JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Impact of systematic HIV testing on case finding and retention in care at a primary care clinic in South Africa.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Systematic, opt-out HIV counselling and testing (HCT) may diagnose individuals at lower levels of immunodeficiency but may impact loss to follow-up (LTFU) if healthier people are less motivated to engage and remain in HIV care. We explored LTFU and patient clinical outcomes under two different HIV testing strategies.
Related JoVE Video
Determinants of PCR performance (Xpert MTB/RIF), including bacterial load and inhibition, for TB diagnosis using specimens from different body compartments.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The determinants of Xpert MTB/RIF sensitivity, a widely used PCR test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) are poorly understood. We compared culture time-to-positivity (TTP; a surrogate of bacterial load), MTB/RIF TB-specific and internal positive control (IPC)-specific C(T) values, and clinical characteristics in patients with suspected TB who provided expectorated (n = 438) or induced sputum (n = 128), tracheal aspirates (n = 71), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (n = 152), pleural fluid (n = 76), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF; n = 152), pericardial fluid (n = 131), or urine (n = 173) specimens. Median bacterial load (TTP in days) was the strongest associate of MTB/RIF positivity in each fluid. TTP correlated with C(T) values in pulmonary specimens but not extrapulmonary specimens (Spearman's coefficient 0.5043 versus 0.1437; p = 0.030). Inhibition affected a greater proportion of pulmonary specimens than extrapulmonary specimens (IPC C(T) > 34: 6% (47/731) versus 1% (4/381; p < 0.0001). Pulmonary specimens had greater load than extrapulmonary specimens [TTPs (interquartile range) of 11 (7-16) versus 22 (18-33.5) days; p < 0.0001]. HIV-infection was associated with a decreased likelihood of MTB/RIF-positivity in pulmonary specimens but an increased likelihood in extrapulmonary specimens. Mycobacterial load, which displays significant variation across different body compartments, is the main determinant of MTB/RIF-positivity rather than PCR inhibition. MTB/RIF C(T) is a poor surrogate of load in extrapulmonary specimens.
Related JoVE Video
Xpert MTB/RIF as a measure of sputum bacillary burden. Variation by HIV status and immunosuppression.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Xpert MTB/RIF cycle threshold values are a measure of sputum mycobacterial burden. Data on the impact of HIV infection and immunosuppression on this measure are limited.
Related JoVE Video
Economic challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnostic development.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tuberculosis remains a global health crisis in part due to underdiagnosis. Technological innovations are needed to improve diagnostic test accuracy and reduce the reliance on expensive laboratory infrastructure. However, there are significant economic challenges impeding the development and implementation of new diagnostics. The aim of this piece is to examine the current state of TB diagnostics, outline the unmet needs for new tests, and detail the economic challenges associated with development of new tests from the perspective of developers, policy makers and implementers.
Related JoVE Video
Xpert MTB/RIF assay shortens airborne isolation for hospitalized patients with presumptive tuberculosis in the United States.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the United States, individuals with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis are placed in airborne infection isolation (AII) and assessed by smear microscopy on 3 respiratory specimens collected 8-24 hours apart. Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) on 1, 2, or 3 specimens may be more efficient for determining AII discontinuation.
Related JoVE Video
High uptake of systematic HIV counseling and testing and TB symptom screening at a primary care clinic in South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Timely diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV is important to reduce morbidity and mortality, and break the cycle of ongoing transmission.
Related JoVE Video
Time to treatment and patient outcomes among TB suspects screened by a single point-of-care xpert MTB/RIF at a primary care clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In December 2010, the World Health Organization recommended a single Xpert MTB/RIF assay as the initial diagnostic in people suspected of HIV-associated or drug resistant tuberculosis. Few data are available on the impact of this recommendation on patient outcomes. We describe the diagnostic follow-up, clinical characteristics and outcomes of a cohort of tuberculosis suspects screened using a single point-of-care Xpert.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of SQ609 as a lead compound from a library of dipiperidines.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We recently reported that compounds created around a dipiperidine scaffold demonstrated activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) (Bogatcheva, E.; Hanrahan, C.; Chen, P.; Gearhart, J.; Sacksteder, K.; Einck, L.; Nacy, C.; Protopopova, M. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.2010, 20, 201). To optimize the dipiperidine compound series and to select a lead compound to advance into preclinical studies, we evaluated the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of our proprietary libraries. The (piperidin-4-ylmethyl)piperidine scaffold was an essential structural element required for antibacterial activity. Based on SAR, we synthesized a focused library of 313 new dipiperidines to delineate additional structural features responsible for antitubercular activity. Thirty new active compounds with MIC 10-20 ?g/ml on Mtb were identified, but none was better than the original hits of this series, SQ609, SQ614, and SQ615. In Mtb-infected macrophages in vitro, SQ609 and SQ614 inhibited more than 90% of intracellular bacterial growth at 4 ?g/ml; SQ615 was toxic to these cells. In mice infected with Mtb, weight loss was completely prevented by SQ609, but not SQ614, and SQ609 had a prolonged therapeutic effect, extended by 10-15 days, after cessation of therapy. Based on in vitro and in vivo antitubercular activity, SQ609 was identified as the best-in-class dipiperidine compound in the series.
Related JoVE Video
Body mass index and risk of tuberculosis and death.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High BMI has been shown to be protective against tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-uninfected individuals, as well as against disease progression and mortality among those with HIV. We examined the effect of BMI on all-cause mortality and TB incidence among a cohort of HIV-infected adults in Soweto, South Africa.
Related JoVE Video
Discovery of dipiperidines as new antitubercular agents.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As part of our ongoing research effort to develop new therapeutics for treatment of tuberculosis (TB), we synthesized a combinatorial library of 10,358 compounds on solid support using a pool-and-split technique and tested the resulting compounds for activity against Mycobacteriumtuberculosis. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) evaluation identified new compounds with antitubercular activity, including a novel hit series that is structurally unrelated to any existing antitubercular drugs, dipiperidines. Dipiperidine representatives exhibited MIC values as low as 7.8microM, the ability to induce promoter Rv0341 activated in response to cell wall biosynthesis inhibition, relatively low nonspecific cellular toxicity in the range of 30-162microM, and logP values less than 4.
Related JoVE Video
The impact of expanded testing for multidrug resistant tuberculosis using genotype [correction of geontype] MTBDRplus in South Africa: an observational cohort study.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Globally, multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains underdiagnosed. The Genotype MTBDRplus®, a rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) assay used to detect resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin in the diagnosis of MDR-TB, has good diagnostic accuracy, but its impact on patient outcomes in routine practice is unproven. We assessed the clinical impact of routine DST using MTBDRplus in a single health district in South Africa.
Related JoVE Video
Candidacy for kidney transplantation of older adults.
J Am Geriatr Soc
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To develop a prediction model for kidney transplantation (KT) outcomes specific to older adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and to use this model to estimate the number of excellent older KT candidates who lack access to KT.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.