summary risk estimate of endometrial cancer for the highest versus the lowest GI level, obtained from the meta-analysis, was 1.09 (95% CI: 0.92-1.29). The corresponding risk estimate for GL was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.06-1.34). The case-control study showed no association between dietary GI and GL and the risk of endometrial cancer overall and in the strata of relevant covariates, whereas the meta-analysis supported an increased risk for high GL, but not GI.
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Pneumococcal bacterial load colonization as a marker of mixed infection in children with alveolar community-acquired pneumonia and respiratory syncytial virus or rhinovirus infection.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in children with alveolar community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or rhinovirus (RV) infection indicates a mixed lung infection.
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Personal hair dye use and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Despite considerable research, the issue of hair dyes and bladder cancer is still open to discussion. In January 2013, we searched in PubMed/EMBASE to identify observational studies investigating the association between personal use of hair dyes and bladder cancer incidence/mortality. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models. Fifteen case-control and two cohort studies were available for meta-analysis (8504 cases/deaths, 14,102 controls, and 617,937 persons at risk). Compared with no use, the pooled RR of bladder cancer for personal use of any type of hair dyes was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.82-1.05), with moderate heterogeneity among studies (I(2) = 34.1%, P = .07). Similar RRs were found for females (RR = 0.95) and males (RR = 0.81). Based on seven studies, the pooled RR for personal use of permanent hair dyes was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.77-1.09). Compared with no use, no association was observed for the highest categories of duration of use and lifetime frequency of use of both any type of dyes and permanent dyes. The pooled RR from four studies reporting results for use of dark-colored dyes was 1.29 (95% CI, 0.98-1.71). This meta-analysis allows to definitively exclude any appreciable excess risk of bladder cancer among personal hair dye users.
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A meta-analysis of prospective studies of coffee consumption and mortality for all causes, cancers and cardiovascular diseases.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Several prospective studies considered the relation between coffee consumption and mortality. Most studies, however, were underpowered to detect an association, since they included relatively few deaths. To obtain quantitative overall estimates, we combined all published data from prospective studies on the relation of coffee with mortality for all causes, all cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary/ischemic heart disease (CHD/IHD) and stroke. A bibliography search, updated to January 2013, was carried out in PubMed and Embase to identify prospective observational studies providing quantitative estimates on mortality from all causes, cancer, CVD, CHD/IHD or stroke in relation to coffee consumption. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate overall relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. The pooled RRs of all cause mortality for the study-specific highest versus low (?1 cup/day) coffee drinking categories were 0.88 (95 % CI 0.84-0.93) based on all the 23 studies, and 0.87 (95 % CI 0.82-0.93) for the 19 smoking adjusting studies. The combined RRs for CVD mortality were 0.89 (95 % CI 0.77-1.02, 17 smoking adjusting studies) for the highest versus low drinking and 0.98 (95 % CI 0.95-1.00, 16 studies) for the increment of 1 cup/day. Compared with low drinking, the RRs for the highest consumption of coffee were 0.95 (95 % CI 0.78-1.15, 12 smoking adjusting studies) for CHD/IHD, 0.95 (95 % CI 0.70-1.29, 6 studies) for stroke, and 1.03 (95 % CI 0.97-1.10, 10 studies) for all cancers. This meta-analysis provides quantitative evidence that coffee intake is inversely related to all cause and, probably, CVD mortality.
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Pet exposure and risk of atopic dermatitis at the pediatric age: a meta-analysis of birth cohort studies.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Findings on pet exposure and the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) in children are inconsistent.
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A metaanalysis on alcohol consumption and risk of endometriosis.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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To offer a general figure of the available data on the relation between alcohol intake and risk of endometriosis, we conducted a systematic review and a metaanalysis of studies published up to May 2012.
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Impact of vitamin D administration on immunogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in previously unvaccinated children.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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As vitamin D (VD) has a significant regulatory effect on innate and adaptive immunity, the aim of this prospective, randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study was to measure the impact of VD administration on the immune response to trivalent influenza vaccination (TIV). A total of 116 children (61 males, 52.6%; mean age 3.0 ± 1.0 y) with a history of recurrent acute otitis media (AOM), who had not been previously vaccinated against influenza, were randomized to receive daily VD 1,000 IU or placebo by mouth for four months. All of them received two doses of TIV (Fluarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) one month apart, with the first dose administered when VD supplementation was started. There was no difference in seroconversion or seroprotection rates, or antibody titers, in relation to any of the three influenza vaccine antigens between the VD and placebo groups, independently of baseline and post-treatment VD levels. The safety profile was also similar in the two groups. These data indicate that the daily administration of VD 1,000 IU for four months from the time of the injection of the first dose of TIV does not significantly modify the antibody response evoked by influenza vaccine.
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Knowledge of malaria among women of Burundi and its impact on the incidence of the disease.
J. Trop. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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In order to investigate whether the persistently high incidence of malaria in Burundi is due to a lack of knowledge of the disease, mothers of children admitted to the hospital of Kiremba in Burundi were anonymously administered a semi-structured questionnaire about malaria. A total of 539 questionnaires were evaluated. About 75% of the women knew that malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes, and respectively 58.3 and 23.9% knew that it could lead to the death of a fetus or a low birth weight. Fewer than half of the women (44.7%) knew that malaria can be definitely diagnosed by means of a blood examination and only 39.7% indicates that artesunate-amodiaquine was the first-line therapy recommended by the Burundian health authorities. Long-lasting insecticidal or insecticide-treated nets were used by only 33.0%. Burundian women generally know little about malaria. Public awareness programmes should be conducted before any malaria control initiatives are planned.
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Impact of rhinoviruses on pediatric community-acquired pneumonia.
Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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This study of 592 children seen in our Emergency Department with radiographically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was designed to evaluate the role of rhinoviruses (RVs) in the disease. The respiratory secretions of each child were assayed using RVP Fast in order to detect 17 respiratory viruses, and the RV-positive samples were characterised by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. RVs were identified in 172 cases (29.0%): 48/132 children aged<1 year (36.3%), 80/293 aged 1-3 years (27.3%), and 44/167 aged?4 years (26.3%). Sequencing demonstrated that 82 RVs (49.1%) were group A, 17 (10.1%) group B, and 52 (31.1%) group C; 21 (12.2%) were untyped. RVs were found as single agents in 99 cases, and together with two or more other viruses in 73 (40.7%). There were only marginal differences between the different RV groups and between single RV infection and RV co-infections. RV CAP is frequent not only in younger but also in older children, and RV-A is the most common strain associated with it. The clinical relevance of RV CAP seems to be mild to moderate without any major differences between the A and B strains and the recently identified RV C.
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Alcohol consumption and cancer risk.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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This review focuses on selected aspects of the relation between alcohol consumption and cancer risk. Heavy alcohol consumption (i.e., ?4 drinks/day) is significantly associated with an increased risk of about 5-fold for oral and pharyngeal cancer and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 2.5-fold for laryngeal cancer, 50% for colorectal and breast cancers, and 30% for pancreatic cancer. These estimates are based on a large number of epidemiological studies and are generally consistent across strata of several covariates. The evidence suggests that at low doses of alcohol consumption (i.e., ?1 drink/day) the risk is also increased by about 20% for oral and pharyngeal cancer and 30% for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Thus, for these sites there is little evidence of a threshold effect. While consumption of fewer than 3 alcoholic drinks/wk is not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, an intake of 3 to 6 drinks/wk might already yield a (small) increase in risk. On the other hand, intakes up to 1 drink/day are not associated to the risk of laryngeal, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer. The positive association between alcohol consumption and the risk of head and neck cancers is independent from tobacco exposure.
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Viral shedding in children infected by pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2011
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The aim of this study was to investigate viral shedding in otherwise healthy children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza in order to define how long children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza shed the virus, and also plan adequate measures to control the spread of the disease within households.
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Impact of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza on children and their families: comparison with seasonal A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza viruses.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2011
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To make a direct comparison between the total burden of pandemic influenza and that of other seasonal influenza A viral subtypes in otherwise healthy children.
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The metabolic syndrome and risk of prostate cancer in Italy.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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To provide information on the role of the metabolic syndrome on prostate cancer risk.
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Olive oil and cancer risk: an update of epidemiological findings through 2010.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Consumption of olive oil has been related to reduced risk of several diseases, including various neoplasms. In this paper, we reviewed epidemiological studies on olive oil and cancer published up to 2010. We performed a systematic literature search in the Medline database and, after assessment of relevant papers, we included 25 studies providing original data on olive oil consumption and cancer risk. We also performed a meta-analysis of studies of breast cancer, calculating the pooled relative risk (RR), and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI), for high vs. low olive oil consumption. Several studies conducted in Southern Europe reported olive oil consumption as a favourable indicator of breast, digestive tract, and particularly upper aero-digestive tract cancers. For the latter, after adjustment for alcohol and tobacco use, the RRs between extreme levels of olive oil consumption were 0.3-0.4, and there was an over 5-fold difference in risk between subjects consuming mainly olive oil and those consuming mainly butter. The summary RR of breast cancer was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.44-0.88) for the highest vs. lowest level of olive oil consumption. Thus, preferring olive oil to other added lipids, particularly those rich in saturated fats, can decrease the risk of upper digestive and respiratory tract neoplasms, breast and, possibly, colorectal and other cancer sites.
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Clinical manifestations and socio-economic impact of influenza among healthy children in the community.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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To evaluate the total burden of influenza among healthy children in the community in order to analyse the cost of influenza in paediatric age.
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Metabolic syndrome and pancreatic cancer risk: a case-control study in Italy and meta-analysis.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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We assessed the relation between metabolic syndrome (MetS), its components, and pancreatic cancer risk in an Italian case-control study and performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies published up to February 2011. The case-control study included 326 patients with incident pancreatic cancer and 652 controls admitted to the same hospitals for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. MetS was defined as having at least 3 conditions among diabetes, drug-treated hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and body mass index at least 25 kg/m(2) at age 30 years. We computed multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression models adjusted for tobacco smoking, education, and other sociodemographic variables. For the meta-analysis, we calculated summary relative risks (RRs) using random-effects models. The OR of pancreatic cancer in the case-control study was 2.36 (95% CI, 1.43-3.90) for diabetes, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.55-1.08) for hypertension, 1.38 (95% CI, 0.94-2.01) for hypercholesterolemia, and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.91-1.78) for being overweight at age 30 years. The risk was significantly increased for subjects with 3 or more MetS components (OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.01-4.49) compared with subjects with no component, the estimates being consistent among strata of sex, age, and alcohol consumption. The meta-analysis included 3 cohort studies and our case-control study, and found a summary RR of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.19-2.01) for subjects with MetS. Metabolic syndrome is related to pancreatic cancer risk. Diabetes is the key component related to risk.
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Use of fertility drugs and risk of endometrial cancer in an Italian case-control study.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2010
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The objective of this study was to analyse time-related aspects of the use of fertility drugs related to the risk of endometrial cancer using data from a case-control study conducted between 1992 and 2006 in Italy. The study included 454 cases (median age, 60 years; range, 18-79) with incident, histologically confirmed endometrial cancer and 908 female controls (median age, 61 years; range 19-79) admitted to the same network of hospitals as cases for a wide spectrum of acute, non-neoplastic conditions. Controls were frequency matched to cases with a 2:1 ratio for age and study centre. Information was collected by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) using conditional logistic regression models adjusted for major relevant covariates. The OR of endometrial cancer for ever use of fertility drugs was 3.26 (95% CI, 1.07-9.95). The risk was higher for duration of use 12 months or more (OR=6.10; 95% CI, 0.96-38.6), time since last use 25 years or less before the interview (OR=5.30; 95% CI, 1.12-25.1), and for age at first use less than 30 years (OR=5.14; 95% CI, 1.13-23.4). The association was apparently stronger in ever-gravid (OR=6.50; 95% CI, 1.10-38.3) than in nulligravid (OR=2.83; 95% CI, 0.32-25.0) women. Our data support earlier findings of an increase in risk of endometrial cancer with duration of use of fertility drugs.
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Effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on depressive symptoms and on health-related quality of life in the treatment of elderly women with depression: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.
J Am Coll Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2010
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In elderly individuals, depression is one of the most frequently missed diagnoses with negative effects on quality of life. The authors investigated whether a supplement containing long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) improves depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in depressed elderly patients.
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Knowledge of human papillomavirus infection and its prevention among adolescents and parents in the greater Milan area, Northern Italy.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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In order to be widely accepted by users, the implementation of a new health intervention requires them to be adequately informed about its clinical importance, benefits and risks. The aim of this study was to provide data on the knowledge of Italian adolescents and parents concerning human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its prevention in order to allow the development of adequate training programmes.
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Metabolic syndrome is associated with colorectal cancer in men.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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We assessed the relation between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components and colorectal cancer.
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Fiber intake and endometrial cancer risk.
Acta Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2010
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The epidemiological evidence on the relation between dietary fiber intake and endometrial cancer is contradictory. Consequently, a case-control study was carried out to further investigate the role of dietary fiber intake in the etiology of endometrial cancer.
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The rise and fall in menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer incidence.
Breast
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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Studies conducted in different areas of North America and Europe showed a 5-10% decline in the incidence of breast cancer following reductions up to 70% in menopause hormone therapy (HT) use after 2002. The observation that the decline was larger in (or limited to) women aged > or =50 years weighs in favour of an effect of reduced HT use on breast cancer incidence. However, changes in screening are also likely to play a role in the decreasing incidence of breast cancer observed in several countries. In particular, the technical improvements and the increased effectiveness of breast cancer screening and detection during the 1990s led to a decreased number of pre-clinical cases found by screening in subsequent years. Further, disentangling the effects of HT use and screening is difficult, as women who stop using HT may also undergo mammography screening less frequently. Thus, the reasons of the falls in incidence remain open to discussion.
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Metabolic syndrome, its components and risk of age-related cataract extraction: a case-control study in Italy.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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We sought to explore the relationship between age-related cataract extraction and the metabolic syndrome or its various components separately and in various combinations in an Italian case-control study.
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Allium vegetables intake and endometrial cancer risk.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2009
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The potential role of allium vegetables on endometrial cancer risk has been scarcely investigated and the results of previous Chinese studies are not easily applicable to Western populations. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between onion and garlic intake and endometrial cancer, using data from an Italian case-control study.
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Nutrient dietary patterns and gastric cancer risk in Italy.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
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There have been several studies on diet and gastric cancer, but only a few investigations have considered the role of dietary patterns.
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Selected aspects of Mediterranean diet and cancer risk.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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European Mediterranean populations have a high life expectancy. Several aspects of their diet are considered favorable on health. We considered the role of various aspects of the Mediterranean diet on cancer risk in a series of Italian case-control studies including about 10,000 cases of cancer at 13 different sites and over 17,000 controls. For most epithelial cancers, the risk decreased with increasing vegetable consumption. Allium vegetables were also favorably related to cancer risk. Fruit intake was inversely associated with digestive tract and laryngeal cancers. For digestive tract cancers, the population attributable risks for low intake of vegetables and fruit ranged between 15% and 40%. Olive oil and unsaturated fats, which are typical aspects of the Mediterranean diet, were inversely related to the risk of several cancers, particularly of the upper aerodigestive tract. Whole grain food (and hence possibly fiber) intake was also related to reduced risk of various cancers. In contrast, refined grains and, consequently, glycemic load and index were associated to increased risks. Several micronutrients and food components (including folate, flavonoids, and carotenoids) showed inverse relations with cancer risk, but the main component(s) responsible for the favorable effect of a diet rich in vegetables and fruit remain undefined.
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Diet and cancer in Mediterranean countries: carbohydrates and fats.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
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Several aspects of the diet characteristic of the Mediterranean countries are considered favourable not only on cardiovascular disease, but also on cancer risk. We considered some aspects of the Mediterranean diet (including, in particular, the consumption of olive oil and carbohydrates) on cancer risk.
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Physical activity and risk of endometrial cancer: an Italian case-control study.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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Most epidemiological studies on the relationship between physical activity and endometrial cancer found risk reductions of about 25-30% among most active women, but results were not consistent among studies. A multicentric case-control study was conducted in Italy between 1992 and 2006. Cases were 454 women with incident, histologically confirmed endometrial cancer and controls were 908 women admitted to hospital for acute non-neoplastic, nonhormonal conditions. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were obtained after allowance for major potential confounding factors. The ORs of endometrial cancer for women in the highest level of occupational physical activity (compared with the lowest) were 1.69, 1.33, 1.17 and 0.82, respectively, at ages 12, 15-19, 30-39 and 50-59 years, with no trend in risk at any age. The corresponding ORs for leisure-time physical activity were 0.82, 0.78, 1.12 and 0.97. The risk of endometrial cancer for each level of occupational physical activity at age 30-39 years was not significantly heterogeneous across strata of age at diagnosis, body mass index, menopausal status and education. These findings do not support a strong relationship between physical activity and endometrial cancer risk.
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Citrus fruit and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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Citrus fruit has shown a favorable effect against various cancers. To better understand their role in cancer risk, we analyzed data from a series of case-control studies conducted in Italy and Switzerland.
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Impact of influenza-like illness and effectiveness of influenza vaccination in oncohematological children who have completed cancer therapy.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2009
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In order to evaluate the impact of influenza-like illness and the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in children with oncohematological disease who have completed cancer therapy, 182 children with a diagnosis of oncohematological disease were divided into two subgroups on the basis of the length of time off therapy (<6 months or 6-24 months) and randomised 1:1 to receive influenza vaccination or not. The controls were 91 otherwise healthy children unvaccinated against influenza. The results show that the clinical and socioeconomic impact of influenza-like illnesses and the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in oncohematological children who have completed cancer therapy are related to the length of the off therapy period, and seem to be significantly greater in those who have been off therapy for less than 6 months in comparison with healthy controls. This suggests that the administration of influenza vaccination should be strongly recommended only among oncohematological children who have been off therapy for less than 6 months.
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Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue.
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Food groups and endometrial cancer risk: a case-control study from Italy.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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Although several studies have been conducted on the relation between dietary habits and endometrial cancer risk, the evidence for specific food groups is still controversial.
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Family history of cancer and the risk of endometrial cancer.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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To investigate the relationship between family history of cancer in first-degree relatives and the risk of endometrial cancer, we carried out a large multicentre case-control study in Italy between 1992 and 2006, including 454 endometrial cancer cases and 908 controls admitted in hospital for acute, non-neoplastic diseases. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Relative to women with no family history of uterine cancer, the ORs were 2.1 (95% CI: 0.7-6.4) for those reporting a family history of endometrial cancer and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.0-3.2) for a family history of any uterine cancer. A family history of intestinal cancer was directly associated with endometrial cancer risk (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.7). Direct associations were found for a few other cancer sites. In conclusion, a family history of endometrial, uterine or intestinal cancer in first-degree relatives is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer.
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Factors conditioning effectiveness of a reminder/recall system to improve influenza vaccination in asthmatic children.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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In order to verify whether a telephone recall system directly managed by pediatricians who usually follow up children for their asthma is more effective than an anonymous recall system, we randomly assigned 285 asthmatic children (177 males; mean age 10.3+/-3.4 years) to one of three groups: those whose mothers were to be called by a pediatrician not previously involved in caring for their asthmatic children and who received the vaccine in our immunisation clinic (group 1); those whose mothers were to be called by a pediatrician from our asthma clinic and who received the vaccine in the immunisation clinic (group 2); and those whose mothers were to be called by a pediatrician from our asthma clinic and who received the vaccine in the same clinic (group 3). Our findings highlight that the use of a reminder/recall system increases vaccination rates in asthmatic children, and show that the best results are obtained when the mothers are contacted and the vaccine administered by the pediatricians who usually follow up the child for asthma.
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Alcohol, coffee, and bladder cancer risk: a review of epidemiological studies.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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The objective was to review epidemiological studies that evaluated the association between consumption of coffee and alcohol and urinary bladder cancer. We searched the Medline database for observational studies of bladder neoplasms that included information on coffee or alcohol drinking, and looked for papers quoted as references in reviews of risk factors for bladder cancer and in studies that had been selected for inclusion. Results from epidemiological studies allow excluding a strong association between coffee and bladder cancer. Several studies reported a moderate increase in risk in coffee drinkers as compared with nondrinkers, but no trend with dose has been established. Epidemiological data on alcohol drinking and bladder cancer are suggestive of no association, although findings were not always consistent. For both habits, an explanation of the moderate increase in risk observed in some investigations might be attributed to residual confounding by smoking, or to an association between alcohol, coffee, and yet unidentified risk factors for bladder cancer.
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Allium vegetable intake and risk of acute myocardial infarction in Italy.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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Interest in potential benefits of allium vegetables has its origin in antiquity, but the details of these benefits are still open to discussion. Only two epidemiological studies considered the relation between dietary intake of allium vegetables and cardiovascular diseases.
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A meta-analysis of coffee and tea consumption and the risk of glioma in adults.
Cancer Causes Control
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Coffee contains many compounds, including antioxidants, which could prevent cancerogenesis, and coffee has been related with lower incidence of cancer at several sites. Tea is also rich in antioxidants, mainly polyphenols. To provide a quantitative overall estimate on the relation between coffee and tea consumption and glioma, we combined all published data, using a meta-analytic approach.
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Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms and severity of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza in otherwise healthy children.
Virol. J.
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) form an essential part of the innate immune system, which plays a fundamental role in rapidly and effectively controlling infections and initiating adaptive immunity. There are no published data concerning the importance of polymorphisms of TLRs in conditioning susceptibility to influenza or the severity of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether selected polymorphisms of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 influence the incidence and clinical picture of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza.
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Comparison between the AA/EPA ratio in depressed and non depressed elderly females: omega-3 fatty acid supplementation correlates with improved symptoms but does not change immunological parameters.
Nutr J
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Depression is one of the most frequently missed diagnoses in elderly people, with obvious negative effects on quality of life. Various studies have shown that long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may be useful in its management. Our objective was to evaluate whether a supplement containing n-3 PUFA improves depressive symptoms in depressed elderly patients, and whether the blood fatty acid pattern is correlated with these changes.
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Role of polymorphisms of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, TLR9, toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) and FCGR2A genes in malaria susceptibility and severity in Burundian children.
Malar. J.
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Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is one of the leading causes of human morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, predominantly in tropical and sub-tropical countries. As genetic variations in the toll-like receptors (TLRs)-signalling pathway have been associated with either susceptibility or resistance to several infectious and inflammatory diseases, the supposition is that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) and FCGR2A could modulate malaria susceptibility and severity.
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Added sugar, glycemic index and load in colon cancer risk.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care
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There is a growing body of in-vivo evidences that sucrose-rich diets cause mutations in the rat colon epithelium, with several biological mechanism hypothesized, but epidemiological studies have yielded conflicting results. In order to provide a quantification of the magnitude of the risk of colon cancer for high intake of added sugar, high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, we performed a meta-analysis based on a systematic review of the literature to date.
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A meta-analysis on alcohol drinking and the risk of Hodgkin lymphoma.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
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The role of alcohol intake in the risk of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is still largely unclear. To summarize the evidence on the issue, we carried out a meta-analysis of the available studies. We identified eight case-control and two cohort studies, including a total of 1488 cases of HL. We derived meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models, taking into account the correlation between estimates, and carried out a dose-risk analysis using nonlinear random-effects metaregression models. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risk for alcohol consumers was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60-0.81] overall, 0.66 (95% CI, 0.56-0.78) among case-control, and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.63-1.33) among cohort studies. Compared with nondrinkers, the pooled relative risks were 0.71 (95% CI, 0.57-0.89) for light (i.e. ?1 drink/day) and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.60-0.87) for moderate-to-heavy (i.e. >1 drink/day) alcohol drinking. This meta-analysis suggests a favourable effect of alcohol on HL, in the absence, however, of a dose-risk relationship. The inverse association was restricted to--or greater in--case-control as compared with cohort studies. This indicates caution in the interpretation of results.
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Epidemiology and pathophysiology of alcohol and breast cancer: Update 2012.
Alcohol Alcohol.
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To update epidemiological data on alcohol and breast cancer, with special emphasis on light alcohol consumption, and to review mechanisms of alcohol mediated mammary carcinogenesis.
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Alcohol drinking and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Gynecol. Oncol.
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In order to provide an updated quantification of the association between alcohol drinking and epithelial ovarian cancer risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of published observational studies.
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Probiotics supplementation during pregnancy or infancy for the prevention of atopic dermatitis: a meta-analysis.
Epidemiology
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The study of probiotics to prevent allergic conditions has yielded conflicting results in children. We undertook a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to investigate whether probiotic use during pregnancy and early life decreases the incidence of atopic dermatitis and immunoglobulin E (IgE)-associated atopic dermatitis in infants and young children.
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Bacteremic pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia in children less than 5 years of age in Italy.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
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This study was designed to determine the proportion of bacteremic pneumococcal cases in a group of pediatric subjects with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), the importance of the different serotypes and the impact of the currently available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs).
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Mortality from cancer and other causes in an Italian cohort of male rubber tire workers.
J. Occup. Environ. Med.
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To investigate mortality among workers of an Italian rubber tire factory employed between 1954 and 2008.
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Impact of viral infections in children with community-acquired pneumonia: results of a study of 17 respiratory viruses.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
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Little is known about the prevalence of viral infections in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.