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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Engraftment kinetics and graft failure after single umbilical cord blood transplantation using a myeloablative conditioning regimen.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Umbilical cord blood transplant recipients are exposed to an increased risk of graft failure, a complication leading to a higher rate of transplant-related mortality. The decision and timing to offer a second transplant after graft failure is challenging. With the aim of addressing this issue, we analyzed engraftment kinetics and outcomes of 1268 patients (73% children) with acute leukemia (64% acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 36% acute myeloid leukemia) in remission who underwent single-unit umbilical cord blood transplantation after a myeloablative conditioning regimen. The median follow-up was 31 months. The overall survival rate at 3 years was 47%; the 100-day cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality was 16%. Longer time to engraftment was associated with increased transplant-related mortality and shorter overall survival. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment at day 60 was 86%, while the median time to achieve engraftment was 24 days. Probability density analysis showed that the likelihood of engraftment after umbilical cord blood transplantation increased after day 10, peaked on day 21 and slowly decreased to 21% by day 31. Beyond day 31, the probability of engraftment dropped rapidly, and the residual probability of engrafting after day 42 was 5%. Graft failure was reported in 166 patients, and 66 of them received a second graft (allogeneic, n=45). Rescue actions, such as the search for another graft, should be considered starting after day 21. A diagnosis of graft failure can be established in patients who have not achieved neutrophil recovery by day 42. Moreover, subsequent transplants should not be postponed after day 42.
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in thalassemia major and sickle cell disease: indications and management recommendations from an international expert panel.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Thalassemia major and sickle cell disease are the two most widely disseminated hereditary hemoglobinopathies in the world. The outlook for affected individuals has improved in recent years due to advances in medical management in the prevention and treatment of complications. However, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is still the only available curative option. The use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been increasing, and outcomes today have substantially improved compared with the past three decades. Current experience world-wide is that more than 90% of patients now survive hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and disease-free survival is around 80%. However, only a few controlled trials have been reported, and decisions on patient selection for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and transplant management remain principally dependent on data from retrospective analyses and on the clinical experience of the transplant centers. This consensus document from the European Blood and Marrow Transplantation Inborn Error Working Party and the Paediatric Diseases Working Party aims to report new data and provide consensus-based recommendations on indications for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and transplant management.
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Inherited biallelic CSF3R mutations in severe congenital neutropenia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is characterized by low numbers of peripheral neutrophil granulocytes and a predisposition to life-threatening bacterial infections. We describe a novel genetic SCN type in 2 unrelated families associated with recessively inherited loss-of-function mutations in CSF3R, encoding the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor. Family A, with 3 affected children, carried a homozygous missense mutation (NM_000760.3:c.922C>T, NP_000751.1:p.Arg308Cys), which resulted in perturbed N-glycosylation and aberrant localization to the cell surface. Family B, with 1 affected infant, carried compound heterozygous deletions provoking frameshifts and premature stop codons (NM_000760.3:c.948_963del, NP_000751.1:p.Gly316fsTer322 and NM_000760.3:c.1245del, NP_000751.1:p.Gly415fsTer432). Despite peripheral SCN, all patients had morphologic evidence of full myeloid cell maturation in bone marrow. None of the patients responded to treatment with recombinant human G-CSF. Our study highlights the genetic and morphologic SCN variability and provides evidence both for functional importance and redundancy of G-CSF receptor-mediated signaling in human granulopoiesis.
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Umbilical cord blood transplantation from unrelated donors in patientswith PH-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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There are scarce disease-specific studies focusing on outcomes of umbilical cord blood transplantation for Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We report the outcome of 45 patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia underwent myeloablative single unit cord blood transplantation from unrelated donors within the GETH/GITMO cooperative group. Conditioning regimens were based on combinations of thiotepa, busulfan, cyclophospamide or fludarabine, and antithymocyte globulin. At the time of transplantation, 35 patients (78%) were in first complete remission, 4 (8%) in second complete remision and 6 (14%) in second or subsequent response. The cumulative incidence of myeloid engraftment was 96% at a median time of 20 days and significantly better for patients receiving higher doses of CD34+ cells. The incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease grade II-IV and overall chronic graft-versus-host disease was 31% and 53%, respectively. Treatment-related mortality was 17% at day +100 and 31% at 5 years. The 5-year relapse, event-free survival and overall survival were 31%, 36% and 44%, respectively. Although patients without BCR/ABL transcripts detectable at time of transplant had a better event-free and overall survivals compared with those positive detection of BCR/ABL (46% vs 24% and 60% vs 30%, respectively) these differences were not statistically significant in the univariate analysis (p = 0.07, respectively). These results demonstrate that umbilical cord blood transplantation from unrelated donors can be a curative treatment for a substantial number of patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
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Analysis of risk factors influencing outcomes after cord blood transplantation in children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia: a EUROCORD, EBMT, EWOG-MDS, CIBMTR study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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We retrospectively analyzed 110 patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, given single-unit, unrelated donor umbilical cord blood transplantation. Median age at diagnosis and at transplantation was 1.4 years (age range, 0.1-6.4 years) and 2.2 years (age range, 0.5-7.4 years), respectively. Before transplantation, 88 patients received chemotherapy; splenectomy was performed in 24 patients. Monosomy of chromosome 7 was the most frequent cytogenetic abnormality, found in 24% of patients. All but 8 patients received myeloablative conditioning; cyclosporine plus steroids was the most common graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Sixteen percent of units were HLA-matched with the recipient, whereas 43% and 35% had either 1 or 2 to 3 HLA disparities, respectively. The median number of nucleated cells infused was 7.1 × 10(7)/kg (range, 1.7-27.6 × 10(7)/kg). With a median follow-up of 64 months (range, 14-174 months), the 5-year cumulative incidences of transplantation-related mortality and relapse were 22% and 33%, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 44%. In multivariate analysis, factors predicting better disease-free survival were age younger than 1.4 years at diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR], 0.42; P = .005), 0 to 1 HLA disparities in the donor/recipient pair (HR, 0.4; P = .009), and karyotype other than monosomy 7 (HR, 0.5; P = .02). Umbilical cord blood transplantation may cure a relevant proportion of children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Because disease recurrence remains the major cause of treatment failure, strategies to reduce incidence of relapse are warranted.
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Impact of graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis on outcomes after myeloablative single-unit umbilical cord blood transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Myeloablative single-unit umbilical cord blood transplantation (sUCBT) using busulfan, thiotepa, fludarabine, and antithymocyte globulin (Grupo Español de Trasplante Hematopoyético [GETH]-2005 protocol) resulted in high rates of engraftment and high antitumor activity. We designed a new graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis, substituting long-term steroids with mycophenolate mofetil together with a slight reduction of antithymocyte globulin (GETH/Gruppo Italiano Trapianto Midollo Osseo [GITMO]-2008 protocol). The results in 145 consecutive patients were compared with those obtained in 88 patients from the previous GETH-2005 trial. The cumulative incidence (CI) of myeloid engraftment at 60 days for patients in the GETH-2005 and GETH/GITMO-2008 trials was 94% and 88%, respectively, at a median time to neutrophil recovery of 19 and 23 days, respectively (P < .0001). In the multivariable analyses, platelet engraftment, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, nonrelapse mortality, relapse, and event-free survival were not significantly different. The 3-year event-free survival rate in the GETH/GITMO-2008 trial was 66%, 31%, and 25% for patients transplanted in early, intermediate, and advanced stages of the disease, respectively (P < .0001). This study confirms that myeloablative sUCBT using busulfan-based conditioning is a valuable strategy for patients with hematological malignancies. The use of mycophenolate mofetil apparently had an adverse effect on myeloid engraftment, and therefore a cautious use of this agent is warranted in the UCBT setting.
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Successful treatment of congenital erythropoietic porphyria using matched unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Pediatr Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP), or Günthers disease, is an inborn error of metabolism produced by a deficiency of uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS), the fourth enzyme of the heme biosynthesis pathway. This enzymatic defect induces the accumulation of isomer I porphyrins in erythrocytes, skin, and tissues, producing various clinical manifestations. Severe cases are characterized by extreme photosensitivity, causing scarring and mutilations, and by hemolytic anemia, reducing life expectancy. CEP is caused by mutations in the UROS gene, and one of the most severe forms of the disease is associated with a cysteine to arginine substitution at residue 73 of the protein (C73R). CEP has been successfully treated only by the transplantation of hematopoietic precursors. We report the case of a male infant with severe postdelivery symptoms diagnosed with CEP and found to be homozygous for the C73R mutation. He underwent successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from a matched unrelated donor at 7 months of age. The hemolytic anemia was corrected and the porphyrin overproduction was significantly reduced. The patient remained asymptomatic after 1 year. This new case confirms that patients with severe CEP can benefit from early postnatal hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
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Voriconazole drug monitoring in the management of invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised children: a prospective study.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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To evaluate voriconazole plasma level monitoring in immunocompromised children and determine the relationship of plasma levels with dose, safety and efficacy.
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Valganciclovir as pre-emptive therapy for cytomegalovirus infection in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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In haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in both the early and late post-transplant period. Ganciclovir (GCV) is the treatment of choice for CMV, but requires intravenous administration, a fact that complicates its long-term use. Oral valganciclovir (VGCV) and intravenous GCV were recently shown to have similar efficacy for pre-emptive CMV treatment in solid organ transplant recipients, but relatively limited data are available in HSCT recipients. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of VGCV versus intravenous GCV or foscarnet (FOS) for pre-emptive therapy of active CMV infection in allogeneic HSCT and to determine the incidence of adverse effects and relapses.
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B cell-helper neutrophils stimulate the diversification and production of immunoglobulin in the marginal zone of the spleen.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Neutrophils use immunoglobulins to clear antigen, but their role in immunoglobulin production is unknown. Here we identified neutrophils around the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen, a B cell area specialized in T cell-independent immunoglobulin responses to circulating antigen. Neutrophils colonized peri-MZ areas after postnatal mucosal colonization by microbes and enhanced their B cell-helper function after receiving reprogramming signals, including interleukin 10 (IL-10), from splenic sinusoidal endothelial cells. Splenic neutrophils induced immunoglobulin class switching, somatic hypermutation and antibody production by activating MZ B cells through a mechanism that involved the cytokines BAFF, APRIL and IL-21. Neutropenic patients had fewer and hypomutated MZ B cells and a lower abundance of preimmune immunoglobulins to T cell-independent antigens, which indicates that neutrophils generate an innate layer of antimicrobial immunoglobulin defense by interacting with MZ B cells.
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Origin, functional role, and clinical impact of Fanconi anemia FANCA mutations.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Fanconi anemia is characterized by congenital abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and cancer predisposition. To investigate the origin, functional role, and clinical impact of FANCA mutations, we determined a FANCA mutational spectrum with 130 pathogenic alleles. Some of these mutations were further characterized for their distribution in populations, mode of emergence, or functional consequences at cellular and clinical level. The world most frequent FANCA mutation is not the result of a mutational "hot-spot" but results from worldwide dissemination of an ancestral Indo-European mutation. We provide molecular evidence that total absence of FANCA in humans does not reduce embryonic viability, as the observed frequency of mutation carriers in the Gypsy population equals the expected by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We also prove that long distance Alu-Alu recombination can cause Fanconi anemia by originating large interstitial deletions involving FANCA and 2 adjacent genes. Finally, we show that all missense mutations studied lead to an altered FANCA protein that is unable to relocate to the nucleus and activate the FA/BRCA pathway. This may explain the observed lack of correlation between type of FANCA mutation and cellular phenotype or clinical severity in terms of age of onset of hematologic disease or number of malformations.
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Chromosome fragility in patients with Fanconi anaemia: diagnostic implications and clinical impact.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare syndrome characterized by bone marrow failure, malformations and cancer predisposition. Chromosome fragility induced by DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL)-inducing agents such as diepoxybutane (DEB) or mitomycin C (MMC) is the gold standard test for the diagnosis of FA.
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Long-term follow-up and factors influencing outcomes after related HLA-identical cord blood transplantation for patients with malignancies: an analysis on behalf of Eurocord-EBMT.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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We analyzed risk factors influencing outcomes after related (R) human leukocyte antigen-identical cord blood transplantation (CBT) for 147 patients with malignancies reported to Eurocord-European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. CBT has been performed since 1990; median follow-up was 6.7 years. Median patient age was 5 years. Acute leukemia was the most frequent diagnosis (74%). At CBT, 40 patients had early, 70 intermediate, and 37 advanced disease. CB grafts contained a median of 4.1 × 10(7)/kg total nucleated cells (TNCs) after thawing. The cumulative incidence (CI) of neutrophil recovery was 90% at day +60. CIs of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 12% and 10% at 2 years, respectively. At 5 years, CIs of nonrelapse mortality and relapse were 9% and 47%, respectively; the probability of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival were 44% and 55%, respectively. Among other factors, higher TNCs infused was associated with rapid neutrophil recovery and improved DFS. The use of methotrexate as GVHD prophylaxis decreased the CI of engraftment. Patients without advanced disease had improved DFS. These results support banking and use of CB units for RCBT. Cell dose, GVHD prophylaxis not including methotrexate, and disease status are important factors for outcomes after RCBT.
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Relationship between minimal residual disease measured by multiparametric flow cytometry prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and outcome in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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The presence of minimal residual disease detected by polymerase chain reaction techniques prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has proven to be an independent prognostic factor for poor outcome in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
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Lentiviral-mediated genetic correction of hematopoietic and mesenchymal progenitor cells from Fanconi anemia patients.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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Previous clinical trials based on the genetic correction of purified CD34(+) cells with gamma-retroviral vectors have demonstrated clinical efficacy in different monogenic diseases, including X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, adenosine deaminase deficient severe combined immunodeficiency and chronic granulomatous disease. Similar protocols, however, failed to engraft Fanconi anemia (FA) patients with genetically corrected cells. In this study, we first aimed to correlate the hematological status of 27 FA patients with CD34(+) cell values determined in their bone marrow (BM). Strikingly, no correlation between these parameters was observed, although good correlations were obtained when numbers of colony-forming cells (CFCs) were considered. Based on these results, and because purified FA CD34(+) cells might have suboptimal repopulating properties, we investigated the possibility of genetically correcting unselected BM samples from FA patients. Our data show that the lentiviral transduction of unselected FA BM cells mediates an efficient phenotypic correction of hematopoietic progenitor cells and also of CD34(-) mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), with a reported role in hematopoietic engraftment. Our results suggest that gene therapy protocols appropriate for the treatment of different monogenic diseases may not be adequate for stem cell diseases like FA. We propose a new approach for the gene therapy of FA based on the rapid transduction of unselected hematopoietic grafts with lentiviral vectors (LVs).
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Transplantation in patients with SCID: mismatched related stem cells or unrelated cord blood?
Blood
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Pediatric patients with SCID constitute medical emergencies. In the absence of an HLA-identical hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) donor, mismatched related-donor transplantation (MMRDT) or unrelated-donor umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) are valuable treatment options. To help transplantation centers choose the best treatment option, we retrospectively compared outcomes after 175 MMRDTs and 74 UCBTs in patients with SCID or Omenn syndrome. Median follow-up time was 83 months and 58 months for UCBT and MMRDT, respectively. Most UCB recipients received a myeloablative conditioning regimen; most MMRDT recipients did not. UCB recipients presented a higher frequency of complete donor chimerism (P = .04) and faster total lymphocyte count recovery (P = .04) without any statistically significance with the preparative regimen they received. The MMRDT and UCBT groups did not differ in terms of T-cell engraftment, CD4(+) and CD3(+) cell recoveries, while Ig replacement therapy was discontinued sooner after UCBT (adjusted P = .02). There was a trend toward a greater incidence of grades II-IV acute GVHD (P = .06) and more chronic GVHD (P = .03) after UCBT. The estimated 5-year overall survival rates were 62% ± 4% after MMRDT and 57% ± 6% after UCBT. For children with SCID and no HLA-identical sibling donor, both UCBT and MMRDT represent available HSC sources for transplantation with quite similar outcomes.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.