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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Thyroid status and its association with cognitive functioning in healthy boys at 10 years of age.
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Objective: Thyroid hormones (TH) are crucial for the correct maturation of the central nervous system and the neurodevelopment of the child. We aimed to investigate the association of TSH and free T4 (FT4) levels with cognitive functioning in children from the INMA-Granada cohort studied during their follow-up at the age of 9-11 years. Design: We evaluated 300 children from the original cohort, which comprised 668 eligible mother-son pairs recruited at birth from 2000-2002 in Granada (Spain). Methods: FT4 and TSH concentrations were measured, and cognitive development was assessed using neuropsychological tests (n= 187). Children with chronic disease related to thyroid function and/or cognitive development were excluded. Results: Median TSH and FT4 levels were 3.1?IU/mL and 1.2 ng/dL, respectively. In multivariable regression analyses adjusted for maternal and child characteristics, children with TSH levels in the top tertile had worse verbal comprehension and immediate and long-term recall. Children with FT4 levels in the top tertile had better attention and lower impulsivity and were at lower risk of scoring below the 20th percentile (P20) in intelligence quotient (OR=0.29; 95% CI=0.08-0.96; p=0.044) and in abstract reasoning ability (OR=0.28; 95% CI=0.09, 0.88; p=0.029). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that circulating TH and TSH may in the top tertile have an impact on cognitive functions; thus, higher TSH slightly but significantly increased the risk of a lower score in certain neuropsychological tests.
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Characterization of indoor extremely low frequency and low frequency electromagnetic fields in the INMA-Granada cohort.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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To characterize the exposure to electric fields and magnetic fields of non-ionizing radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum (15 Hz to 100 kHz) in the dwellings of children from the Spanish Environment and Childhood-"INMA" population-based birth cohort.
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A mathematical model for a T cell fate decision algorithm during immune response.
J. Theor. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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We formulate and analyze an algorithm of cell fate decision that describes the way in which division vs. apoptosis choices are made by individual T cells during an infection. Such model involves a minimal number of known biochemical mechanisms: it basically relies on the interplay between cell division and cell death inhibitors on one hand, and membrane receptors on the other. In spite of its simplicity, the proposed decision algorithm is able to account for some significant facts in immune response. At the individual level, the existence of T cells that continue to replicate in the absence of antigen and the possible occurrence of T cell apoptosis in the presence of antigen are predicted by the model. Moreover, the latter is shown to yield an emergent collective behavior, the observed delay in clonal contraction with respect to the end of antigen stimulation, which is shown to arise just from individual T cell decisions made according to the proposed mechanism.
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Pupillary behavior in relation to wavelength and age.
Front Hum Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Pupil light reflex can be used as a non-invasive ocular predictor of cephalic autonomic nervous system integrity. Spectral sensitivity of the pupil's response to light has, for some time, been an interesting issue. It has generally, however, only been investigated with the use of white light and studies with monochromatic wavelengths are scarce. This study investigates the effects of wavelength and age within three parameters of the pupil light reflex (amplitude of response, latency, and velocity of constriction) in a large sample of younger and older adults (N = 97), in mesopic conditions. Subjects were exposed to a single light stimulus at four different wavelengths: white (5600°K), blue (450 nm), green (510 nm), and red (600 nm). Data was analyzed appropriately, and, when applicable, using the General Linear Model (GLM), Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), Student's t-test and/or ANCOVA. Across all subjects, pupillary response to light had the greatest amplitude and shortest latency in white and green light conditions. In regards to age, older subjects (46-78 years) showed an increased latency in white light and decreased velocity of constriction in green light compared to younger subjects (18-45 years old). This study provides data patterns on parameters of wavelength-dependent pupil reflexes to light in adults and it contributes to the large body of pupillometric research. It is hoped that this study will add to the overall evaluation of cephalic autonomic nervous system integrity.
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[Utility of dynamic pupillometry in alcohol testing on drivers].
Adicciones
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Pupillometry is becoming a relevant tool in Vision Sciences. So far, only a few studies have explored the relationship between pupil reflex measures and drug consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of dynamic mesopic pupillometry as an objective measurement method for the detection of blood alcohol levels above the legal limit. In a quasiexperimental design, 19 volunteers were asked to participate in two conditions (before and after alcohol intake). In session with alcohol intake, participants were asked to consume 27.5 ml of alcohol in 60 minute intervals for four hours. Pupillometry records were conducted by means of the Power Refractor II, using four types of light stimulation: white (5600 K), blue (450 nm), green (510 nm) and red (600 nm). The basal diameter of the pupil increased significantly for alcohol concentrations equal to or greater than 0.25 mg/l in exhaled breath. Moreover, the value of the amplitude for red light constriction also provided significant differences between the two conditions. These results are promising in the search for new methods to detect illegal alcohol levels among drivers. This study demonstrates that basal pupil diameter increase and amplitude response could be used as an alcohol consumption level indicator. However, further studies are necessary to validate this and other diagnose methods complementary to breathalyzer and other drugs tests.
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[Disease-free survival related factors in breast cancer.]
Med Clin (Barc)
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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To evaluate the relationship between the clinical and pathological parameters of the primary tumor and disease-free survival (DFS) in a sample of hospital cases of invasive breast cancer.
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Is malarial anaemia homologous to neocytolysis after altitude acclimatisation?
Int. J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Malaria patients frequently develop severe anaemia that can persist after Plasmodium infection has been cleared from the circulation. This puzzling phenomenon involves massive death of young uninfected erythrocytes at a time when parasitic infection is very low. We have observed striking similarities in erythrocyte homoeostasis during altitude acclimatisation and Plasmodium infection, both of which initially induce an increase in circulating erythropoietin (Epo). Decreasing levels of Epo after return to low altitudes induce the death of young erythrocytes, a phenomenon called neocytolysis. In a similar way, we propose that Epo, which peaks during acute malaria and decreases after parasite clearance, could be contributing to anaemia causing neocytolysis during recovery from Plasmodium infection.
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Sertaconazole: an antifungal agent for the topical treatment of superficial candidiasis.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Sertaconazole is a useful antifungal agent against mycoses of the skin and mucosa, such as cutaneous, genital and oral candidiasis and tinea pedis. Its antifungal activity is due to inhibition of the ergosterol biosynthesis and disruption of the cell wall. At higher concentrations, sertaconazole is able to bind to nonsterol lipids of the fungal cell wall, increasing the permeability and the subsequent death of fungal cells. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities on Candida are dose-dependent. The antifungal spectrum of sertaconazole includes deramophytes, Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia and also Aspergillus, Scedosporium and Scopulariopsis. Sertaconazole also shows an antimicrobial activity against streptococci, staphylococci and protozoa (Trichomonas). In clinical trials including patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis, a single dose of sertaconazole produced a higher cure rate compared with other topical azoles such as econazole and clotrimazole, in shorter periods. Sertaconazole has shown an anti-inflammatory effect that is very useful for the relief of unpleasant symptoms.
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Risk of second primary cancer among women with breast cancer: a population-based study in Granada (Spain).
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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The higher risk of developing new cancers in breast cancer survivors is a public health concern. Our aim was to examine risk of second primary cancers among women diagnosed with breast cancer.
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Very low mitochondrial variability in a stingless bee endemic to cerrado.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Partamona mulata is a stingless bee species endemic to cerrado, a severely threatened phytogeographical domain. Clearing for pasture without proper soil treatment in the cerrado facilitates the proliferation of termite ground nests, which are the nesting sites for P. mulata. The genetic consequences of these changes in the cerrado environment for bee populations are still understudied. In this work, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 48 colonies of P. mulata collected throughout the species distribution range by sequencing two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome B. A very low polymorphism rate was observed when compared to another Partamona species from the Atlantic forest. Exclusive haplotypes were observed in two of the five areas sampled. The sharing of two haplotypes between collection sites separated by a distance greater than the flight range of queens indicates an ancient distribution for these haplotypes. The low haplotype and nucleotide diversity observed here suggests that P. mulata is either a young species or one that has been through population bottlenecks. Locally predominant and exclusive haplotypes (H2 and H4) may have been derived from local remnants through cerrado deforestation and the expansion of a few colonies with abundant nesting sites.
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Molecular genetic diversity in populations of the stingless bee Plebeia remota: A case study.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Genetic diversity is a major component of the biological diversity of an ecosystem. The survival of a population may be seriously threatened if its genetic diversity values are low. In this work, we measured the genetic diversity of the stingless bee Plebeia remota based on molecular data obtained by analyzing 15 microsatellite loci and sequencing two mitochondrial genes. Population structure and genetic diversity differed depending on the molecular marker analyzed: microsatellites showed low population structure and moderate to high genetic diversity, while mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) showed high population structure and low diversity in three populations. Queen philopatry and male dispersal behavior are discussed as the main reasons for these findings.
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Malaria inhibits surface expression of complement receptor 1 in monocytes/macrophages, causing decreased immune complex internalization.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Complement receptor 1 (CR1) expressed on the surface of phagocytic cells binds complement-bound immune complexes (IC), playing an important role in the clearance of circulating IC. This receptor is critical to prevent accumulation of IC, which can contribute to inflammatory pathology. Accumulation of circulating IC is frequently observed during malaria, although the factors contributing to this accumulation are not clearly understood. We have observed that the surface expression of CR1 on monocytes/macrophages and B cells is strongly reduced in mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii, a rodent malaria model. Monocytes/macrophages from these infected mice present a specific inhibition of complement-mediated internalization of IC caused by the decreased CR1 expression. Accordingly, mice show accumulation of circulating IC and deposition of IC in the kidneys that inversely correlate with the decrease in CR1 surface expression. Our results indicate that malaria induces a significant decrease on surface CR1 expression in the monocyte/macrophage population that results in deficient internalization of IC by monocytes/macrophages. To determine whether this phenomenon is found in human malaria patients, we have analyzed 92 patients infected with either P. falciparum (22 patients) or P. vivax (70 patients) , the most prevalent human malaria parasites. The levels of surface CR1 on peripheral monocytes/macrophages and B cells of these patients show a significant decrease compared with uninfected control individuals in the same area. We propose that this decrease in CR1 plays an essential role in impaired IC clearance during malaria.
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PI3K p110? deletion attenuates murine atherosclerosis by reducing macrophage proliferation but not polarization or apoptosis in lesions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease regulated by infiltrating monocytes and T cells, among other cell types. Macrophage recruitment to atherosclerotic lesions is controlled by monocyte infiltration into plaques. Once in the lesion, macrophage proliferation in situ, apoptosis, and differentiation to an inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory phenotype (M2) are involved in progression to advanced atherosclerotic lesions. We studied the role of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) p110? in the regulation of in situ apoptosis, macrophage proliferation and polarization towards M1 or M2 phenotypes in atherosclerotic lesions. We analyzed atherosclerosis development in LDLR(-/-)p110?(+/-) and LDLR(-/-)p110?(-/-) mice, and performed expression and functional assays in tissues and primary cells from these and from p110?(+/-) and p110?(-/-) mice. Lack of p110? in LDLR(-/-) mice reduces the atherosclerosis burden. Atherosclerotic lesions in fat-fed LDLR(-/-)p110?(-/-) mice were smaller than in LDLR(-/-)p110?(+/-) controls, which coincided with decreased macrophage proliferation in LDLR(-/-)p110?(-/-) mouse lesions. This proliferation defect was also observed in p110?(-/-) bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) stimulated with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and was associated with higher intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. In contrast, T cell proliferation was unaffected in LDLR(-/-)p110?(-/-) mice. Moreover, p110? deficiency did not affect macrophage polarization towards the M1 or M2 phenotypes or apoptosis in atherosclerotic plaques, or polarization in cultured BMM. Our results suggest that higher cAMP levels and the ensuing inhibition of macrophage proliferation contribute to atheroprotection in LDLR(-/-) mice lacking p110?. Nonetheless, p110? deletion does not appear to be involved in apoptosis, in macrophage polarization or in T cell proliferation.
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In vitro activities of natural products against oral Candida isolates from denture wearers.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Candida-associated denture stomatitis is a frequent infectious disease. Treatment of this oral condition is difficult because failures and recurrences are common. The aim of this study was to test the in vitro antifungal activity of pure constituents of essentials oils.
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Variation in biofilm formation among blood and oral isolates of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.
Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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Biofilm production is considered a potential virulence factor of some Candida species. For this reason, an understanding of biofilm behavior of Candida albicans and its closely related species Candida dubliniensis is key to the development of effective preventive measures for invasive and oral candidiasis. The aim of this study was to compare the capacity of biofilm production by blood and oral isolates of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis using polystyrene, flat-bottomed 100-well microtiter plates.
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In vitro activities of new triazole antifungal agents, posaconazole and voriconazole, against oral Candida isolates from patients suffering from denture stomatitis.
Mycopathologia
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Denture stomatitis is often treated with antifungal agents but recurrences or new episodes are common, and certain episodes can be resistant. New triazoles, such as posaconazole and voriconazole, may represent useful alternatives for management. In vitro activities of amphotericin B, nystatin, miconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole against 150 oral Candida (101 C. albicans, 18 C. tropicalis, 12 C. glabrata, 11 C. guilliermondii, 4 C. parapsilosis, 2 Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 1 C. dubliniensis and 1 C. krusei) from 100 denture wearers were tested by the CLSI M27-A3 method. Resistant isolates were retested by Sensititre YeastOne and Etest. Most antifungal agents were very active. However, 4 C. glabrata (33.3%), 2 C. tropicalis (11.1%), 6 C. albicans (5.6%) and 1 C. krusei were resistant to itraconazole. Posaconazole was active against 143 yeast isolates (95.3%): 6 C. albicans (5.9%) and 1 C. tropicalis (5.6%) were resistant. Geometric mean MICs were 0.036 ?g/ml for C. parapsilosis, 0.062 ?g/ml for C. albicans, 0.085 ?g/ml for C. tropicalis, 0.387 ?g/ml for C. guilliermondii and 0.498 ?g/ml for C. glabrata. Voriconazole was active against 148 isolates (98.7%) with geometric mean MICs ranging from 0.030 ?g/ml for C. parapsilosis, 0.042 ?g/ml for C. albicans, 0.048 ?g/ml for C. tropicalis, 0.082 ?g/ml for C. guilliermondii, to 0.137 ?g/ml for C. glabrata. Only 2 C. albicans (2%) were resistant to voriconazole showing cross-resistance to other azoles. Posaconazole and voriconazole have excellent in vitro activities against all Candida isolates and could represent useful alternatives for recalcitrant or recurrent candidiasis.
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Responding to the needs of culturally diverse women who experience intimate partner violence.
Hawaii Med J
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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This paper presents the findings from a community based participatory research (CBPR) study that investigated the interface between culture and intimate partner violence (IPV) for women in selected cultural groups in Hawaii: Native Hawaiian, Filipino, Samoan, and Chuukese. The research question was, "What are the cultural perceptions, responses, and needs regarding IPV of selected individuals and groups served through a variety of programs that are affiliated with the three participating Community Health Centers (CHCs)?" This cross sectional, descriptive study collected both qualitative and quantitative data. Individual interviews were conducted with women who had experienced IPV. Focus groups were also conducted with other women from the same culture. Five common themes were identified across the four cultural groups: Living within a Collective; Cultural Protective Factors; Cultural Barriers to Helpseeking; Gender Specific Roles; and Belonging to a Place. The outcome from this study is increased knowledge that will be used to develop culturally appropriate interventions. Specific findings from each cultural group have been published. The purpose of this paper is to present common perceptions and responses to IPV from the four groups and suggest interventions based on the findings. Implications for practice are presented.
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[Breast cancer survival after 10 years of follow up, in Granada and Almeria Spanish Provinces].
Rev. Esp. Salud Publica
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2010
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To describe the overall and disease-free survival at five and ten years after breast cancer diagnosis in women from a previous case-control study, and establish related prognostic factors.
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Evidence for the involvement of Lfc and Tctex-1 in axon formation.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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RhoA and Rac play key and opposite roles during neuronal polarization. We now show that Lfc, a guanosine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), localizes to the Golgi apparatus and growth cones of developing neurons and negatively regulates neurite sprouting and axon formation through a Rho signaling pathway. Tctex-1, a dynein light chain implicated in axon outgrowth by modulating actin dynamics and Rac activity, colocalizes and physically interacts with Lfc, thus inhibiting its GEF activity, decreasing Rho-GTP levels, and functionally antagonizing Lfc during neurite formation.
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Phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida isolates from denture wearers.
Mycoses
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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The aim of the present study was to characterise phospholipase and proteinase activities of oral Candida isolates from 100 denture wearers and to study the relationship of these activities with denture stomatitis. Of 100 patients studied, 44 suffered from denture stomatitis. Specimens were collected by swabbing the denture and underlying mucosa. Isolates were previously identified by conventional mycological and genotypic methods. The phospholipase and proteinase activities were evaluated by agar plate methods. A total of 152 isolates were recovered from denture and underlying mucosa, including 101 Candida albicans, 18 Candida tropicalis, 14 Candida glabrata, 11 Candida guilliermondii, four Candida parapsilosis, two Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one isolate each of Candida dubliniensis and Candida krusei. Most C. albicans (97%) showed phospholipase activity; furthermore, the unique C. dubliniensis isolate showed a moderate phospholipase activity. The isolation of C. albicans (chi-square test, P = 0.0016) and phospholipase production by Candida spp. (chi-square test, P = 0.0213) was found to be significantly associated with denture stomatitis. Proteinase production was observed in <30% of isolates, and it was not related to the presence of denture stomatitis (P = 0.7675). Candida albicans isolates may produce both virulence factors, although the proteinase production was only observed in <30% of the isolates. Phospholipase production was exclusive of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.
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Isolation of Candida dubliniensis in denture stomatitis.
Arch. Oral Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2009
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To describe the isolation of Candida dubliniensis from a patient with denture stomatitis and to compare with the presence of yeasts in the oral cavities of denture wearers.
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Regulation of macrophage activation and septic shock susceptibility via p21(WAF1/CIP1).
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2009
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p21 is a cell-cycle inhibitor that is also known to suppress autoimmunity. Here, we provide evidence of a novel role for p21 as an inhibitor of macrophage activation. LPS stimulation of p21-deficient peritoneal macrophages induced increased activation compared with controls, with elevated production of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. The enhanced activity of LPS-stimulated p21-deficient macrophages correlated with increased activity of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. LPS stimulation of p21-deficient macrophages led to increased IkappaBalpha kinase activity, and increased IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation, resulting in elevated NF-kappaB activity. The effect of p21 in macrophage activation was independent of its cell-cycle inhibitory role. p21(-/-) mice showed greater sensitivity to LPS-induced septic shock than did WT mice, indicating that p21 contributes to maintenance of a balanced response to inflammatory stimuli and suggesting biological significance for the role of p21 in macrophage activation. Our findings project a role for p21 in the control of NF-kappaB-associated inflammation, and suggest that therapeutic modulation of p21 expression could be beneficial in inflammation-associated diseases.
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Effects of light-emitting diode radiations on human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro.
Photochem. Photobiol.
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Human visual system is exposed to high levels of natural and artificial lights of different spectra and intensities along lifetime. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are the basic lighting components in screens of PCs, phones and TV sets; hence it is so important to know the implications of LED radiations on the human visual system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LEDs radiations on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPEpiC). They were exposed to three light-darkness (12 h/12 h) cycles, using blue-468 nm, green-525 nm, red-616 nm and white light. Cellular viability of HRPEpiC was evaluated by labeling all nuclei with DAPI; Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by H2DCFDA staining; mitochondrial membrane potential was quantified by TMRM staining; DNA damage was determined by H2AX histone activation, and apoptosis was evaluated by caspases-3,-7 activation. It is shown that LED radiations decrease 75-99% cellular viability, and increase 66-89% cellular apoptosis. They also increase ROS production and DNA damage. Fluorescence intensity of apoptosis was 3.7% in nonirradiated cells and 88.8%, 86.1%, 83.9% and 65.5% in cells exposed to white, blue, green or red light, respectively. This study indicates three light-darkness (12 h/12 h) cycles of exposure to LED lighting affect in vitro HRPEpiC.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.