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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Impact of chronic graft-versus-host disease on late relapse and survival on 7489 patients after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for leukemia.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Purpose: Malignancy relapse remains a major obstacle for successful allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is associated with fewer relapses. However, when studying effects of cGVHD on relapse it is difficult to separate from acute GVHD effects as most cases of cGVHD occur within the first year post-transplant at the time when acute GVHD is still active. Experimental design: The current study based on CIBMTR registry data investigated cGVHD and its association with the incidence of late relapse and survival in 7489 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) who were leukemia-free at12 months after myeloablative allogeneic HCT. Results: Forty-seven percent of the study population was diagnosed with cGVHD at 12 months after transplant. The protective effect of cGVHD on relapse was present only in patients with CML (RR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.37-0.59, P <0.0001). cGVHD was significantly associated with higher risk of treatment related mortality, (RR: 2.43, 95% CI: 2.09-2.82, P <0.0001) and inferior overall survival (RR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.41-1.73, P <0.0001) for all diseases. In patients with CML all organ sites and presentation types of cGVHD were equally associated with lower risk of late relapse. Conclusions: These results indicate that clinically relevant anti-leukemia effects of cGVHD on late relapses are present only in CML but not in AML, ALL or MDS. Chronic GVHD in patients who are one year survivors after myeloablative allogeneic HCT is primarily associated with higher TRM and inferior survival.
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Sequential infusion of donor-derived dendritic cells with donor lymphocyte infusion for relapsed hematologic cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is often given to induce a graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, efficacy of DLI is limited in most hematologic cancers. As antigen presenting cells, dendritic cells (DC) bolster immune responses. We conducted a Phase I trial testing the coinfusion of DC followed by DLI. DC were generated by culturing peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HLA matched-related donors in GM-CSF and IL-4 for 7 days, followed by TNF-? for 3 days. DC were administered intravenously on 3 dose levels (5 × 10(6) ; 1 × 10(7) ; 5 × 10(7) cells). DLI (3 × 10(7) CD3+ cells/kg) was administered intravenously 1 day after the DC. Sixteen patients with hematologic cancers relapsed after HSCT were treated. A maximum tolerated dose for DC was not reached. Two of 16 patients met criteria for DLT within 10 weeks of the infusion: 1 idiopathic respiratory failure, 1 ventricular cardiac arrest. None developed grade III/IV GVHD. One patient developed grade II acute intestinal graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) and 1 chronic GVHD within 6 months of the infusion. Both resolved with corticosteroids. Four of 14 patients evaluable for disease response achieved durable remissions and are alive and cancer free 6.7, 8.4, 8.8, and 10.1 years from infusion. Sequential infusion of donor-derived DC with DLI is feasible in patients with relapsed hematologic cancers after allogeneic HSCT. Future studies may consider donor DC preloaded with tumor antigens to investigate whether DC infusion could augment the GVL effect. Am. J. Hematol. 89:1092-1096, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Phase I Trial of Maintenance Sorafenib after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase 3 Internal Tandem Duplication Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation is associated with a high relapse rate for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) even after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Sorafenib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which inhibits the FLT3 tyrosine kinase and has shown encouraging activity in FLT3-ITD AML. We conducted a phase I trial of maintenance sorafenib after HSCT in patients with FLT3-ITD AML (ClinicalTrials.govNCT01398501). Patients received a variety of conditioning regimens and graft sources. A dose escalation 3 + 3cohort design was used to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), with an additional 10 patients treated at the MTD. Sorafenib was initiated between days 45 and 120 after HSCT and continued for 12 28-day cycles. Twenty-two patients were enrolled (status at HSCT: first complete remission [CR1], n = 16; second complete remission [CR2], n = 3; refractory, n = 3). The MTD was established at 400 mg twice daily with 1 dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) observed (pericardial effusion). Two patients died of transplantation-related causes, both unrelated to sorafenib. Two patients stopped sorafenib after relapse and 5 stopped because of attributable toxicities after the DLT period. Median follow-up for surviving patients is 16.7 months after HSCT (range, 8.1 to 35.0). There was 1 case of grade II acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after starting sorafenib and the 12-month cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 38% (90% confidence interval [CI], 21% to 56%). For all patients, 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 85% (90% CI, 66% to 94%) and 1-year overall survival (OS) was 95% (90% CI, 79% to 99%) after HSCT. For patients in CR1/CR2 before HSCT (n = 19), 1-year PFS was 95% (90% CI, 76% to 99%) and 1-year OS was 100%, with only 1 patient who relapsed. Sorafenib is safe after HSCT for FLT3-ITD AML and merits further investigation for the prevention of relapse.
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Somatic mutations predict poor outcome in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Recurrently mutated genes in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are pathogenic drivers and powerfully associated with clinical phenotype and prognosis. Whether these types of mutations predict outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with MDS is not known.
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Outcomes and management strategies for graft failure after umbilical cord blood transplantation.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Graft failure is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Graft failure is more prevalent after umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) compared with conventional adult stem cell sources. We identified 21 consecutive patients who experienced graft failure after UCBT at our center between 2004 and 2013 and describe their treatment strategies and outcomes. Two patients experienced early death. Seven patients had return of autologous hematopoiesis including 1 patient who was given previously collected autologous stem cells. Twelve patients received a second early HSCT, six from separate UCB units and six from a haploidentical donor. With a median follow-up of 33.2 months for surviving patients, 3-year PFS is 23% and 3-year OS is 37%. Of the six long-term survivors without relapse, four received a second HSCT from a haploidentical donor with post-HSCT high-dose cyclophosphamide based GVHD prophylaxis. This strategy appears safe and merits further investigation in this setting. Am. J. Hematol. 89:1097-1101, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Tacrolimus/sirolimus vs tacrolimus/methotrexate as GVHD prophylaxis after matched, related donor allogeneic HCT.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Grades 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs in approximately 35% of matched, related donor (MRD) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. We sought to determine if the combination of tacrolimus and sirolimus (Tac/Sir) was more effective than tacrolimus and methotrexate (Tac/Mtx) in preventing acute GVHD and early mortality after allogeneic MRD HCT in a phase 3, multicenter trial. The primary end point of the trial was to compare 114-day grades 2-4 acute GVHD-free survival using an intention-to-treat analysis of 304 randomized subjects. There was no difference in the probability of day 114 grades 2-4 acute GVHD-free survival (67% vs 62%, P = .38). Grades 2-4 GVHD was similar in the Tac/Sir and Tac/Mtx arms (26% vs 34%, P = .48). Neutrophil and platelet engraftment were more rapid in the Tac/Sir arm (14 vs 16 days, P < .001; 16 vs 19 days, P = .03). Oropharyngeal mucositis was less severe in the Tac/Sir arm (peak Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale score 0.70 vs 0.96, P < .001), but otherwise toxicity was similar. Chronic GVHD, relapse-free survival, and overall survival at 2 years were no different between study arms (53% vs 45%, P = .06; 53% vs 54%, P = .77; and 59% vs 63%, P = .36). Based on similar long-term outcomes, more rapid engraftment, and less oropharyngeal mucositis, the combination of Tac/Sir is an acceptable alternative to Tac/Mtx after MRD HCT. This study was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Cancer Institute; and the trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00406393.
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Increased mitochondrial apoptotic priming of human regulatory T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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CD4 regulatory T cells play a critical role in establishment of immune tolerance and prevention of graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The recovery and maintenance of regulatory T cells is dependent on homeostatic factors including the generation of naïve regulatory T cells from hematopoietic precursor cells, the proliferation and expansion of mature regulatory T cells, and the survival of regulatory T cells in vivo. In this study, quantitation of mitochondrial apoptotic priming was used to compare susceptibility of regulatory T cells, conventional CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells to intrinsic pathway apoptosis in 57 patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and 25 healthy donors. In healthy donors, regulatory T cells are more susceptible to mitochondrial priming than conventional T cells. Mitochondrial priming is increased after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in all T-cell subsets and particularly in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease. Regulatory T cells express high levels of CD95 and are also more susceptible than conventional T cells to apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway. However, CD95 expression and extrinsic pathway apoptosis is not increased after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Decreased expression of BCL2 and increased expression of BIM, a mitochondrial cell death activator protein, in regulatory T cells contributes to increased mitochondrial priming in this T-cell subset but additional factors likely contribute to increased mitochondrial priming following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
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Increased T follicular helper cells and germinal center B cells are required for cGVHD and bronchiolitis obliterans.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Having shown that germinal center (GC) formation and immunoglobulin deposition are required for multiorgan system cGVHD and associated bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in a murine model, we hypothesized that T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are necessary for cGVHD by supporting GC formation and maintenance. We show that increased frequency of Tfh cells correlated with increased GC B cells, cGVHD, and BOS. Although administering a highly depletionary anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) to mice with established cGVHD resulted in peripheral B-cell depletion, B cells remained in the lung, and BOS was not reversed. BOS could be treated by eliminating production of interleukin-21 (IL-21) by donor T cells or IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) signaling of donor B cells. Development of BOS was dependent upon T cells expressing the chemokine receptor CXCR5 to facilitate T-cell trafficking to secondary lymphoid organ follicles. Blocking mAbs for IL-21/IL-21R, inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS)/ICOS ligand, and CD40L/CD40 hindered GC formation and cGVHD. These data provide novel insights into cGVHD pathogenesis, indicate a role for Tfh cells in these processes, and suggest a new line of therapy using mAbs targeting Tfh cells to reverse cGVHD.
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A Phase II Study of Bortezomib Plus Prednisone for Initial Therapy of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) induces significant morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Corticosteroids are standard initial therapy, despite limited efficacy and long-term toxicity. Based on our experience using bortezomib as effective acute GVHD prophylaxis, we hypothesized that proteasome-inhibition would complement the immunomodulatory effects of corticosteroids to improve outcomes in chronic GVHD (cGVHD). We undertook a single-arm phase II trial of bortezomib plus prednisone for initial therapy of cGVHD. Bortezomib was administered at 1.3 mg/m(2) i.v. on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of each 35-day cycle for 3 cycles (15 weeks). Prednisone was dosed at .5 to 1 mg/kg/day, with a suggested taper after cycle 1. All 22 enrolled participants were evaluable for toxicity; 20 were evaluable for response. Bortezomib plus prednisone therapy was well tolerated, with 1 occurrence of grade 3 sensory peripheral neuropathy possibly related to bortezomib. The overall response rate at week 15 in evaluable participants was 80%, including 2 (10%) complete and 14 (70%) partial responses. The organ-specific complete response rate was 73% for skin, 53% for liver, 75% for gastrointestinal tract, and 33% for joint, muscle, or fascia involvement. The median prednisone dose decreased from 50 mg/day to 20 mg/day at week 15 (P < .001). The combination of bortezomib and prednisone for initial treatment of cGVHD is feasible and well tolerated. We observed a high response rate to combined bortezomib and prednisone therapy; however, in this single-arm study, we could not directly measure the impact of bortezomib. Proteasome inhibition may offer benefit in the treatment of cGVHD and should be further evaluated.
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Peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilization for autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: guidelines from the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilization practices vary significantly among institutions. Effective mobilization regimens include growth factor alone, chemotherapy and growth factor combined, and, more recently, incorporation of plerixafor with either approach. Many institutions have developed algorithms to improve stem cell mobilization success rates and cost-effectiveness. However, an optimal stem cell mobilization regimen has not been defined. Practical guidelines are needed to address important clinical questions, including which growth factor is optimal, what chemotherapy and dose is most effective, and when to initiate leukapheresis. We present recommendations, based on a comprehensive review of the literature, from the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
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Assessment of joint and fascia manifestations in chronic graft-versus-host disease.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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To investigate the usefulness of various scales for evaluating joint and fascia manifestations in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, and to compare the scales in terms of simplicity of use and ability to yield reliable and clinically meaningful results.
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Donor chimerism early after reduced-intensity conditioning hematopoietic stem cell transplantation predicts relapse and survival.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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The impact of early donor cell chimerism on outcomes of T cell-replete reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is ill defined. We evaluated day 30 (D30) and 100 (D100) total donor cell chimerism after RIC HSCT undertaken between 2002 and 2010 at our institution, excluding patients who died or relapsed before D30. When available, donor T cell chimerism was also assessed. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS), relapse, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). We evaluated 688 patients with hematologic malignancies (48% myeloid and 52% lymphoid) and a median age of 57 years (range, 18 to 74) undergoing RIC HSCT with T cell-replete donor grafts (97% peripheral blood; 92% HLA-matched), with a median follow-up of 58.2 months (range, 12.6 to 120.7). In multivariable analysis, total donor cell and T cell chimerism at D30 and D100 each predicted RIC HSCT outcomes, with D100 total donor cell chimerism most predictive. D100 total donor cell chimerism <90% was associated with increased relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83 to 3.51; P < .0001), impaired PFS (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.53 to 2.65; P < .0001), and worse OS (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.04, P = .009), but not with NRM (HR, .76; 95% CI, .44 to 2.27; P = .33). There was no additional utility of incorporating sustained D30 to D100 total donor cell chimerism or T cell chimerism. Low donor chimerism early after RIC HSCT is an independent risk factor for relapse and impaired survival. Donor chimerism assessment early after RIC HSCT can prognosticate for long-term outcomes and help identify high-risk patient cohorts who may benefit from additional therapeutic interventions.
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Multicenter biologic assignment trial comparing reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant to hypomethylating therapy or best supportive care in patients aged 50 to 75 with intermediate-2 and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: Blood and Marrow Transplan
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The introduction of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens made it possible to offer allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) to older patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, the relative risks and benefits of alloHCT compared with novel nontransplant therapies continue to be the source of considerable uncertainty. We will perform a prospective biologic assignment trial to compare RIC alloHCT with nontransplant therapies based on donor availability. Primary outcome is 3-year overall survival. Secondary outcomes include leukemia-free survival, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Four hundred patients will be enrolled over roughly 3 years. Planned subgroup analyses will evaluate key biologic questions, such as the impact of age and response to hypomethylating agents on treatment effects. Findings from this study potentially may set a new standard of care for older MDS patients who are considered candidates for alloHCT.
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Impact of age on quality of life, functional status, and survival in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Although older patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) may experience higher morbidity, the impact of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) on quality of life (QOL) and survival outcomes for older compared with younger patients is currently unknown. We utilized data of patients with moderate or severe chronic GVHD (N = 522, 1661 follow-up visits, a total of 2183 visits) from the Chronic GVHD Consortium, a prospective observational multicenter cohort. We examined the relationship between age group (adolescent and young adult, "AYA," 18 to 40 years; "middle-aged," 41 to 59 years; and "older," ? 60 years) and QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplantation [FACT-BMT]), physical functioning (Human Activity Profile [HAP]), functional status (2-minute walk test [2MWT]), nonrelapse mortality, and overall survival. Because of multiple testing, P values < .01 were considered significant. This study included 115 (22%) AYA, 279 (53%) middle-aged, and 128 (25%) older patients with moderate (58%) or severe (42%) chronic GVHD. Despite more physical limitations in older patients as measured by worse functional status (shorter 2MWT [P < .001] and lower HAP scores [P < .001]) relative to AYA and middle-aged patients, older patients reported better QOL (FACT-BMT, P = .004) compared with middle-aged patients and similar to AYA patients (P = .99). Nonrelapse mortality and overall survival were similar between the age groups. Therefore, despite higher physical and functional limitations, older patients who are selected to undergo HSCT and survive long enough to develop moderate or severe chronic GVHD have preserved QOL and similar overall survival and nonrelapse mortality when compared with younger patients. Therefore, we did not find evidence that older age is associated with worse outcomes in patients with moderate or severe chronic GVHD.
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White blood cell recovery after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation predicts clinical outcome.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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To determine whether outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) could be estimated by using peripheral white blood cell count (WBC) as a metric that integrates several aspects of HCT recovery, we conducted a retrospective study of 1,109 adult patients who underwent first allogeneic HCT from 2003 through 2009. WBC at 1-3 months after HCT was categorized as low (<2), normal (2-10), and high (>10 × 10(9) cells/L). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were lower for patients with low or high WBC at 1-3 months after HCT (P < 0.0001). We developed a predictive three-group risk model based on the pattern of WBC recovery early after HCT. Five-year OS was 47, 30, and 15% (P < 0.0001) and 5-year PFS was 39, 22, and 14% for patients in the three different risk groups (P < 0.0001). The pattern of WBC recovery early after HCT provides prognostic information for relapse, nonrelapse mortality, progression-free survival, and overall survival. A scoring system based on the trajectory of the WBC in the first 3 months after HCT can effectively stratify patients into three groups with different PFS and OS. If validated, this system could be useful in the clinical management of patients after HCT, and to stratify patients enrolled on HCT clinical trials.
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Ibrutinib treatment ameliorates murine chronic graft-versus-host disease.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a life-threatening impediment to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and current therapies do not completely prevent and/or treat cGVHD. CD4+ T cells and B cells mediate cGVHD; therefore, targeting these populations may inhibit cGVHD pathogenesis. Ibrutinib is an FDA-approved irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and IL-2 inducible T cell kinase (ITK) that targets Th2 cells and B cells and produces durable remissions in B cell malignancies with minimal toxicity. Here, we evaluated whether ibrutinib could reverse established cGVHD in 2 complementary murine models, a model interrogating T cell-driven sclerodermatous cGVHD and an alloantibody-driven multiorgan system cGVHD model that induces bronchiolar obliterans (BO). In the T cell-mediated sclerodermatous cGVHD model, ibrutinib treatment delayed progression, improved survival, and ameliorated clinical and pathological manifestations. In the alloantibody-driven cGVHD model, ibrutinib treatment restored pulmonary function and reduced germinal center reactions and tissue immunoglobulin deposition. Animals lacking BTK and ITK did not develop cGVHD, indicating that these molecules are critical to cGVHD development. Furthermore, ibrutinib treatment reduced activation of T and B cells from patients with active cGVHD. Our data demonstrate that B cells and T cells drive cGVHD and suggest that ibrutinib has potential as a therapeutic agent, warranting consideration for cGVHD clinical trials.
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Post-transplantation B cell activating factor and B cell recovery before onset of chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Excessive levels of B cell activating factor (BAFF) are found in patients with active chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). In mice, BAFF has been shown to be essential for B cell recovery after myeloablation. To assess how BAFF levels relate to transplantation factors and subsequent development of cGVHD, we prospectively monitored 412 patients in the first year after allogeneic peripheral blood or bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and censored data at time of cGVHD onset. In patients who did not develop cGVHD, we affirmed a temporal pattern of gradually decreasing BAFF levels as B cell numbers increase after myeloablative conditioning. In contrast, after reduced-intensity conditioning, BAFF levels remained high throughout the first post-HSCT year, suggesting that the degree of myeloablation resulted in delayed B cell recovery associated with persistence of higher BAFF levels. Given that high BAFF/B cell ratios have been associated with active cGVHD, we examined differences in early BAFF/B cell ratios and found significantly different BAFF/B cell ratios at 3 months post-HSCT only after myeloablative conditioning in patients who subsequently developed cGVHD. In addition to HSCT conditioning type, the use of sirolimus was significantly associated with higher BAFF levels after HSCT, and this also was potentially related to lower B cell numbers. Taken together, our results are important for interpreting BAFF measurements in cGVHD biomarker studies.
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How we treat higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are defined as patients who fall into higher risk group categories in the original or revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS). Survival for these patients is dismal, and treatment should be initiated rapidly. Standard therapies include the hypomethylating agents azacitidine and decitabine, which should be administered for a minimum of 6 cycles, and continued for as long as a patient is responding. Once a patient fails one of these drugs, options are limited, median survival is less than 6 months, and consideration should be given to clinical trials. Higher-risk eligible patients should be offered consultation to discuss hematopoietic stem cell transplantation close to the time of diagnosis, depending on patient goals of therapy, with consideration given to proceeding to transplantation soon after an optimal donor is located. In the interim prior to transplantation, hypomethylating agent therapy, induction chemotherapy or a clinical trial should be considered to prevent disease progression, although the optimal pre-transplantation therapy is unknown.
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Pulmonary Symptoms Measured by the National Institutes of Health Lung Score Predict Overall Survival, Nonrelapse Mortality, and Patient-Reported Outcomes In Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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The 2005 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference recommended assessment of lung function in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by both pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and assessment of pulmonary symptoms. We tested whether pulmonary measures were associated with nonrelapse mortality (NRM), overall survival (OS), and patient-reported outcomes (PRO). Clinician and patient-reported data were collected serially in a prospective, multicenter, observational study. Available PFT data were abstracted. Cox regression models were fit for outcomes using a time-varying covariate model for lung function measures and adjusting for patient and transplantation characteristics and nonlung chronic GVHD severity. A total of 1591 visits (496 patients) were used in this analysis. The NIH symptom-based lung score was associated with NRM (P = .02), OS (P = .02), patient-reported symptoms (P < .001) and functional status (P < .001). Worsening of NIH symptom-based lung score over time was associated with higher NRM and lower survival. All other measures were not associated with OS or NRM; although, some were associated with patient-reported lung symptoms. In conclusion, the NIH symptom-based lung symptom score of 0 to 3 is associated with NRM, OS, and PRO measures in patients with chronic GVHD. Worsening of the NIH symptom-based lung score was associated with increased mortality.
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Prostaglandin-modulated umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a valuable source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for use in allogeneic transplantation. Key advantages of UCB are rapid availability and less stringent requirements for HLA matching. However, UCB contains an inherently limited HSC count, which is associated with delayed time to engraftment, high graft failure rates, and early mortality. 16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2) was previously identified to be a critical regulator of HSC homeostasis, and we hypothesized that brief ex vivo modulation with dmPGE2 could improve patient outcomes by increasing the "effective dose" of HSCs. Molecular profiling approaches were used to determine the optimal ex vivo modulation conditions (temperature, time, concentration, and media) for use in the clinical setting. A phase 1 trial was performed to evaluate the safety and therapeutic potential of ex vivo modulation of a single UCB unit using dmPGE2 before reduced-intensity, double UCB transplantation. Results from this study demonstrated clear safety with durable, multilineage engraftment of dmPGE2-treated UCB units. We observed encouraging trends in efficacy, with accelerated neutrophil recovery (17.5 vs 21 days, P = .045), coupled with preferential, long-term engraftment of the dmPGE2-treated UCB unit in 10 of 12 treated participants.
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Effect of Postremission Therapy before Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Allogeneic Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Complete Remission.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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The impact of pretransplant (hematopoietic cell transplantation [HCT]) cytarabine consolidation therapy on post-HCT outcomes has yet to be evaluated after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning. We analyzed 604 adults with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission (CR1) reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research who received a reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning HCT from an HLA-identical sibling, HLA-matched unrelated donor, or umbilical cord blood donor from 2000 to 2010. We compared transplant outcomes based on exposure to cytarabine postremission consolidation. Three-year survival rates were 36% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29% to 43%) in the no consolidation arm and 42% (95% CI, 37% to 47%) in the cytarabine consolidation arm (P = .16). Disease-free survival was 34% (95% CI, 27% to 41%) and 41% (95% CI, 35% to 46%; P = .15), respectively. Three-year cumulative incidences of relapse were 37% (95% CI, 30% to 44%) and 38% (95% CI, 33% to 43%), respectively (P = .80). Multivariate regression confirmed no effect of consolidation on relapse, disease-free survival, and survival. Before reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning HCT, these data suggest pre-HCT consolidation cytarabine does not significantly alter outcomes and support prompt transition to transplant as soon as morphologic CR1 is attained. If HCT is delayed while identifying a donor, our data suggest that consolidation does not increase transplant treatment-related mortality and is reasonable if required.
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Rituximab prophylaxis prevents corticosteroid-requiring chronic GVHD after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: results of a phase 2 trial.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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B cells are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic graft-vs-host disease (GVHD), and phase 2 trials suggest that B cell depletion can treat established chronic GVHD. We hypothesized that posttransplantation B cell depletion could prevent the occurrence of chronic GVHD. We performed a 65-patient phase 2 trial of rituximab (375 mg/m(2) IV), administered at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after transplantation. Rituximab administration was safe without severe infusional adverse events. The cumulative incidences of chronic GVHD and systemic corticosteroid-requiring chronic GVHD at 2 years from transplantation were 48% and 31%, respectively, both lower than the corresponding rates in a concurrent control cohort (60%, P = .1, and 48.5%, P = .015). There was no difference in relapse incidence, but treatment-related mortality at 4 years from transplantation was significantly lower in treated subjects when compared with controls (5% vs 19%, P = .02), and overall survival was superior at 4 years (71% vs 56%, P = .05). At 2 years from transplantation, the B-cell activating factor/B-cell ratio was significantly higher in subjects who developed chronic GVHD in comparison with those without chronic GVHD (P = .039). Rituximab can prevent systemic corticosteroid-requiring chronic GVHD after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and should be tested in a prospective randomized trial.
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Impact of donor source on hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched related donor (MRD) and matched unrelated donors (MUD) produces similar survival for patients with acute myelogenous leukemia. Whether these results can be extended to patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is unknown. Therefore, analysis of post-HCT outcomes for MDS was performed. Outcomes of 701 adult MDS patients who underwent HCT between 2002 and 2006 were analyzed (MRD [n = 176], 8 of 8 HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 allele matched MUD [n = 413], 7 of 8 MUD [ n = 112]). Median age was 53 years (range, 22-78 years). In multivariate analyses, MRD HCT recipients had similar disease free survival (DFS) and survival rates compared with 8 of 8 MUD HCT recipients (relative risk [RR] 1.13 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.42] and 1.24 [95% CI 0.98-1.56], respectively), and both MRD and 8 of 8 MUD had superior DFS (RR 1.47 [95% CI 1.10-1.96] and 1.29 [95% CI 1.00-1.66], respectively) and survival (RR 1.62 [95% CI 1.21-2.17] and 1.30 [95% CI 1.01-1.68], respectively) compared with 7 of 8 MUD HCT recipients. In patients with MDS, MRD remains the best stem cell source followed by 8 of 8 MUD. Transplantation from 7 of 8 MUD is associated with significantly poorer outcomes.
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Providing personalized prognostic information for adult leukemia survivors.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Prediction of subsequent leukemia-free survival (LFS) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in adults with acute leukemia who survived at least 1 year after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is difficult. We analyzed 3339 patients with acute myeloid leukemia and 1434 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who received myeloablative conditioning and related or unrelated stem cells from 1990 to 2005. Most clinical factors predictive of LFS in 1-year survivors were no longer significant after 2 or more years. For acute myeloid leukemia, only disease status (beyond first complete remission) remained a significant adverse risk factor for LFS 2 or more years after transplantation. For lymphoblastic leukemia, only extensive chronic GVHD remained a significant adverse predictor of LFS in the second and subsequent years. For patients surviving for 1 year without disease relapse or extensive chronic GVHD, the risk of developing extensive chronic GVHD in the next year was 4% if no risk factors were present and higher if noncyclosporine-based GVHD prophylaxis, an HLA-mismatched donor, or peripheral blood stem cells were used. Estimates for subsequent LFS and extensive chronic GVHD can be derived for individual patients or populations using an online calculator (http://www.cibmtr.org/LeukemiaCalculators). This prognostic information is more relevant for survivors than estimates provided before transplantation.
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Outcome and prognostic factors for patients who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Disease relapse remains a major obstacle to the success of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), yet little is known about the relevant prognostic factors after relapse. We studied 1080 patients transplanted between 2004 and 2008, among whom 351 relapsed. The 3-year postrelapse overall survival (prOS) rate was 19%. Risk factors for mortality after relapse included shorter time to relapse, higher disease risk index at HSCT, myeloablative conditioning, high pretransplantation comorbidity index, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurring before relapse. Important prognostic factors did not vary by disease type. Based on this, we could stratify patients into 3 groups, with 3-year prOS rates of 36%, 14%, and 3% (P < .0001). This score was validated in an historical cohort of 276 patients. Postrelapse donor lymphocyte infusion or repeat HSCT was associated with improved prOS, as was the development of GVHD after relapse. These differences remained significant in models that accounted for other prognostic factors and in landmark analyses of patients who survived at least 2 months from relapse. The results of this study may aid with prognostication and management of patients who relapse after HSCT and motivate the design of clinical trials aimed at relapse prevention or treatment in higher-risk patients.
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Role of reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in older patients with de novo myelodysplastic syndromes: an international collaborative decision analysis.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal hematopoietic disorders that are more common in patients aged ? 60 years and are incurable with conventional therapies. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is potentially curative but has additional mortality risk. We evaluated RIC transplantation versus nontransplantation therapies in older patients with MDS stratified by International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) risk.
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Outcomes in patients age 70 or older undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can achieve durable remissions in a number of patients with advanced hematologic malignancies. Little is known about the safety of HSCT in patients age 70 or older. Consecutive patients (n = 54) age 70 or older underwent HSCT between 2007 and 2012. Diseases included acute myelogenous leukemia (n = 25), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 12), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 5), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 4), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 3), myeloproliferative neoplasm (n = 4), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (n = 1). Median follow-up for survivors was 21 months. All patients received reduced-intensity conditioning regimens, primarily busulfan/fludarabine. All patients received unmanipulated peripheral blood stem cell grafts: 44 from 8/8 matched unrelated donors, 8 from matched related donors, and 2 from 7/8 matched unrelated donors. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was calcineurin inhibitor-based in all patients. The median age at transplantation was 71 years (range, 70 to 76); the median HCT comorbidity index score was 1 (range, 0 to 5). Two patients died before hematopoietic recovery (1 with graft failure and 1 with disease progression), and 1 patient relapsed before hematopoietic recovery; otherwise, all engrafted with median donor chimerism of 94% at 1 month. Cumulative incidence of grades II to IV acute GVHD was 13% and of grades III to IV acute GVHD, 9.3%. At 2 years, the cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 36%, progression-free survival was 39%, overall survival was 39%, and relapse was 56%. Nonrelapse mortality was 3.7% at day +100 and 5.6% at 2 years. We conclude that allogeneic HSCT is a safe and effective option for carefully selected patients age 70 or older.
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Low-dose interleukin-2 therapy restores regulatory T cell homeostasis in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a central role in the maintenance of immune tolerance after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We recently reported that daily administration of low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) induces selective expansion of functional Tregs and clinical improvement of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). To define the mechanisms of action of IL-2 therapy, we examined the immunologic effects of this treatment on homeostasis of CD4(+) T cell subsets after transplant. We first demonstrated that chronic GVHD is characterized by constitutive phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat5) in conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tcons) associated with elevated amounts of IL-7 and IL-15 and relative functional deficiency of IL-2. IL-2 therapy resulted in the selective increase of Stat5 phosphorylation in Tregs and a decrease of phosphorylated Stat5 in Tcons. Over an 8-week period, IL-2 therapy induced a series of changes in Treg homeostasis, including increased proliferation, increased thymic export, and enhanced resistance to apoptosis. Low-dose IL-2 had minimal effects on Tcons. These findings define the mechanisms whereby low-dose IL-2 therapy restores the homeostasis of CD4(+) T cell subsets and promotes the reestablishment of immune tolerance.
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Hand grip strength and 2-minute walk test in chronic graft-versus-host disease assessment: analysis from the Chronic GVHD Consortium.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Hand grip strength (HGS) and the 2-minute walk test (2MWT) have been proposed as elements of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) assessment in clinical trials. Using all available data (n = 584 enrollment visits, 1689 follow-up visits, total of 2273 visits) from a prospective observational cohort study, we explored the relationship between HGS and 2MWT and patient-reported measures (Lee symptom scale, MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36], and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy [FACT]-Bone Marrow Transplantation quality of life instruments and Human Activity Profile [HAP]), chronic GVHD global severity (National Institutes of Health global score, clinician global score, and patient-reported global score), calculated and clinician-reported chronic GVHD response, and mortality (overall survival, nonrelapse mortality, and failure-free survival) in multivariable analyses adjusted for significant covariates. 2MWT was significantly associated with intuitive domains of the Lee Symptom Scale (overall, skin, lung, energy), SF-36 domain and summary scores, FACT summary and domain scores, and HAP scores (all P < .001). Fewer associations were detected with the HGS. The 2MWT and HGS both had significant association with global chronic GVHD severity. In multivariable analysis, 2MWT was significantly associated with overall survival, nonrelapse mortality, and failure-free survival, whereas no association was found for HGS. 2MWT and HGS were not sensitive to National Institutes of Health or clinician-reported response. Based on independent association with mortality, these data support the importance of the 2MWT for identification of high-risk chronic GVHD patients. However, change in 2MWT is not sensitive to chronic GVHD response, limiting its usefulness in clinical trials.
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Busulfan dose intensity and outcomes in reduced-intensity allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Comparisons of myeloablative conditioning versus reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) have demonstrated a tradeoff between relapse and toxicity. Dose intensity across RIC regimens vary and may affect treatment outcomes. In this retrospective analysis, we investigated the effect of i.v. busulfan dosing (total dose 3.2 mg/kg versus 6.4 mg/kg) in RIC regimens that combined fludarabine and busulfan on outcomes in patients who were undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A total of 217 consecutive patients with MDS or AML underwent first busulfan and fludarabine RIC peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from well-matched related or unrelated donors at our institutions between 2004 and 2009. Of the 217 patients, 135 patients received Bu1 (3.2 mg/kg of busulfan) and 82 patients received Bu2 (6.4 mg/kg of busulfan), both with daily fludarabine (30 mg/m(2)/day for 4 days). The choice of RIC regimen was based on temporal institutional standard, enrollment on protocols, and physician choice. Patients had similar characteristics with a few notable differences: Patients who received Bu1 were younger (median age 61 versus 64 years, P < . 001), received more single-antigen mismatched unrelated grafts (14.1% versus 1.2%, P < . 001), received more sirolimus-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimens (63% versus 45%, P < .0001), received less antithymocyte globulin for GVHD prophylaxis (0% versus 22%, P < .001), and had less enrollment on a clinical trial that used prophylactic rituximab for the prevention of chronic GVHD (2.2% versus 11.0%, P = .011). Clinical disease status was similar between the groups. Median follow-up for survivors was 4.4 years for Bu1 and 3.2 years for Bu2. Because of the differences in characteristics, the 2 groups were compared with the adjustment of a propensity score that predicted Bu2 to account for measured differences. The day +200 cumulative incidence rates of grades II to IV acute GVHD (Bu1, 17%, versus Bu2, 8.5%; hazard ratio [HR], .56; 95% confidence interval [CI], .22 to 1.41; P = .22) or grades III to IV acute GVHD (Bu1, 6.7%, versus Bu2, 4.9%) were not different. The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was not significantly different between Bu1 and Bu2 (41.5% versus 28%, respectively; HR, .70; CI, .42 to 1.17; P = .09). Two-year nonrelapse mortality rates were similar for Bu1 and Bu2 (8.9% versus 9.8%, respectively; HR, .80; CI, .29 to 2.21; P = .67). Two-year progression-free survival and overall survival were also similar between Bu1 and Bu2 (progression-free survival: 40.6% versus 39.3%, respectively; HR, .82; CI, .57 to 1.30; P = .33; and overall survival: 47.4% versus 48.8%, respectively; HR, .96; CI, .64 to 1.44; P = .85). Subset analysis defined by clinical disease and cytogenetic risk with the propensity risk score applied suggest that in patients with high clinical disease risk and nonadverse cytogenetics, the higher dose busulfan RIC regimen may be of marginal benefit (2-year progression-free survival: HR, .54; CI, .29 to 1.03; P = .062). For the majority of patients with MDS or AML undergoing busulfan and fludarabine RIC peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, however, the dose of busulfan (3.2 mg/kg versus 6.4 mg/kg) is not associated with significant differences in overall outcomes.
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Phase I study of alemtuzumab for therapy of steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2013
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Steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) carries a poor prognosis with no agreed upon algorithm for treatment. Because both B and T cells contribute to the pathophysiology of cGVHD, we conducted a phase I study in subjects with steroid-refractory cGVHD using the anti-CD52 antibody alemtuzumab to transiently deplete most mononuclear subsets. Three regimens were investigated in a 3+3 dose-escalation design: 3 mg × 6 (dose level 1), 3 mg × 1, then 10 mg × 5 (dose level 2) and 3 mg × 1, 10 mg × 1, then 30 mg × 4 (dose level 3) administered over 4 weeks. The maximum tolerated dose of alemtuzumab was dose level 2. Thirteen patients were assessable for toxicities, which were primarily infectious and hematologic. Rates of infectious complications in the first 12 weeks were 0% at dose level 1 (n = 3), 50% at dose level 2 (1 death, n = 6), and 75% at dose level 3 (2 deaths, n = 4). Of 10 patients assessable for response, 7 (70%) responded at 12 weeks, with a 30% complete response rate. Four subjects reduced steroid dose or discontinued an immunosuppressant at 12 weeks. The median decrease in steroid dose at 1 year was 61.6%. Infectious complications occurred predominantly in the first 3 months after therapy, but full B and T cell recovery took well over 12 months. Immunophenotypic profiling revealed early recovery by natural killer cells and relative sparing of CD4+ and CD8+ central memory T cell subsets. Our study indicates that therapy with alemtuzumab for steroid-refractory cGVHD is tolerable with close attention to dosing and may be active in subjects who have failed multiple therapies. The pattern of lymphocyte recovery after alemtuzumab will inform the biology and future therapy of cGVHD. The use of alemtuzumab in the context of therapy for cGVHD deserves study in larger phase II trials.
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Autologous CLL cell vaccination early after transplant induces leukemia-specific T cells.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Patients with advanced hematologic malignancies remain at risk for relapse following reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We conducted a prospective clinical trial to test whether vaccination with whole leukemia cells early after transplantation facilitates the expansion of leukemia-reactive T cells and thereby enhances antitumor immunity.
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Analysis of gastrointestinal and hepatic chronic grant-versus-host disease manifestations on major outcomes: a chronic grant-versus-host disease consortium study.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Although data support adverse prognosis of overlap subtype of chronic grant-versus-host disease (GVHD), the importance of site of gastrointestinal (GI) and type of hepatic involvement is not known. Using data from the Chronic GVHD Consortium observational cohort study (N = 567, total of 2115 visits), we examined whether the site of GI (esophageal, upper GI, or lower GI) and type of hepatic (bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase) involvement are associated with overall survival (OS) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM), symptoms, quality of life (QOL) and functional status measures. In multivariate analysis utilizing data from enrollment visits only, lower GI involvement (HR, 1.67; P = .05) and elevated bilirubin (HR, 2.46; P = .001) were associated with OS; both were also associated with NRM. In multivariable analysis using all visits (time-dependent covariates), GI score greater than zero (HR, 1.69; P = .02) and elevated bilirubin (HR, 3.73; P < .001) were associated with OS; results were similar for NRM. Any esophageal involvement and GI score greater than zero were associated with both symptoms and QOL, whereas elevated bilirubin was associated with QOL. We found no consistent evidence that upper GI involvement, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, or NIH liver score add prognostic value for survival, overall symptom burden, or QOL. These data support important differences in patient-reported outcomes according to GI and hepatic involvement among chronic GVHD-affected patients and identify those with elevated bilirubin or higher GI score at any time, or lower GI involvement at cohort enrollment, as patients at greater risk for mortality under current treatment approaches.
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Interleukin-2 and regulatory T cells in graft-versus-host disease.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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Dysfunction of regulatory T (Treg) cells has been detected in diverse inflammatory disorders, including chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Interleukin-2 is critical for Treg cell growth, survival, and activity. We hypothesized that low-dose interleukin-2 could preferentially enhance Treg cells in vivo and suppress clinical manifestations of chronic GVHD.
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Overlap subtype of chronic graft-versus-host disease is associated with an adverse prognosis, functional impairment, and inferior patient-reported outcomes: a Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Consortium study.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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The National Institutes of Health Consensus Conference proposed the term "overlap" graft-versus-host disease to describe the situation when both acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease are present.
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Risk factors for acute GVHD and survival after hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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Risk factors for acute GVHD (AGVHD), overall survival, and transplant-related mortality were evaluated in adults receiving allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants (1999-2005) from HLA-identical sibling donors (SDs; n = 3191) or unrelated donors (URDs; n = 2370) and reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Minneapolis, MN. To understand the impact of transplant regimen on AGVHD risk, 6 treatment categories were evaluated: (1) myeloablative conditioning (MA) with total body irradiation (TBI) + PBSCs, (2) MA + TBI + BM, (3) MA + nonTBI + PBSCs, (4) MA + nonTBI + BM, (5) reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) + PBSCs, and (6) RIC + BM. The cumulative incidences of grades B-D AGVHD were 39% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37%-41%) in the SD cohort and 59% (95% CI, 57%-61%) in the URD cohort. Patients receiving SD transplants with MA + nonTBI + BM and RIC + PBSCs had significantly lower risks of grades B-D AGVHD than patients in other treatment categories. Those receiving URD transplants with MA + TBI + BM, MA + nonTBI + BM, RIC + BM, or RIC + PBSCs had lower risks of grades B-D AGVHD than those in other treatment categories. The 5-year probabilities of survival were 46% (95% CI, 44%-49%) with SD transplants and 33% (95% CI, 31%-35%) with URD transplants. Conditioning intensity, TBI and graft source have a combined effect on risk of AGVHD that must be considered in deciding on a treatment strategy for individual patients.
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Donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies predict outcome in double umbilical cord blood transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Using a uniform detection method for donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs), we sought to determine the effect of preformed DSAs on outcomes in double umbilical cord blood transplantation. DSAs were associated with an increased incidence of graft failure (5.5% vs 18.2% vs 57.1% for none, single, or dual DSA positivity; P = .0001), prolongation of the time to neutrophil engraftment (21 vs 29 days for none vs any DSA; P = .04), and excess 100-day mortality or relapse (23.6% vs 36.4% vs 71.4% for none, single, or dual DSA positivity; P = .01). The intensity of DSA reactivity was correlated with graft failure (median of mean fluorescent intensity 17 650 vs 1 850; P = .039). There was inferior long-term progression-free and overall survival when comparing patients with DSAs against both umbilical cord blood units to those without DSAs (3-year progression-free survival, 0% vs 33.5%, P = .004; 3-year overall survival 0% vs 45.0%, P = .04). We conclude that identification of preformed DSAs in umbilical cord blood recipients should be performed and that the use of umbilical cord blood units where preformed host DSAs exist should be avoided.
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Low telomerase activity in CD4+ regulatory T cells in patients with severe chronic GVHD after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in the control of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). In this study, we examined telomere length and telomerase activity of Treg and conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tcon) in 61 patients who survived more than 2 years after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Cell proliferation and expression of Bcl-2 were also measured in each subset. Treg telomere length was shorter and Treg telomerase activity was increased compared with Tcon (P < .0001). After transplantation, Treg were also more highly proliferative than Tcon (P < .0001). Treg number, telomerase activity, and expression of Bcl-2 were each inversely associated with severity of cGVHD. These data indicate that activation of telomerase is not sufficient to prevent telomere shortening in highly proliferative Treg. However, telomerase activation is associated with increased Bcl-2 expression and higher Treg numbers in patients with no or mild cGVHD. In contrast, patients with moderate or severe cGVHD have fewer Treg with lower levels of telomerase activity and Bcl-2 expression. These results suggest that failure to activate Treg telomerase may restrict proliferative capacity and increase apoptotic susceptibility, resulting in the loss of peripheral tolerance and the development of cGVHD.
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Cord colitis syndrome in cord-blood stem-cell transplantation.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
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Diarrhea is a frequent complication of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Important causes of diarrhea after HSCT include acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), infections, and medications. After the transplantation and engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells from umbilical-cord blood, we observed a new syndrome of culture-negative, antibiotic-responsive diarrhea not attributable to any known cause.
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Risk factors associated with increased nonrelapse mortality and with poor overall survival in children with chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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There is a paucity of information regarding the factors that affect nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival among children that develop chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). We performed multivariate analyses using data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to identify risk factors for NRM and survival in 1117 pediatric subjects with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, transplanted from related donors, unrelated donors (URD), or unrelated cord blood between 1995 and 2004. We identified 4 variables associated with higher NRM: HLA partially matched or mismatched URD, peripheral blood cell graft, Karnofsky/Lansky score < 80 at cGVHD diagnosis, and platelets < 100 × 10(9)/L at cGVHD diagnosis. Factors associated with significantly worse survival were: age > 10 years, transplantation from HLA partially matched or mismatched URD, advanced disease at transplantation, Karnofsky/Lansky < 80; and platelets < 100 × 10(9)/L. Cumulative incidence of discontinuation of systemic immune suppression at 1, 3, and 5 years after diagnosis of cGVHD were 22% (20%-25%), 34% (31%-37%), and 37% (34%-40%), respectively. This is the largest study elucidating variables affecting outcome after diagnosis of cGVHD in pediatric allograft recipients. These variables may be useful for risk stratification, development of future clinical trials, and family counseling in children with cGVHD.
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Immune reconstitution after double umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation: comparison with unrelated peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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Double umbilical cord blood (DUCB) transplantation is an accepted transplantation strategy for patients without suitable human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched donors. However, DUCB transplantation is associated with increased morbidity and mortality because of slow recovery of immunity and a high risk of infection. To define the differences in immune reconstitution between DUCB transplantation and HLA matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation, we performed a detailed, prospective analysis of immune reconstitution in 42 DUCB recipients and 102 filgrastim-mobilized unrelated peripheral blood stem cell recipients. Reconstitution of CD3 T cells was significantly delayed in the DUCB cohort compared with the MUD cohort for 1 to 6 months posttransplantation (P < .001), including naive (CD45RO-) and memory (CD45RO+) CD4 T cells, regulatory (CD4CD25) T cells, and CD8 T cells. In contrast, CD19 B cells recovered more rapidly in the DUCB cohort and numbers remained significantly greater from 3 to 24 months after transplantation (P = .001). CD56CD16 natural killer (NK) cells also recovered more rapidly in DUCB recipients and remained significantly greater from 1 to 24 months after transplantation. B cell activating factor (BAFF) levels were higher in the DUCB cohort at 1 month (P < .001), were similar in both cohorts at 3 and 6 months, and were lower in the DUCB cohort at 12 months (P = .002). BAFF/CD19 B cell ratios were lower in the DUCB cohort at 3 (P = .045), 6 (P = .02), and 12 months (P = .002) after transplantation. DUCB recipients had more infections within the first 100 days after transplantation (P < .001), and there was less chronic graft-versus-host disease (P < .001), but there were no differences in cumulative incidence of relapse, nonrelapse death, progression-free survival, or overall survival between the 2 groups. These results suggest that increased risk of infections is specifically associated with delayed reconstitution of all major T cell subsets, but the increased risk is limited to the first 3 months after DUCB transplantation. There is no increased risk of relapse, suggesting that graft-versus-leukemia activity is maintained. Early reconstitution of B cells and NK cells may, in part, account for these findings.
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Reduced-intensity conditioning stem cell transplantation: comparison of double umbilical cord blood and unrelated donor grafts.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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There are little data comparing umbilical cord blood (UBC) and conventional stem cell sources for reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We performed a retrospective analysis of RIC HCST using double UCB (dUCB) grafts and RIC HSCT using unrelated donor (URD) grafts. The study included 64 dUCB transplantations and 221 URD transplantations performed at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital between 2004 and 2008. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 14.1% for dUCB and 20.3% for URD (P = .32). The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was significantly lower in dUCB compared with URD (21.9% versus 53.9%; P < .0001). The 2-year cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was significantly higher in dUCB (26.9% versus 10.4%; P = .0009). In our analysis, dUCB HSCT and URD HSCT had comparable 3-year overall survival (46% in dUCB and 50% in URD; P = .49) and progression-free survival (30% in dUCB and 40% in URD; P = .47). dUCBT was associated with greater nonrelapse mortality despite less chronic GVHD. Our findings suggest that the use of 2 partially matched UCB units appears to be a suitable alternative for patients undergoing RIC HSCT without an HLA-matched donor.
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Global and organ-specific chronic graft-versus-host disease severity according to the 2005 NIH Consensus Criteria.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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In 2005, the National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic GVHD proposed a new scoring system for individual organs and an algorithm for calculating global severity (mild, moderate, severe). The Chronic GVHD Consortium was established to test these new criteria. This report includes the first 298 adult patients enrolled at 5 centers of the Consortium. Patients were assessed every 3-6 months using standardized forms recommended by the Consensus Conference. At the time of study enrollment, global chronic GVHD severity was mild in 10% (n = 32), moderate in 59% (n = 175), and severe in 31% (n = 91). Skin, lung, or eye scores determined the global severity score in the majority of cases, with the other 5 organs determining 16% of the global severity scores. Conventional risk factors predictive for onset of chronic GVHD and nonrelapse mortality in people with chronic GVHD were not associated with NIH global severity scores. Global severity scores at enrollment were associated with nonrelapse mortality (P < .0001) and survival (P < .0001); 2-year overall survival was 62% (severe), 86% (moderate), and 97% (mild). Patients with mild chronic GVHD have a good prognosis, while patients with severe chronic GVHD have a poor prognosis. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as no. NCT00637689.
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Hyperlipidemia and statin use after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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An increased incidence of cardiovascular complications has been documented in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Despite this, little is known about the risk factors for hyperlipidemia or the role of lipid-lowering therapy early after transplantation. We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute from 1998 to 2008 and who survived more than 100 days. The incidence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in the first 2 years after transplantation was 73.4% and 72.5%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, the development of acute graft-versus-host disease was independently associated with both hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.62) and hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.54) after transplantation. Statin use was instituted in 29% of patients and was associated with a significant net reduction in total cholesterol (65 mg/dL, P < .0001), triglyceride (118 mg/dL P < .0001), and LDL levels (59 mg/dL P < .0001) without any significant adverse effects. These data suggest that hyperlipidemia is common in the first 2 years after allogeneic transplantation when most patients remain under the care of the transplantation physician and lipid-lowering therapy may be underutilized. Given the cardiovascular risk associated with hyperlipidemia and the tolerability of statins, further prospective evaluation of lipid abnormalities and their treatment seems well warranted.
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Sensitivity of changes in chronic graft-versus-host disease activity to changes in patient-reported quality of life: results from the Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Consortium.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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The 2005 National Institute of Health Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Consensus Conference recommended collection of patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials on chronic graft-versus-host disease. We assessed whether changes in chronic graft-versus-host disease severity, determined using National Institute of Health criteria, clinicians assessment or patients self-evaluation, correlated with patient-reported quality of life as measured by the Short Form-36 and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) instruments.
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Validation of measurement scales in ocular graft-versus-host disease.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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To validate measurement scales for rating ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Candidate scales were recommended for use in clinical trials by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Chronic GVHD Consensus Conference or have been previously validated in dry eye syndromes.
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The impact of geographic proximity to transplant center on outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) need access to specialized care. We hypothesized that access to the transplant center after HSCT may be challenging for patients living in geographically distant areas, and that this would have an adverse effect on their outcome. We analyzed 1912 adult patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT at the Dana-Farber/Brigham and Womens Cancer Center (DF/BWCC) between 1996 and 2009 and who resided within 6 hours driving time of the institution. Driving time from primary residence to DF/BWCC based on zipcode was determined using geographic information systems. The median driving time (range) to DF/BWCC was 72 (2-358) minutes. When patients were stratified by driving time quartile, overall survival (OS) after HSCT was similar in the first year but worse after 1 year in patients in the top quartile (? 160 minutes driving time). In a landmark analysis of the 909 patients alive and free of disease at 1 year, 5-year OS was 76% and 65% for patients in the first (? 40 minutes) and fourth (? 160 minutes) quartiles, respectively (P = .027). This was confirmed in a multivariable analysis. The difference appeared to be mostly because of an increase in nonrelapse mortality. The number of visits to the transplant center between day 100 and 365 after HSCT declined significantly with increasing driving time to the transplant center, which was independently associated with worse survival. Long driving time to the transplant center is associated with worse OS in patients alive and disease-free 1 year after HSCT, independently of other patient-, disease-, and HSCT-related variables. This may be in part related to the lower frequency of post-HSCT visits in patients living farther away.
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Classifying cytogenetics in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia in complete remission undergoing allogeneic transplantation: a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research study.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Cytogenetics play a major role in determining the prognosis of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, existing cytogenetics classifications were developed in chemotherapy-treated patients and might not be optimal for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We studied 821 adult patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) who underwent HCT for AML in first or second complete remission between 1999 and 2004. We compared the ability of the 6 existing classifications to stratify patients by overall survival. We then defined a new scheme specifically applicable to patients undergoing HCT using this patient cohort. Under this scheme, inv(16) is favorable, a complex karyotype (4 or more abnormalities) is adverse, and all other classified abnormalities are intermediate in predicting survival after HCT (5-year overall survival, 64%, 18%, and 50%, respectively; P = .0001). This scheme stratifies patients into 3 groups with similar nonrelapse mortality, but significantly different incidences of relapse, overall and leukemia-free survival. It applies to patients regardless of disease status (first or second complete remission), donor type (matched related or unrelated), or conditioning intensity (myeloablative or reduced intensity). This transplantation-specific classification could be adopted for prognostication purposes and to stratify patients with AML and karyotypic abnormalities entering HCT clinical trials.
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Alternative donor transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning: results of parallel phase 2 trials using partially HLA-mismatched related bone marrow or unrelated double umbilical cord blood grafts.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network conducted 2 parallel multicenter phase 2 trials for individuals with leukemia or lymphoma and no suitable related donor. Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) was used with either unrelated double umbilical cord blood (dUCB) or HLA-haploidentical related donor bone marrow (Haplo-marrow) transplantation. For both trials, the transplantation conditioning regimen incorporated cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and 200 cGy of total body irradiation. The 1-year probabilities of overall and progression-free survival were 54% and 46%, respectively, after dUCB transplantation (n = 50) and 62% and 48%, respectively, after Haplo-marrow transplantation (n = 50). The day +56 cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery was 94% after dUCB and 96% after Haplo-marrow transplantation. The 100-day cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 40% after dUCB and 32% after Haplo-marrow transplantation. The 1-year cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality and relapse after dUCB transplantation were 24% and 31%, respectively, with corresponding results of 7% and 45%, respectively, after Haplo-marrow transplantation. These multicenter studies confirm the utility of dUCB and Haplo-marrow as alternative donor sources and set the stage for a multicenter randomized clinical trial to assess the relative efficacy of these 2 strategies. The trials are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov under NCT00864227 (BMT CTN 0604) and NCT00849147 (BMT CTN 0603).
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Chronic GVHD risk score: a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research analysis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Several risk factors are associated with increased mortality in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), but there is considerable variability in the reported factors. Therefore, we evaluated patient, transplantation, and cGVHD characteristics to develop a risk score in 5343 patients with cGVHD. Ten variables were identified as being significant in multivariate analysis of overall survival and nonrelapse mortality (NRM): age, prior acute GVHD, time from transplantation to cGVHD, donor type, disease status at transplantation, GVHD prophylaxis, gender mismatch, serum bilirubin, Karnofsky score, and platelet count. These 10 variables were used to build a cGVHD risk score, and 6 risk groups (RGs) were identified. The 5-year NRM was 5% (1%-9%) in RG1, 20% (19%-23%) in RG2, 33% (29%-37%) in RG3, 43% (40%-46%) in RG4, 63% (53%-74%) in RG5, and 72% (59%-85%) in RG6. The 5-year overall survival was highest at 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]:85%-97%) in RG1, followed by 67% (65%-69%) in RG2, 51% (46%-55%) in RG3, 40% (37%-43%) in RG4, 21% (12%-30%) in RG5, and 4% (0%-9%) in RG6 (all P < .01). This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of data from a large registry to develop risk-score categories for major transplantation outcomes. Validation of this cGVHD risk score is needed in a different population to ensure its broad applicability.
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Comparison of reduced-intensity hematopoietic cell transplantation with chemotherapy in patients age 60-70 years with acute myelogenous leukemia in first remission.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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We compared the outcomes of patients age 60-70 years with acute myelogenous leukemia receiving reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in first remission (CR1) reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Research (n = 94) with the outcomes in patients treated with induction and postremission chemotherapy on Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocols (n = 96). All patients included had been in CR1 for at least 4 months. The HCT recipients were slightly younger than the chemotherapy patients (median age, 63 years vs 65 years; P < .001), but there were no significant between-group differences in the proportion with therapy-related leukemia or in different cytogenetic risk groups. Time from diagnosis to CR1 was longer for the HCT recipients (median, 44 days vs 38 days; P = .031). Allogeneic HCT was associated with significantly lower risk of relapse (32% vs 81% at 3 years; P < .001), higher nonrelapse mortality (36% vs 4% at 3 years; P < .001), and longer leukemia-free survival (32% vs 15% at 3 years; P = .001). Although overall survival was longer for HCT recipients, the difference was not statistically significant (37% vs 25% at 3 years; P = .08). Our findings suggest that reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic HCT in patients age 60-70 with acute myelogenous leukemia in CR1 reduces relapse and improves leukemia-free survival. Strategies that reduce nonrelapse mortality may yield significant improvements in overall survival.
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Rituximab for prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease.
Int. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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Growing understanding of the important role of B lymphocytes in alloreactivity has paved the way for evaluating anti-B cell therapy with rituximab in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Data suggesting a beneficial reduction in incidence and severity of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are limited to non-randomized studies from single institutions using higher than conventional doses of rituximab. Additionally, rituximab is used as an effective treatment of corticosteroid-refractory chronic GVHD with good responses, particularly in cases of dermatologic and mucosal involvement. Post-transplant administration of rituximab appears to reduce the rate of chronic GVHD in preliminary studies.
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Patient-reported quality of life is associated with severity of chronic graft-versus-host disease as measured by NIH criteria: report on baseline data from the Chronic GVHD Consortium.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Quality of life (QOL) after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is compromised by chronic GVHD. In a prospectively assembled multicenter cohort of adults with chronic GVHD (n = 298), we examined the relationship between chronic GVHD severity defined by National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria and QOL as measured by the SF-36 and FACT-BMT instruments at time of enrollment. Chronic GVHD severity was independently associated with QOL, adjusting for age. Compared with population normative data, SF-36 scores were more than a SD (10 points) lower on average for the summary physical component score (PCS) and role-physical subscale, and significantly lower (with magnitude 4-10 points) for several other subscales. Patients with moderate and severe cGVHD had PCS scores comparable with scores reported for systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis, and greater impairment compared with common chronic conditions including diabetes, hypertension, and chronic lung disease. Moderate to severe cGVHD as defined by NIH criteria is associated with significant compromise in multiple QOL domains, with PCS scores in the range of other systemic autoimmune diseases. Compromised QOL provides a functional assessment of the effects of chronic GVHD, and may be measured in cGVHD clinical studies using either the SF-36 or the FACT-BMT.
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Review of stem-cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndromes in older patients in the context of the Decision Memo for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndrome emanating from the Centers for Medicare and Medicai
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem-cell disorders that result in varying degrees of cytopenia and risk of transformation into acute leukemia. Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT) is the only known cure for this disease. The treatment is routinely used for younger patients, but only a minority of patients older than the age of 60 undergo this procedure. The overall MDS incidence is 3.3 per 100,000, but the incidence in patients older than age 70 is between 15 and 50 per 100,000. The median age at presentation is 76 years. Medicare-age patients 65 or older represent 80% of the total population receiving an MDS diagnosis. In the United States, one of the obstacles to SCT for older patients with MDS has been lack of third party reimbursement. On August 4, 2010, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services released their Decision Memo for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Myelodysplastic Syndrome. This memo states: "Allogeneic HSCT for MDS is covered by Medicare only for beneficiaries with MDS participating in an approved clinical study that meets the criteria below…. " In this review, we will summarize what is known regarding the role of allogeneic SCT in older patients as well as other elements that should be included within clinical trials that can provide the evidence necessary to demonstrate that allogeneic SCT should be a covered benefit for Medicare beneficiaries.
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Recovery of B-cell homeostasis after rituximab in chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2010
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Investigation of the effects of rituximab (anti-CD20) on B-cell-activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) and B cells would better define the significance of B-cell homeostasis in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) pathophysiology. We studied 20 cGVHD patients at a median of 25 months after rituximab treatment when most patients had recovered total B-cell numbers. A total of 55% of patients had stable/improved cGVHD, and total B-cell numbers in these patients were significantly higher compared with rituximab-unresponsive patients. Although total B-cell number did not differ significantly between cGVHD groups before rituximab, there was a proportional increase in B-cell precursors in patients who later had stable/improved cGVHD. After rituximab, BAFF levels increased in all patients. Coincident with B-cell recovery in the stable/improved group, BAFF/B-cell ratios and CD27(+) B-cell frequencies decreased significantly. The peripheral B-cell pool in stable/improved cGVHD patients was largely composed of naive IgD(+) B cells. By contrast, rituximab-unresponsive cGVHD patients had persistent elevation of BAFF and a predominance of circulating B cells possessing an activated BAFF-R(Lo)CD20(Lo) cell surface phenotype. Thus, naive B-cell reconstitution and decreased BAFF/B-cell ratios were associated with clinical response after rituximab in cGVHD. Our findings begin to delineate B-cell homeostatic mechanisms important for human immune tolerance.
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Use of matched unrelated donors compared with matched related donors is associated with lower relapse and superior progression-free survival after reduced-intensity conditioning hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2010
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As success of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) relies primarily on graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity, increased minor HLA disparity in unrelated compared to related donors could have a significant impact on transplant outcomes. To assess whether use of unrelated donors (URD) engenders more potent GVL in RIC HSCT compared to matched related donors (MRD), we retrospectively studied 433 consecutive T-replete 6/6 HLA matched URD (n = 246) and MRD (n = 187) RIC HSCT for hematologic malignancies at our institution. Diseases included: acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) (127), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (71), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (68), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (64), Hodgkin disease (HD) (40), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) (25), multiple myeloma (MM) (23), myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) (12), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (7), and other leukemia (1). All received uniform fludarabine and intravenous busulfan conditioning, and GVHD prophylaxis with tacrolimus/mini-methroxate (mini-MTX) or tacrolimus/sirolimus ± mini-MTX. Unrelated donors were younger compared to MRD (median donor age: 33 years versus 52 years, P < .0001), and provided larger CD34(+) products (median CD34(+) cells infused: 8.7 × 10(6)/kg versus 7.5 × 10(6)/kg, P = .002). Distribution of diseases, disease risk, prior transplant, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) status was similar in both cohorts. Cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD (at day +180), 2-year chronic GVHD, and 2-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) were 20% versus 16%, 55% versus 50%, and 8% versus 6% in URD and MRD, respectively (P = NS). Cumulative incidence of relapse at 2 years was lower in URD, 52% versus 65% (P = .005). With median follow-up of 26.5 and 35.8 months, 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly better in unrelated donor transplants, 39.5% for URD, and 29% for MRD (P = .01). Overall survival (OS) at 2 years were 56% for URD versus 50% for MRD (P = .53). In multivariable analysis, URD was associated with a lower risk of relapse (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67, P = .002) and superior PFS (HR 0.69, P = .002). These results suggest that URD is associated with greater GVL activity than MRD, and could have practice changing impact on future donor selection in RIC HSCT.
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Transplant survivorship: a call to arms.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2010
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In this issue of Blood, Sun and colleagues from the Bone Marrow Transplant Survivors Study report the chronic health outcomes of more than 1000 survivors of stem cell transplantation. Their results demonstrate a significant burden of chronic conditions among survivors.
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Seroprotective titers against 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus after vaccination in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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Little data are available regarding the safety and immunologic response to pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We measured serum antibody titers against A/California/7/2009 H1N1 using a hemagglutination inhibition assay in 82 allogeneic HSCT recipients who received the 2009 H1N1 vaccine between November 2009 and January 2010 after it became available at our institution. The median time between HSCT and vaccination was 19 months (range, 2.5-94 months), and the median time from vaccination to specimen collection was 56 days (range, 14-140 days). Seroprotective antibody titers (hemagglutination inhibition titer ?1:40) against 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus were detected in 51% of patients. The presence of chronic graft-versus-host disease and type of conditioning regimen did not affect the rate of detection of seroprotective titers after vaccination. Patients were more likely to have a seroprotective titer the farther away from HSCT they were (adjusted odds ratio, 1.79 per year; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.85). Rituximab administration in the year before vaccination was associated with a lack of seroprotective titer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.97). The vaccine was safe and well tolerated. Strategies are needed to improve the influenza vaccine response in this population, especially those receiving immunotherapy.
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Sirolimus immunosuppression for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis and therapy: an update.
Curr. Opin. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
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Sirolimus is being used increasingly as an immunosuppressant in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This article reviews recent results in sirolimus-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, as well as outcomes using sirolimus for established acute and chronic GVHD.
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Iron overload in patients with acute leukemia or MDS undergoing myeloablative stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2010
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Patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) commonly have an elevated serum ferritin prior to HSCT, which has been associated with increased mortality after transplantation. This has led to the suggestion that iron overload is common and deleterious in this patient population. However, the relationship between serum ferritin and parenchymal iron overload in such patients is unknown. We report a prospective study of 48 patients with acute leukemia (AL) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) undergoing myeloablative HSCT, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to estimate liver iron content (LIC) and cardiac iron. The median (and range) pre-HSCT value of serum ferritin was 1549 ng/mL (20-6989); serum hepcidin, 59 ng/mL (10-468); labile plasma iron, 0 LPI units (0.0-0.9). Eighty-five percent of patients had hepatic iron overload (HIO), and 42% had significant HIO (LIC ?5.0 mg/gdw). Only 1 patient had cardiac iron overload. There was a strong correlation between pre-HSCT serum ferritin and estimated LIC (r = .75), which was mostly dependent on prior transfusion history. Serum hepcidin was appropriately elevated in patients with HIO. Labile plasma iron elevation was rare. A regression calibration analysis supported the hypothesis that elevated pre-HSCT LIC is significantly associated with inferior post-HSCT survival. These results contribute to our understanding of the prevalence, mechanism, and consequences of iron overload in HSCT.
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Syngeneic donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is associated with high rates of engraftment syndrome.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2010
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Engraftment syndrome (ES), typically characterized by noninfectious fever, rash, and/or noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, is a complication of autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). There are no data on ES after syngeneic HSCT. We retrospectively analyzed syngeneic HSCT outcomes and determined ES incidence, risk factors, and prognostic impact. Thirty-two adult patients with a median age of 46 years (range: 22-60) underwent syngeneic HSCT at our institution between July 1986 and April 2009, primarily for hematologic malignancies (65% lymphoid-including 15% plasma cell; 31% myeloid). The median duration of follow-up was 6.1 years (range: 3.7 months to 18.1 years). Five-year progression-free and overall survival (PFS, OS) was 52% and 67%, respectively. Five-year overall cumulative incidence of relapse and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 37.6% and 10.2%, respectively; with increased relapse incidence of 76.3% in myeloid disease (P = .002). Fifteen patients (47%) met diagnostic criteria for ES, 10 (67%) of whom received systemic steroids. Five-year PFS was 47% in patients with ES versus 56% in those without (P = .37). Five-year OS was 63% with ES versus 71% without (P = .80). Five-year cumulative incidence of NRM was 21% with ES versus 0% without (P = .06). Five-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 32% with ES and 44% without (P = .68). Older age (P = .05) and possibly total body irradiation-based conditioning (P = .09) were risk factors for developing ES. In multivariable Cox models only diagnosis (myeloid disease) impaired OS and PFS. In summary, we document a high incidence of ES after syngeneic HSCT. The trend of increased NRM after ES requires reevaluation in a larger syngeneic HSCT cohort.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
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Transplantation is the only known cure for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). While some comparative analyses have demonstrated early transplantation to be the preferred strategy for all MDS patients, many of these analyses are biased. Using newly identified prognostic factors and models, a rational approach to transplantation can be undertaken. Factors such as transfusion dependency, cytogenetics, medical comorbidity, and World Health Organization (WHO) histologic subtype should all be considered when deciding on the role of transplantation for the MDS patient. Unresolved issues in transplantation include the impact of pre-transplant tumor debulking with traditional chemotherapeutic agents or the new DNA hypomethylating agents, and the optimal timing of reduced-intensity conditioning transplantation for older patients or for those with medical comorbidities.
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Patient selection for transplantation in the myelodysplastic syndromes.
Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2010
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only known curative procedure for the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Because the median age at diagnosis for MDS is in the late seventh decade of life, despite the curative potential, transplantation is not undertaken routinely, and careful consideration must be made regarding the appropriateness of the transplant recipient. This article focuses on appropriate patient selection for transplantation for MDS.
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Prediction of veno-occlusive disease using biomarkers of endothelial injury.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
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Predicting the development of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver remains challenging. We hypothesized that biomarkers of endothelial injury in myeloablative allogeneic transplantation recipients could predict VOD occurrence. We evaluated 4 biomarkers-von Willebrand Factor (vWF), thrombomodulin, E-selectin, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1)-weekly in the peritransplantation period in an attempt to predict VOD. In the patients who received sirolimus, vWF, thrombomodulin, and sICAM-1 levels were significantly elevated in patients with VOD compared with those without VOD on day -1 (P or=1400 IU/mL and thrombomodulin >or=100 ng/mL on day +7 were both 100% sensitive and 100% specific in predicting VOD. These biomarkers were informative when adjusted for other risk factors for VOD in regression analysis. Among patients not receiving sirolimus, biomarkers of endothelial injury were not informative. We conclude that vWF, thrombomodulin, and sICAM-1 elevations before and early after transplantation may be useful in predicting VOD in patients receiving sirolimus.
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Donor-derived second hematologic malignancies after cord blood transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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Double umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen is an effective strategy for adult patients without a matched donor. The risk of second malignancies in these patients has not yet been established, however. In the present study, 98 adults with a hematologic malignancy underwent double UCBT. Seventy patients received a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen of fludarabine 30 mg/m(2)/day for 6 days, melphalan 100 mg/m(2)/day for 1 day, and rabbit antithymocyte globulin 1.5 mg/kg/day for 4 days, and 28 patients received a myeloablative total body radiation-containing conditioning regimen. Sixty-three patients received sirolimus-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, and 35 patients received non-sirolimus-based GVHD prophylaxis. The median patient age was 48 years (range, 19-67 years). Eighteen patients developed a second malignancy at a median of 134 days after transplantation. Sixteen patients had lymphoma, and 2 patients had myelodysplasic syndrome/myeloproliferative disorder (MDS/MPD). Sixteen of these second malignancies (both cases of MDS/MPD and 14 of the lymphomas) were donor-derived; the origins of the others were not determined. GVHD prophylaxis, HLA matching, primary disease, age, total nucleated cell dose, and CD34(+) cell dose were not associated with a higher rate of second malignancy. Second myelogenous malignancies of donor origin occur after double UCBT, suggesting that a search for donor origin should be performed in all patients with suspected relapse.
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Altered regulatory T cell homeostasis in patients with CD4+ lymphopenia following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs have an indispensable role in the maintenance of tolerance after allogeneic HSC transplantation (HSCT). Patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) have fewer circulating Tregs, but the mechanisms that lead to this deficiency of Tregs after HSCT are not known. Here, we analyzed reconstitution of Tregs and conventional CD4+ T cells (Tcons) in patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT after myeloablative conditioning. Following transplant, thymic generation of naive Tregs was markedly impaired, and reconstituting Tregs had a predominantly activated/memory phenotype. In response to CD4+ lymphopenia after HSCT, Tregs underwent higher levels of proliferation than Tcons, but Tregs undergoing homeostatic proliferation also showed increased susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Prospective monitoring of CD4+ T cell subsets revealed that Tregs rapidly expanded and achieved normal levels by 9 months after HSCT, but Treg levels subsequently declined in patients with prolonged CD4+ lymphopenia. This resulted in a relative deficiency of Tregs, which was associated with a high incidence of extensive chronic GVHD. These studies indicate that CD4+ lymphopenia is a critical factor in Treg homeostasis and that prolonged imbalance of Treg homeostasis after HSCT can result in loss of tolerance and significant clinical disease manifestations.
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Clearance of CMV viremia and survival after double umbilical cord blood transplantation in adults depends on reconstitution of thymopoiesis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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Umbilical cord blood grafts are increasingly used as sources of hematopoietic stem cells in adults. Data regarding the outcome of this approach in adults are consistent with delayed and insufficient immune reconstitution resulting in high infection-related morbidity and mortality. Using cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific immunity as a paradigm, we evaluated the status, mechanism, and clinical implications of immune reconstitution in adults with hematologic malignancies undergoing unrelated double unit cord blood transplantation. Our data indicate that CD8(+) T cells capable of secreting interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in a CMV-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assay are detectable at 8 weeks after transplantation, before reconstitution of thymopoiesis, but fail to clear CMV viremia. Clearance of CMV viremia occurs later and depends on the recovery of CD4(+)CD45RA(+) T cells, reconstitution of thymopoiesis, and attainment of T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle (TREC) levels of 2000 or more copies/mug DNA. In addition, overall survival was significantly higher in patients who displayed thymic regeneration and attainment of TREC levels of 2000 or more copies/mug DNA (P = .005). These results indicate that reconstitution of thymopoiesis is critical for long-term clinical outcome in adult recipients of umbilical cord blood transplant. The trial was prospectively registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00133367).
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Reduced-intensity conditioning hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients over 60 years: hematologic malignancy outcomes are not impaired in advanced age.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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Reduced-intensity-conditioning (RIC) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is markedly underutilized in the elderly, in part because the impact of advanced age on outcomes is poorly understood. We retrospectively analyzed outcomes in 158 consecutive hematologic malignancy patients aged > or =60 years (median, 63 years; range: 60-71 years) undergoing fludarabine/busulfan-based RIC, with a median-follow-up of 34 months (range: 12.0-85.7). Multivariate analysis was undertaken for factors having an impact on outcome. For the patients aged > or =60 years, 2-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and relapse was 10% and 54.6%, respectively. Two-year overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS) was 46% and 35%, respectively. Grade II-IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD) incidence was 19.6% and 45.9%, respectively. Comparing 110 patients aged 60-64 years versus 48 patients aged > or =65 years, 2-year NRM and relapse was 10.5% versus 8.3% (P = .84) and 53.5% versus 56.3% (P = .31), respectively. Grade II-IV aGVHD and cGVHD incidence was 19.1% versus 22.9% (P = .52) and 51.8% versus 32.5% (P = .01), respectively. Two-year OS and PFS was 49% versus 41% (P = .11) and 36% versus 35% (P = .24), respectively. In a multivariate Cox-model, high-risk disease associated with poorer PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.1, P = .01) and OS (HR = 1.84, P = .03); acute myelogenous leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome diagnosis (HR = 1.66, P = .03) and matched-related donor (HR = 1.62, P = .03) associated with poorer PFS. RIC HSCT is well tolerated, with reasonable survival in elderly patients. Age is not associated with impaired outcomes. HSCT should not be excluded solely based on advanced patient age.
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Allogeneic transplantation for therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2009
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Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes (t-MDSs) and acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) have a poor prognosis with conventional therapy. Encouraging results are reported after allogeneic transplantation. We analyzed outcomes in 868 persons with t-AML (n = 545) or t-MDS (n = 323) receiving allogeneic transplants from 1990 to 2004. A myeloablative regimen was used for conditioning in 77%. Treatment-related mortality (TRM) and relapse were 41% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38-44) and 27% (24-30) at 1 year and 48% (44-51) and 31% (28-34) at 5 years, respectively. Disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 32% (95% CI, 29-36) and 37% (34-41) at 1 year and 21% (18-24) and 22% (19-26) at 5 years, respectively. In multivariate analysis, 4 risk factors had adverse impacts on DFS and OS: (1) age older than 35 years; (2) poor-risk cytogenetics; (3) t-AML not in remission or advanced t-MDS; and (4) donor other than an HLA-identical sibling or a partially or well-matched unrelated donor. Five-year survival for subjects with none, 1, 2, 3, or 4 of these risk factors was 50% (95% CI, 38-61), 26% (20-31), 21% (16-26), 10% (5-15), and 4% (0-16), respectively (P < .001). These data permit a more precise prediction of outcome and identify subjects most likely to benefit from allogeneic transplantation.
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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.