JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Hierarchical superstructures from a star-shaped molecule consisting of a cyclic oligosiloxane with cyanobiphenyl moieties.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Unconventional star-shaped liquid crystals (abbreviated as SiLCs) were successfully synthesized by chemically connecting four cyanobiphenyl anisotropic mesogens to the periphery of a super-hydrophobic and ultra-flexible cyclic tetramethyltetrasiloxane ring with flexible hexyl chains. Based on the combined experimental techniques of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), cross-polarized optical microscopy (POM), solid-state carbon-13 ((13)C) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and one-dimensional (1D) wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), it was found that the SiLC molecule exhibited the monotropic phase transition from a LC phase to a crystalline phase. The crystalline phase was only detected during slow heating processes above its glass transition temperature, while a LC phase was formed both during cooling and during heating processes. The hierarchical superstructures were identified from the structure-sensitive 2D WAXD of the macroscopically oriented SiLC film and confirmed by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) of the SiLC single crystals. The molecular packing symmetry in the monoclinic unit cell was further investigated by computer simulations on the real and reciprocal spaces. Macroscopically oriented SiLC hierarchical superstructures on the different length scales may provide the targeted physical properties, which can allow us to apply SiLC molecules in the fields of electro-optical devices and nonlinear optics.
Related JoVE Video
Oxidation behavior of P3HT layers on bare and TiO2-covered ZnO ripple structures evaluated by photoelectron spectroscopy.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
P3HT layers with a thickness of ?5 nm were deposited on bare and TiO2-covered ZnO ripple structures. The ZnO ripples were prepared wet-chemically and a TiO2 layer with a thickness less than 5 nm was prepared by atomic layer deposition. Under humid air and visible light illumination, the oxidation behaviors of P3HT on these surfaces were studied using photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that P3HT on TiO2/ZnO oxidizes more easily than that on bare ZnO ripples. Using a model substrate of a flat ZnO surface in combination with angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, we found that oxidation of P3HT occurs at the surface of the topmost layer of P3HT, not at the P3HT/oxide interfaces, even though P3HT oxidation is strongly influenced by the interface structure. It is suggested that the lifetime of electron-hole pairs can be strongly influenced by the interface structure, which can also affect the oxidation behavior of P3HT.
Related JoVE Video
Enhancement of ORR catalytic activity by multiple heteroatom-doped carbon materials.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heteroatom-doped carbon matrices have been attracting significant attention due to their superior electrochemical stability, light weight and low cost. Hence, in this study, various types of heteroatom, including single dopants of N, B and P and multiple dopants of B-N and P-N with a carbon matrix were synthesized by an innovative method named the solution plasma process. The heteroatom was doped into the carbon matrix during the discharge process by continuous dissociation and recombination of precursors. The chemical bonding structure, ORR activity and electrochemical performance were compared in detail for each single dopant and multiple dopants. According to the Raman spectra, the carbon structures were deformed by the doped heteroatoms in the carbon matrix. In comparison with N-doped structures (NCNS), the ORR potential of PN-doped structures (PNCNS) was positively shifted from -0.27 V to -0.24 V. It was observed that doping with N decreased the bonding between P and C in the matrix. The multiple doping induced additional active sites for ORR which further enhanced ORR activity and stability. Therefore, PNCNS is a promising metal-free catalyst for ORR at the cathode in a fuel cell.
Related JoVE Video
Activation of T-cell Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Suppresses Keratinocyte Survival and Proliferation Following UVB Irradiation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic exposure of UV radiation can contribute to the development of skin cancer by promoting PTK signaling. Studies show that exposure to UV radiation increases the ligand-independent activation of PTKs and induces PTP inactivation. In the present work, we report that TC-PTP activity is stimulated during the initial response to UVB irradiation which leads to suppression of keratinocyte cell survival and proliferation via the down-regulation of STAT3 signaling. Our results show that TC-PTP-deficient keratinocyte cell lines expressed a significantly increased level of phosphorylated STAT3 after exposure to low dose UVB. This increase corresponded with increased cell proliferation in TC-PTP-deficient keratinocytes following UVB irradiation. Loss of TC-PTP also reduced UVB-induced apoptosis. In corroboration with these results, overexpression of TC-PTP in keratinocyte cell lines yielded a decrease in phosphorylated STAT3 levels, which corresponded with a significant decrease in cell proliferation in response to low dose UVB. We demonstrate that TC-PTP activity was increased upon UVB exposure and overexpression of TC-PTP in keratinocyte cell lines further increased its activity in the presence of UVB. Treatment of TC-PTP-deficient keratinocytes with the STAT3 inhibitor STA21 significantly reduced cell viability following UVB exposure in comparison with untreated TC-PTP-deficient keratinocytes, confirming that the effect of TC-PTP on cell viability is mediated by STAT3 dephosphorylation. Combined, our results indicate that UVB-mediated activation of TC-PTP plays an important role in the STAT3-dependent regulation of keratinocyte cell proliferation and survival. Furthermore, these results suggest that TC-PTP may be a novel potential target for the prevention of UVB-induced skin cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
EVpedia: A Community Web Portal for Extracellular Vesicles Research.
Dae-Kyum Kim, Jaewook Lee, Sae Rom Kim, Dong-Sic Choi, Yae Jin Yoon, Ji Hyun Kim, Gyeongyun Go, Dinh Nhung, Kahye Hong, Su Chul Jang, Si-Hyun Kim, Kyong-Su Park, Oh Youn Kim, Hyun Taek Park, Ji Hye Seo, Elena Aikawa, Monika Baj-Krzyworzeka, Bas W M van Balkom, Mattias Belting, Lionel Blanc, Vincent Bond, Antonella Bongiovanni, Francesc E Borràs, Luc Buée, Edit I Buzás, Lesley Cheng, Aled Clayton, Emanuele Cocucci, Charles S Dela Cruz, Dominic M Desiderio, Dolores Di Vizio, Karin Ekström, Juan M Falcon-Perez, Chris Gardiner, Bernd Giebel, David W Greening, Julia Christina Gross, Dwijendra Gupta, An Hendrix, Andrew F Hill, Michelle M Hill, Esther Nolte-'t Hoen, Do Won Hwang, Jameel Inal, Medicharla V Jagannadham, Muthuvel Jayachandran, Young-Koo Jee, Malene Jørgensen, Kwang Pyo Kim, Yoon-Keun Kim, Thomas Kislinger, Cecilia Lässer, Dong Soo Lee, Hakmo Lee, Johannes van Leeuwen, Thomas Lener, Ming-Lin Liu, Jan Lötvall, Antonio Marcilla, Suresh Mathivanan, Andreas Möller, Jess Morhayim, François Mullier, Irina Nazarenko, Rienk Nieuwland, Diana N Nunes, Ken Pang, Jaesung Park, Tushar Patel, Gabriella Pocsfalvi, Hernando Del Portillo, Ulrich Putz, Marcel I Ramirez, Marcio L Rodrigues, Tae-Young Roh, Felix Royo, Susmita Sahoo, Raymond Schiffelers, Shivani Sharma, Pia Siljander, Richard J Simpson, Carolina Soekmadji, Philip Stahl, Allan Stensballe, Ewa Stępień, Hidetoshi Tahara, Arne Trummer, Hadi Valadi, Laura J Vella, Sun Nyunt Wai, Kenneth Witwer, María Yáñez-Mó, Hyewon Youn, Reinhard Zeidler, Yong Song Gho.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Extracellular vesicles are spherical bilayered proteolipids, harboring various bioactive molecules. Due to the complexity of the vesicular nomenclatures and components, online searches for extracellular vesicle-related publications and vesicular components are currently challenging.
Related JoVE Video
Physical exercise ameliorates the reduction of neural stem cell, cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in senescent mice induced by D-galactose.
BMC Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BackgroundAging negatively affects adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and exercise attenuates the age-related reduction in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In the present study, we used senescent mice induced by D-galactose to examine neural stem cells, cell proliferation, and neuronal differentiation with or without exercise treatment. D-galactose (100 mg/kg) was injected to six-week-old C57BL/6 J mice for 6 weeks to induce the senescent model. During these periods, the animals were placed on a treadmill and acclimated to exercise for 1 week. Then treadmill running was conducted for 1 h/day for 5 consecutive days at 10-12 m/min for 5 weeks.ResultsBody weight and food intake did not change significantly after D-galactose administration with/without treadmill exercise, although body weight and food intake was highest after treadmill exercise in adult animals and lowest after treadmill exercise in D-galactose-induced senescent model animals. D-galactose treatment significantly decreased the number of nestin (a neural stem cell marker), Ki67 (a cell proliferation marker), and doublecortin (DCX, a differentiating neuroblast marker) positive cells compared to those in the control group. In contrast, treadmill exercise significantly increased Ki67- and DCX-positive cell numbers in both the vehicle- and D-galactose treated groups. In addition, phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was significantly decreased in the D-galactose treated group, whereas exercise increased their expression in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in both the vehicle- and D-galactose-treated groups.ConclusionThese results suggest that treadmill exercise attenuates the D-galactose-induced reduction in neural stem cells, cell proliferation, and neuronal differentiation by enhancing the expression of pCREB and BDNF in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.
Related JoVE Video
Preoperative Predictors of Pathologic Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma Undergoing RPLND.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with locally advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represent a subset of patients who may benefit from retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND). We aimed to identify preoperative clinical predictors of positive lymph nodes in patients with RCC without distant metastasis who underwent RPLND.
Related JoVE Video
Autophagy activity in pulmonary metastatic tumor tissues from colorectal cancer: a pilot study.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autophagy has been reported to be involved in treatment failure in tumor. We aimed to evaluate autophagy activity in tumor tissue and compare them between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups.
Related JoVE Video
The proto-oncogene PBF binds p53 and is associated with prognostic features in colorectal cancer.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The PTTG1-binding factor (PBF) is a transforming gene capable of eliciting tumor formation in xenograft models. However, the precise role of PBF in tumorigenesis and its prognostic value as a cancer biomarker remain largely uncharacterised, particularly in malignancies outside the thyroid. Here, we provide the first evidence that PBF represents a promising prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. Examination of a total of 39 patients demonstrated higher PBF expression at both the mRNA (P?=?0.009) and protein (P??90%; P?
Related JoVE Video
Off-hour effect on 3-month functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke: a prospective multicenter registry.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The time of hospital arrival may have an effect on prognosis of various vascular diseases. We examined whether off-hour admission would affect the 3-month functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to tertiary hospitals.
Related JoVE Video
Effective generation of the spread-out-Bragg peak from the laser accelerated proton beams using a carbon-proton mixed target.
Australas Phys Eng Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Conventional laser accelerated proton beam has broad energy spectra. It is not suitable for clinical use directly, so it is necessary for employing energy selection system. However, in the conventional laser accelerated proton system, the intensity of the proton beams in the low energy regime is higher than that in the high energy regime. Thus, to generate spread-out-Bragg peak (SOBP), stronger weighting value to the higher energy proton beams is needed and weaker weighting value to the lower energy proton beams is needed, which results in the wide range of weighting values. The purpose of this research is to investigate a method for efficient generating of the SOBP with varying magnetic field in the energy selection system using a carbon-proton mixture target. Energy spectrum of the laser accelerated proton beams was acquired using Particle-In-Cell simulations. The Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit was implemented for energy selection, particle transportation, and dosimetric property measurement. The energy selection collimator hole size of the energy selection system was changed from 1 to 5 mm in order to investigate the effect of hole size on the dosimetric properties for Bragg peak and SOBP. To generate SOBP, magnetic field in the energy selection system was changed during beam irradiation with each beam weighting factor. In this study, our results suggest that carbon-proton mixture target based laser accelerated proton beams can generate quasi-monoenergetic energy distribution and result in the efficient generation of SOBP. A further research is needed to optimize SOBP according to each range and modulated width using an optimized weighting algorithm.
Related JoVE Video
Hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating of mesoporous silica and its use as a preconcentrating agent of gas analytes.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mesoporous silica with mean pore size of ?14 nm was coated by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a thermal deposition method. We showed that the inner walls of pores larger than ?8 nm can be coated by thin layers of PDMS, and the surfaces consisting of PDMS-coated silica were superhydrophobic, with water contact angles close to 170°. We used the PDMS-coated silica as adsorbents of various gas-phase chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. PDMS-coated silica allowed molecular desorption of various CWA simulants even after exposure under highly humid conditions and, therefore, is applicable as an agent for the preconcentration of gas-phase analytes to enhance the sensitivities of various sensors.
Related JoVE Video
Mutation analysis of SPAST, ATL1, and REEP1 in Korean Patients with Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia.
J Clin Neurol
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs. Mutations in the spastin gene (SPAST) are the most common causes of HSP, accounting for 40-67% of autosomal dominant HSP (AD-HSP) and 12-18% of sporadic cases. Mutations in the atlastin-1 gene (ATL1) and receptor expression-enhancing protein 1 gene (REEP1) are the second and third most common causes of AD-HSP, respectively.
Related JoVE Video
MRI-based Algorithm for Acute Ischemic Stroke Subtype Classification.
J Stroke
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to improve inter-rater reliability and minimize diagnosis of undetermined etiology for stroke subtype classification, using a stroke registry, we developed and implemented a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based algorithm for acute ischemic stroke subtype classification (MAGIC).
Related JoVE Video
In vivo Kinetic Biodistribution of Nano-Sized Outer Membrane Vesicles Derived from Bacteria.
Small
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Evaluation of kinetic distribution and behaviors of nanoparticles in vivo provides crucial clues into their roles in living organisms. Extracellular vesicles are evolutionary conserved nanoparticles, known to play important biological functions in intercellular, inter-species, and inter-kingdom communication. In this study, the first kinetic analysis of the biodistribution of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs)-bacterial extracellular vesicles-with immune-modulatory functions is performed. OMVs, injected intraperitoneally, spread to the whole mouse body and accumulate in the liver, lung, spleen, and kidney within 3 h of administration. As an early systemic inflammation response, increased levels of TNF-? and IL-6 are observed in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, the number of leukocytes and platelets in the blood is decreased. OMVs and cytokine concentrations, as well as body temperature are gradually decreased 6 h after OMV injection, in concomitance with the formation of eye exudates, and of an increase in ICAM-1 levels in the lung. Following OMV elimination, most of the inflammatory signs are reverted, 12 h post-injection. However, leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are increased as a late reaction. Taken together, these results suggest that OMVs are effective mediators of long distance communication in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
The role of the central Fe atom in the N4-macrocyclic structure for the enhancement of oxygen reduction reaction in a heteroatom nitrogen-carbon nanosphere.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the present work, we demonstrated the significance of a central transition metal, Fe, in a N4-macrocycle for the enhancement of ORR activity and other electrochemical properties. The catalysts were synthesized by a solution plasma process. Fe-phthalocyanine/benzene and phthalocyanine/benzene were chosen as the precursors of Fe-phthalocyanine based mesoporous carbon (FP-MCS) and phthalocyanine based mesoporous carbon (P-MCS) catalysts, respectively. The existence of Fe-N4 and N4 macrocyclic structures was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. From the chemical bonding structure, FP-MCS demonstrated that the Me-N peaks increased as the amount of iron-phthalocyanine introduced in the experiment increased. The dominant active site was shifted from pyridinic nitrogen to Me-N when iron-phthalocyanine was present. The analysis of Tof-SIMS indicated that the relative intensity of FeN4Cy(+) ions was approximately 50% of the total amount of ionized species of ?FeNxCy(+). Both XPS and Tof-SIMS results confirmed that the Fe-N4 site was the most favourable structure in the matrix. From CV measurements, the cathodic peak current corresponding to ORR activity slightly shifted from -0.19 V to -0.17 V when the active site changed from N4 to Fe-N4 macrocyclic structure. The current density increased more than 30% in the presence of iron. Based on the calculation of Koutecky-Levich plots, the electron transfer numbers for ORR reaction in P- and FP-MCSs were 3.25 and 3.98, respectively. These results clearly demonstrated that the presence of a Fe central ion in the N4-macrocyclic structure significantly enhanced the ORR and charge transfer number in ORR activities.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of nodakenin on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nodakenin, derived from the roots of Angelica gigas Nakai, is an important natural resource and medicinal material with anti-allergic and anti- inflammatory activities. We have previously shown that nodakenin inhibits IgE/Ag-induced degranulation in mast cells. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of nodakenin on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)- like skin lesions in ICR mice. Scratching behavior, skin severity score, blood IgE level, and skin thickness were improved in DNCB-induced AD-like ICR mice. Our results showed that nodakenin suppressed the increase of AD-like skin lesions in ICR mice. These results suggest that nodakenin may be a potential therapeutic resource for AD as well as an adjunctive agent to control itching associated with AD.
Related JoVE Video
The influence of a fibrous carbon envelope on the formation of CoFe nanoparticles for durable electrocatalytic oxygen evolution.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Co oxides are known to be active and stable alternative anode electrocatalysts possessing the potential to replace the best performing but most expensive Ir and Ru oxides in alkaline water electrolysis. Of late, Co oxides loaded on various carbon supports have been reported as a way to outperform Ir or Ru catalysts by improving the utilization efficiency. In this study, we introduce Co and Fe nanoparticles embedded carbon nanofibers (CoFe-CNFs), fabricated through electrospinning and pyrolysis of a polymer mixed with Co and Fe precursors. This method is a facile route for simultaneously making Co and Fe nanoparticles as well as the stable accommodation of the CoFe nanoparticles in the carbon support. We demonstrate the potential of the CoFe-CNFs as active and stable electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media. We conducted detailed physico-chemical characterizations to elucidate the effect of the CNFs on the OER activity and stability of the CoFe-CNFs. It is suggested that the CNFs are a medium in which OER-active CoFe alloy nanoparticles are formed homogeneously, and that carbon layers surrounding the nanoparticles are beneficial to the stability of the CoFe-CNFs in the OER.
Related JoVE Video
BRAF V600 co-testing in thyroid FNA cytology: short-term experience in a large cancer centre in the UK.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To ascertain whether BRAF V600 mutational analysis is useful for diagnosis of thyroid cancer in thyroid fine needle aspirate (FNA).
Related JoVE Video
Treating the two extremes in renal cell carcinoma: management of small renal masses and cytoreductive nephrectomy in metastatic disease.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The incidental renal mass represents a heterogeneous group that contains both benign and malignant pathologies. The majority of renal cell carcinomas are discovered incidentally, without the presence of symptoms directly related to the mass, and are closely associated with the term small renal masses because of the discovery before the onset of symptoms. In general, small renal masses are defined as 4 cm or smaller, and may account for greater than half of renal cell carcinoma diagnosis. The use of renal mass biopsy may offer additional pathological information but the clinician must be reminded of the technical and diagnostic limitations of renal mass biopsy. Patient-dependent factors, such as life expectancy and comorbidities, guide the management of small renal masses, which include active surveillance, partial nephrectomy, radical nephrectomy, and ablative techniques (cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation). Partial nephrectomy has demonstrated durable oncologic control for small renal masses while preserving renal function and, if feasible, is the current treatment of choice. In the other extreme of the renal cell carcinomas spectrum and in the presence of metastatic disease, the removal of the renal primary tumor is termed cytoreductive nephrectomy. Two randomized trials (SWOG 8949 and EORTC 30947) have demonstrated a survival benefit with cytoreductive nephrectomy before the initiation of immunotherapy. These two studies have also been the motivation to perform cytoreductive nephrectomy in the targeted therapy era. Currently, there are two ongoing randomized prospective trials accruing to investigate the timing and relevance of cytoreductive nephrectomy in the contemporary setting of targeted therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of enzyme replacement therapy in late onset Pompe disease: open pilot study of 48 weeks follow-up.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme acid glucosidase alfa (GAA). Recently, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) using recombinant human GAA (rhGAA) became clinically available, and is expected to modify the clinical course in LOPD of various stages. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and adverse events of ERT for 48 weeks in Korean LOPD patients. Five Korean LOPD patients were included in the study. At baseline, clinical and laboratory features, including muscular and pulmonary function, were assessed, and rhGAA was infused every 2 weeks. Then, patients were examined at every 12-week interval for evaluation of changes in motor and pulmonary function for 48 weeks along with adverse reactions to ERT. The muscular and pulmonary function of the patients varied depending on the baseline condition of the patient after 48 weeks of ERT. However, the overall function of the patients showed stabilization of the disease rather than the improvement seen in infantile-onset Pompe disease. This is the first clinical study on ERT of Korean LOPD patients. Results of our study showed stabilization of muscular and pulmonary function in LOPD patients for 48 weeks with a favorable prognosis for patients who received early diagnosis and ambulatory patients. One of our patients developed a serious anaphylactic reaction, which necessitated the cessation of further ERT. Therefore, our study shows that early diagnosis and ERT are important in preventing further deterioration of the disease.
Related JoVE Video
Open versus laparoscopic surgery for mid-rectal or low-rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (COREAN trial): survival outcomes of an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Compared with open resection, laparoscopic resection of rectal cancers is associated with improved short-term outcomes, but high-level evidence showing similar long-term outcomes is scarce. We aimed to compare survival outcomes of laparoscopic surgery with open surgery for patients with mid-rectal or low-rectal cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical relevance of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as infection markers in renal impairment: a cross sectional study.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
IntroductionAlthough the clinical application of procalcitonin (PCT) as an infection marker in patients with impaired renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min) has been increasing recently, it is unclear whether PCT is more accurate than C-reactive protein (CRP). We investigated the clinical value of CRP and PCT based on renal function.MethodsFrom November 2008 to July 2011, a total of 493 patients who simultaneously underwent CRP and PCT tests were enrolled. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and characteristics of both markers were analyzed according to infection severity and renal function.ResultsIn patients with impaired renal function, the area under the ROC curve was 0.876 for CRP and 0.876 for PCT. In patients with infection, CRP levels differed depending on whether the infection was localized, septic, or severely septic, whereas PCT levels were higher in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. In patients without infection, CRP did not correlate with eGFR, while PCT was negatively correlated with eGFR.ConclusionThis study demonstrates that CRP is accurate for predicting infection in patients with impaired renal function. The study suggests that in spite of its higher cost, PCT is not superior to CRP as an infection marker in terms of diagnostic value.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of anti-ganglioside antibodies and their clinical correlates with guillain-barré syndrome in Korea: a nationwide multicenter study.
J Clin Neurol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
No previous studies have investigated the relationship between various anti-ganglioside antibodies and the clinical characteristics of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in Korea. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of anti-ganglioside antibodies in Korean GBS patients, and to identify their clinical significance.
Related JoVE Video
Safety and efficacy of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator administered in the 3- to 4.5-hour window in Korea.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The safety and efficacy of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-TPA) in the 3- to 4.5-hour window were largely driven from Western populations, but have not been systematically explored in Korean population.
Related JoVE Video
The rCBV ratio on perfusion-weighted imaging reveals the extent of blood flow on conventional angiography after acute ischemic stroke.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the rCBV (regional cerebral blood flow volume) ratio on perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) and the extent of collateral flow on conventional angiography.
Related JoVE Video
Whole-genome analysis in Korean patients with autoimmune myasthenia gravis.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The underlying cause of myasthenia gravis (MG) is unknown, although it likely involves a genetic component. However, no common genetic variants have been unequivocally linked to autoimmune MG. We sought to identify the genetic variants associated with an increased or decreased risk of developing MG in samples from a Korean Multicenter MG Cohort.
Related JoVE Video
Role of metastasectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the era of targeted therapy.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Numerous biological pathways are affected in renal cell carcinoma and the introduction of targeted agents has improved the survival of patients with advanced and metastatic disease. Durable and long-lasting cure is rarely achieved, and in select cases, the excision of metastatic deposits has shown to increase survival. Clinical trials of targeted agents are being explored as neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies with the role of metastasectomy evolving in the treatment paradigm. This review examines published reports of metastasectomy and its developing role in the era of targeted therapy. A Medline search was conducted using keywords "metastasectomy," "renal cell carcinoma," and "targeted therapy," and selected articles are discussed by examining prognostic stratification and metastasectomy in major anatomic regions. Most published reports span earlier periods of immunotherapy and chemotherapy, and henceforth, discussions are in historical context in this review. Although there is lack of Level 1 evidence, reports have suggested the prognostic value and survival benefit for metastasectomy in lesions that are amenable to complete resection after longer disease-free intervals in carefully selected patients with adequate performance status. Therefore, the role of metastasectomy must be further elucidated in the era of targeted therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Vocal process granulomas: a systematic review of treatment.
Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vocal process granulomas (VPGs) are benign laryngeal lesions with controversial treatment and a tendency to recur. There are several treatment options with unpredictable results, high recurrence rates, and disappointing long-term outcome. The aims of this article are to focus on evidence-based current treatment strategies for primary lesions and recurrences.
Related JoVE Video
Recanalization therapy for internal carotid artery occlusion presenting as acute ischemic stroke.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to describe the current status and clinical outcomes of recanalization therapy for internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) presenting as acute ischemic stroke.
Related JoVE Video
Recurrence after thymoma resection according to the extent of the resection.
J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Complete resection of the thymus is considered appropriate for a thymoma resection because any remaining thymic tissue can lead to local recurrence. However, there are few studies concerning the extent of thymus resection. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether recurrence following thymoma resection correlated to the extent of resection.
Related JoVE Video
Direct access to a hospital offering intravenous thrombolysis therapy improves functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke patients.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Referral from other hospitals is one of the primary causes of delayed thrombolysis therapy after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We aimed to evaluate whether direct access to a hospital offering intravenous thrombolysis therapy was associated with good functional outcome in AIS patients treated with thrombolysis. We enrolled patients who received intravenous thrombolysis within 3 hours of symptom onset at our stroke center. We divided these patients into two groups: those with a direct admission to our stroke center and those with indirect admission by referral from other community hospitals. We investigated onset-to-door time and onset-to-recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) time according to admission mode. We then assessed the association between a direct admission and favorable outcome at 90 days. A total of 232 patients (mean age of 66.6 years, median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 10) were included. A total of 48.7% of AIS patients treated with intravenous thrombolytic therapy were transferred from other hospitals. Patients who were directly admitted to our stroke center had a shorter onset-to-door time (61 versus 120 minutes, p<0.001) and onset-to-rtPA time (103 versus 155 minutes, p<0.001) than those referred from other hospitals. Direct admission was associated with a good outcome with an odds ratio of 2.03 (95% confidence interval 1.051-3.917, p=0.035), after adjusting for baseline variables. Thrombolysis after direct admission to a hospital offering intravenous thrombolysis therapy could shorten onset-to-rtPA time and improve stroke outcome in patients with AIS.
Related JoVE Video
A prospective phase II trial of S-1 and cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy for locoregionally advanced esophageal cancer.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
S-1 is a novel oral fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent designed to enhance clinical efficacy, reduce gastrointestinal toxicity, and enhance radiotherapy effectiveness. A phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative chemoradiation with S-1 and cisplatin in locoregionally advanced esophageal cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Current status of recanalization therapy in acute ischemic stroke with symptomatic intracranial arterial occlusion in Korea.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent methodological advances in recanalization therapy may alter recanalization strategies and clinical outcomes in patients with symptomatic occlusion of intracranial cerebral arteries. However, few studies have analyzed these changes at a national level, with none conducted in Korea.
Related JoVE Video
DSSylation, a novel protein modification targets proteins induced by oxidative stress, and facilitates their degradation in cells.
Protein Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Timely removal of oxidatively damaged proteins is critical for cells exposed to oxidative stresses; however, cellular mechanism for clearing oxidized proteins is not clear. Our study reveals a novel type of protein modification that may play a role in targeting oxidized proteins and remove them. In this process, DSS1 (deleted in split hand/split foot 1), an evolutionally conserved small protein, is conjugated to proteins induced by oxidative stresses in vitro and in vivo, implying oxidized proteins are DSS1 clients. A subsequent ubiquitination targeting DSS1-protein adducts has been observed, suggesting the client proteins are degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The DSS1 attachment to its clients is evidenced to be an enzymatic process modulated by an unidentified ATPase. We name this novel protein modification as DSSylation, in which DSS1 plays as a modifier, whose attachment may render target proteins a signature leading to their subsequent ubiquitination, thereby recruits proteasome to degrade them.
Related JoVE Video
Thermal- and photo-induced phase-transition behaviors of a tapered dendritic liquid crystal with photochromic azobenzene mesogens and a bicyclic chiral center.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A ribbon-shaped chiral liquid crystalline (LC) dendrimer with photochromic azobenzene mesogens and an isosorbide chiral center (abbreviated as AZ3 DLC) was successfully synthesized and its major phase transitions were studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and linear polarized optical microscopy (POM). Its ordered structures at different temperatures were further identified through structure-sensitive diffraction techniques. Based on the experimental results, it was found that the AZ3 DLC molecule exhibited the low-ordered chiral smectic (Sm*) LC phase with 6.31?nm periodicity at a high-temperature phase region. AZ3 DLC showed the reversible photoisomerization in both organic solvents and nematic (N) LC media. As a chiral-inducing agent, it exhibited a good solubility, a high helical-twisting power, and a large change in the helical-twisting power due to its photochemical isomerization in the commercially available N LC hosts. Therefore, we were able to reversibly "remote-control" the colors in the whole visible region by finely tuning the helical pitch of the spontaneously formed helical superstructures.
Related JoVE Video
Feasibility of a robot-assisted thoracoscopic lymphadenectomy along the recurrent laryngeal nerves in radical esophagectomy for esophageal squamous carcinoma.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lymph node dissection along bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLNs) is an essential component of radical esophagectomy for esophageal squamous carcinoma. However, it is associated with significant morbidity and requires a great deal of skill when performed with minimally invasive surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Symptomatic steno-occlusion in patients with acute cerebral infarction: prevalence, distribution, and functional outcome.
J Stroke
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Symptomatic steno-occlusion (SYSO) in acute ischemic stroke has a significant impact on treatment options and prognosis. However, the prevalence, distribution, clinical characteristics, and outcome of SYSO are not well known.
Related JoVE Video
Electrophysiological characteristics of six mutations in hClC-1 of Korean patients with myotonia congenita.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ClC-1 is a member of a large family of voltage-gated chloride channels, abundantly expressed in human skeletal muscle. Mutations in ClC-1 are associated with myotonia congenita (MC) and result in loss of regulation of membrane excitability in skeletal muscle. We studied the electrophysiological characteristics of six mutants found among Korean MC patients, using patch clamp methods in HEK293 cells. Here, we found that the autosomal dominant mutants S189C and P480S displayed reduced chloride conductances compared to WT. Autosomal recessive mutant M128I did not show a typical rapid deactivation of Cl(-) currents. While sporadic mutant G523D displayed sustained activation of Cl(-) currents in the whole cell traces, the other sporadic mutants, M373L and M609K, demonstrated rapid deactivations. V1/2 of these mutants was shifted to more depolarizing potentials. In order to identify potential effects on gating processes, slow and fast gating was analyzed for each mutant. We show that slow gating of the mutants tends to be shifted toward more positive potentials in comparison to WT. Collectively, these six mutants found among Korean patients demonstrated modifications of channel gating behaviors and reduced chloride conductances that likely contribute to the physiologic changes of MC.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical and Pathological Features of Korean Patients with DNM2-Related Centronuclear Myopathy.
J Clin Neurol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is characterized by the presence of central nuclei within a large number of muscle fibers. Mutations of the dynamin 2 gene (DNM2) are common causes of autosomal dominant or sporadic CNM. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical and pathological features of CNM relative to the presence of DNM2 mutations.
Related JoVE Video
Prediction for response duration to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in EGFR mutated never smoker lung adenocarcinoma.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, ? 20-30% exhibit de novo resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The aim of this study was to examine whether mutations in the EGFR-downstream genes may be associated with de novo resistance to EGFR-TKIs in EGFR mutation-positive patients.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical and prognostic implications of ALK and ROS1 rearrangements in never-smokers with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic significance of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) rearrangement in never-smokers with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Herbal adaptogens combined with protein fractions from bovine colostrum and hen egg yolk reduce liver TNF-? expression and protein carbonylation in Western diet feeding in rats.
Nutr Metab (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We examined if a purported anti-inflammatory supplement (AF) abrogated Western-diet (WD)-induced liver pathology in rats. AF contained: 1) protein concentrates from bovine colostrum and avian egg yolk; 2) herbal adaptogens and antioxidants; and 3) acetyl-L-carnitine.
Related JoVE Video
Protein tyrosine phosphatases PTP-1B, SHP-2, and PTEN facilitate Rb/E2F-associated apoptotic signaling.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To maintain tissue homeostasis, apoptosis is functionally linked to the cell cycle through the retinoblastoma (Rb)/E2F pathway. When the Rb tumor suppressor protein is functionally inactivated, E2F1 elicits an apoptotic response through both intrinsic (caspase-9 mediated) and extrinsic (caspase-8 mediated) apoptotic pathways in order to eliminate hyperproliferative cells. Rb/E2F-associated apoptosis has been demonstrated to be associated with the loss of constitutive transcriptional repression by Rb/E2F complexes and mediated by caspase-8. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) PTP-1B and SHP-2 have been previously shown to be directly activated by loss of Rb/E2F repression during Rb/E2F-associated apoptosis. In this current study, we demonstrate that the PTEN tumor suppressor is also directly activated by loss of Rb/E2F repression. We also demonstrate that PTP-1B, SHP-2, and PTEN play a functional role in Rb/E2F-associated apoptosis. Knockdown of PTP1B, SHP2, or PTEN expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA) in apoptotic cells increases cell viability and rescues cells from the Rb/E2F-associated apoptotic response. Furthermore, rescue from apoptosis coincides with inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage (activation). Our results indicate PTP-1B, SHP-2, and PTEN all play a functional role in Rb/E2F-associated apoptotic signal transduction and provide further evidence that PTP-1B, SHP-2, and PTEN can contribute to tumor suppression through an Rb/E2F-associated mechanism.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of somatic mutations in EGFR/KRAS/ALK-negative lung adenocarcinoma in never-smokers.
Genome Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung adenocarcinoma is a highly heterogeneous disease with various etiologies, prognoses, and responses to therapy. Although genome-scale characterization of lung adenocarcinoma has been performed, a comprehensive somatic mutation analysis of EGFR/KRAS/ALK-negative lung adenocarcinoma in never-smokers has not been conducted.
Related JoVE Video
Gender differences in the age-stratified prevalence of risk factors in Korean ischemic stroke patients: a nationwide stroke registry-based cross-sectional study.
Int J Stroke
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although ethnic or cultural differences affect prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, limited information is available about the age- and gender-stratified prevalence of the risk factors in Asian stroke population.
Related JoVE Video
Resveratrol and P-glycoprotein Inhibitors Enhance the Anti-Skin Cancer Effects of Ursolic Acid.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ursolic acid, present in apples, rosemary, and other sources, is known to inhibit tumor formation and tumor cell viability in multiple systems, including skin. However, various cancers are resistant to ursolic acid treatment. Herein, skin carcinoma cells (Ca3/7) as compared with skin papilloma cells (MT1/2) displayed more resistance to ursolic acid-induced cytotoxicity. Interestingly, Ca3/7 cells had elevated levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependent efflux pump that mediates resistance to chemotherapy in preclinical and clinical settings, and not only accumulated less but also more rapidly expelled the P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 (Rh123) indicating ursolic acid is transported by P-gp. To determine whether P-gp inhibition can enhance ursolic acid-mediated cytotoxicity, cells were challenged with P-gp inhibitors verapamil or cyclosporin A. Alternatively, cells were pretreated with the natural compound resveratrol, a known chemotherapy sensitizer. Verapamil and resveratrol enhanced the effects of ursolic acid in both cell lines, whereas cyclosporin A only did so in Ca3/7 cells. Similarly, verapamil inhibited Rh123 efflux in both lines, whereas cyclosporin A only inhibited Rh123 efflux in Ca3/7 cells. Resveratrol did not inhibit Rh123 efflux in either line, indicating the synergistic effects of resveratrol and ursolic acid are not manifest by inhibition of P-gp-mediated efflux of ursolic acid. These results indicate that the anti-skin cancer effects of ursolic acid are enhanced with P-gp inhibitors. In addition, resveratrol and ursolic acid interact synergistically, but not through inhibition of P-gp. Implications: Resveratrol and/or p-glycoprotein inhibitors in combination with ursolic acid are an effective anti-skin cancer regimen. Mol Cancer Res; 11(12); 1521-9. ©2013 AACR.
Related JoVE Video
Proton-radiography-based quality assurance of proton range compensator.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of proton radiography (pRad) as a patient-specific range compensator (RC) quality assurance (QA) tool and to validate its clinical utility by performing QA on RCs having three kinds of possible defects. In order to achieve pRad for a single EBT film, proton beam currents were modulated with new weighting factors, maximizing the linearity of optical-density-to-thickness ratio. Two RCs, examined to be accurately manufactured as planned, were selected to estimate the feasibility of our pRad. The optical densities of the EBT film on which the RC was irradiated with the modulated proton beam were digitized to pixel values (pv) and then converted to thickness using a thickness-pv calibration curve. The thickness information on the pRad was compared with plan data that had been extracted from treatment planning system. The mean thickness difference (TD) over the flat RC regions was calculated as 0.39 mm, and the standard deviation as 0.22 mm, and the proton scattering effect was analyzed by step phantom measurement. Even proton scattering effected a TD of over 1 mm in the large gradient region, the percentage of pixels over the acceptance criterion was only within 1.11% and 3.49%, respectively, when a 1 mm distance to agreement tolerance limit was applied. The QA results for both precisely and imprecisely manufactured RCs demonstrated the high potential utility and clinical applicability of the pRad-based RC QA tool.
Related JoVE Video
Robot-assisted versus endoscopic submandibular gland resection via retroauricular approach: a prospective nonrandomized study.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the short-term clinicopathological results of robot-assisted and endoscopic resection of the submandibular gland by the retroauricular approach. We present a prospective, non-random, study of 35 patients who had endoscope-assisted (n=22), or robot-assisted (n=13), resection of the submandibular gland using a retroauricular approach. Patients selected one of the two methods, and short-term clinical outcomes were then compared, including maximum diameter of the tumour and gland, length of incision, total operating time, amount of operative bleeding, amount and duration of drainage, duration of hospital stay, cosmesis, and complications. The operation was feasible in all patients with no appreciable operative complications or need to convert to a conventional open operation. The operating time of the robot-assisted group (63.4 (6.3)min) was comparable with that of the endoscopic group (66.5 (9.1)min) (p=0.15). There were no differences in the other clinical outcomes between the 2 groups. Both groups of patients were extremely satisfied with their postoperative cosmesis, and did not differ significantly (p=0.89). Robotic and endoscopic resection of the submandibular gland gave comparable early surgical outcomes and excellent cosmetic results. Despite the technical convenience for the surgeon, the robot gave no apparent clinical benefit over the endoscope in this series.
Related JoVE Video
Design of an ultra-miniaturized electron optical microcolumn with sub-5nm very high resolution.
Ultramicroscopy
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The achievement of a microminiaturized electrostatic electron optical column with very-high-resolution probe beam is an important challenge in the fields of electron beam lithography, metrology, and inspection for semiconductor and/or display devices. In this study, we propose an ultra-miniaturized, very-high-resolution electron optical microcolumn that can be assembled more easily compared to previous structures. The design mitigates the complexity of conventional manufacturing processes by eliminating the einzel lens without affecting the resolution performance. According to our numerical simulation results, the proposed ultra-miniaturized electron optical microcolumn produces superior performance with respect to probe beam size and deflection field size as compared to previously published results. A very high, sub-5-nm-resolution probe beam size and a deflection field size larger than 60?m are achievable at the electron energy of 1keV and a working distance of 1mm by inserting a focusing electrode and removing the einzel lens.
Related JoVE Video
Pure motor trigeminal neuropathy in a woman with tegmental pontine infarction.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 50-year-old woman presented with drowsiness, severe dysarthria, left facial palsy, and left hemiparesis. Diffusion-weighted MRI showed cerebral infarction in the left pontine tegmentum and right cerebellum and angiography revealed basilar artery occlusion. Altered consciousness and hemiparesis fully resolved following successful recananlisation of the basilar artery by emergent intra-arterial thrombolysis. However, about 8 months later, obvious wasting of the left temporal and buccal area without sensory signs was detected. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed a chronic denervation process in the left masseter and temporalis muscles. We suggest that a small infarction in the trigeminal nucleus of the pontine tegmentum can cause an isolated trigeminal motor neuropathy with masticatory muscle atrophy.
Related JoVE Video
Percutaneous transplantation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a dog suspected to have fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy.
J. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The use of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell transplantation therapy holds great promise for repairing spinal cord injury. Here we report the first clinical trial transplantation of human umbilical cord (hUCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the spinal cord of a dog suspected to have fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy (FCEM) and that experienced a loss of deep pain sensation. Locomotor functions improved following transplantation in a dog. Based on our findings, we suggest that transplantation of hUCB-derived MSCs will have beneficial therapeutic effects on FCEM patients lacking deep pain sensation.
Related JoVE Video
Improved rat spinal cord injury model using spinal cord compression by percutaneous method.
J. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Here, percutaneous spinal cord injury (SCI) methods using a balloon catheter in adult rats are described. A balloon catheter was inserted into the epidural space through the lumbosacral junction and then inflated between T9-T10 for 10 min under fluoroscopic guidance. Animals were divided into three groups with respect to inflation volume: 20 ?L (n = 18), 50 ?L (n = 18) and control (Fogarty catheter inserted but not inflated; n = 10). Neurological assessments were then made based on BBB score, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology. Both inflation volumes produced complete paralysis. Gradual recovery of motor function occurred when 20 ?L was used, but not after 50 ?L was applied. In the 50 ?L group, all gray and white matter was lost from the center of the lesion. In addition, supramaximal damage was noted, which likely prevented spontaneous recovery. This percutaneous spinal cord compression injury model is simple, rapid with high reproducibility and the potential to serve as a useful tool for investigation of pathophysiology and possible protective treatments of SCI in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Current status of acute stroke management in Korea: a report on a multicenter, comprehensive acute stroke registry.
Int J Stroke
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are limited data on the utilization of diagnostics and the variation of treatments at the national level in acute stroke care. Clinical Research Center for Stroke - 5th division stroke registry aimed to describe stroke statistics and quality of care in Korea and to implement quality indicators. Clinical Research Center for Stroke - 5th division registry was established in April 2008 and covers pretreatment demographics, medical and stroke severity measures, diagnostic evaluation, hyperacute revascularization, in-hospital management, discharge disposition, quality indicators, and long-term functional outcomes. Consecutive stroke cases from 12 participating centers are registered to a web-based database. Meticulous data management and auditing policy were applied. A total of 14?792 ischemic stroke cases were enrolled from April 2008 to January 2012. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 4 at admission, with median delay of onset to arrival of 14?h. Rate of risk factor management before stroke exceeds more than 80% for hypertension and diabetes. Revascularization procedures were performed in 1736 subjects (12%), and 34% were endovascular (n?=?598). Substantial variability was noted in the preferred modality of hyperacute revascularization (range of endovascular recanalization?=?6-60%), use of computed tomography (30-93%), and perfusion imaging (2-96%). The Clinical Research Center for Stroke - 5th division registry documented that the current practice of acute stroke care in South Korea largely met the standard of guidelines, but variability of practice still remains. The registry would provide an opportunity to evaluate the quality of stroke care across South Korea and compare it with that of other countries.
Related JoVE Video
Outcomes after Tissue Plasminogen Activator Administration under the Drip and Ship Paradigm May Differ According to the Regional Stroke Care System.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The drip and ship paradigm for stroke patients enhances the rate of using intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IVT) in community hospitals. The safety and outcomes of patients treated with IVT for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) under the drip and ship paradigm were compared with patients directly treated at a comprehensive stroke center in the Busan metropolitan area of Korea. This was a retrospective study of patients with AIS treated with IVT between January 2009 and January 2012. Information on patients baseline characteristics, neuroimaging, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), and outcome 90 days after using IVT was obtained from our stroke registry. We surveyed stroke neurologists regarding their pattern of post-thrombolysis care. During the observation periods, we selected 317 patients using IVT. Among these, 239 patients received IVT at our stroke center, and 78 were treated at 21 community hospitals under the drip and ship paradigm. Initial neurologic deficits and the size of ischemic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging were much more severe in patients treated with IVT under the drip and ship paradigm compared with patients treated at our comprehensive stroke center. The prevalence of a poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 3-6) 90 days after IVT was much higher in patients treated with the drip and ship paradigm than in those treated at our comprehensive stroke center. Regarding the occurrence of sICH, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. The clinical characteristics and outcomes after using IVT under the drip and ship paradigm may differ greatly among stroke care systems.
Related JoVE Video
Pathologic correlation of serum carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratin 19 fragment in resected nonsmall cell lung cancer.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study focused on the association between preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 19 fragment (Cyfra 21-1) levels and pathologic parameters in patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Related JoVE Video
Predictors of recurrence after thymoma resection.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recurrence rate is considered a better measure of clinical outcomes after thymoma resection than overall survival due to the indolent behavior of thymomas. This study was designed to determine predictors of recurrence after thymoma resection.
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacogenomic assessment of outcomes of pemetrexed-treated patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the association between polymorphisms of the target genes of pemetrexed and clinical outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with pemetrexed.
Related JoVE Video
The influence of smoking intensity on the clinicopathologic features and survival of patients with surgically treated non-small cell lung cancer.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Smoking is a well-known carcinogen for lung cancer. However, whether smoking affects the biological behavior of lung cancer remains uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the influences of smoking intensity on the clinicopathologic characteristics of and survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of a canine small intestinal submucosal xenograft and polypropylene mesh as bioscaffolds in an abdominal full-thickness resection model of growing rats.
J. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We evaluated the biological scaffold properties of canine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) compared to a those of polypropylene mesh in growing rats with full-thickness abdominal defects. SIS is used to repair musculoskeletal tissue while promoting cell migration and supporting tissue regeneration. Polypropylene mesh is a non-resorbable synthetic material that can endure mechanical tension. Canine SIS was obtained from donor German shepherds, and its porous collagen fiber structure was identified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A 2.50-cm(2) section of canine SIS (SIS group) or mesh (mesh group) was implanted in Sprague-Dawley rats. At 1, 2, 4, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery, the implants were histopathologically examined and tensile load was tested. One month after surgery, CD68+ macrophage numbers in the SIS group were increased, but the number of CD8+ T cells in this group declined more rapidly than that in rats treated with the mesh. In the SIS group, few adhesions and well-developed autologous abdominal muscle infiltration into the SIS collagen fibers were observed. No significant differences in the tensile load test results were found between the SIS and mesh groups at 24 weeks. Canine SIS may therefore be a suitable replacement for artificial biological scaffolds in small animals.
Related JoVE Video
Immune response after systematic lymph node dissection in lung cancer surgery: changes of interleukin-6 level in serum, pleural lavage fluid, and lung supernatant in a dog model.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Systematic nodal dissection (SND) is regarded as a core component of lung cancer surgery. However, there has been a concern on the increased morbidity associated with SND. This study was performed to investigate whether or not SND induces significant immune response.
Related JoVE Video
A recurrent longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis with Aquaporin-4(AQP4) antibody after herpes zoster.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) is a syndrome that involves three or more vertebral segments in the spinal cord lesion, and it is one of the characteristic features of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) differentiating it from multiple sclerosis. Many studies proved the importance of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody, which plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of NMO. Recent reports suggest that recurrent LETM patients with positive anti-AQP4 antibody titers have a higher chance of converting to NMO, and they are now termed as NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD). The specific role of AQP4 antibody in NMO is yet to be elucidated but there are reports to bring up the pathogenesis in relation with infectious events. Interestingly, parainfectious NMOSD tends to spare the optic nerve unlike classic NMOSD. Here we report a young woman who was once diagnosed as herpes zoster-related LETM, but later developed as recurrent LETM with positive AQP4 antibody titers, which renders the diagnosis of parainfectious LETM without optic neuritis.
Related JoVE Video
The iScore Predicts Clinical Response to Tissue Plasminogen Activator in Korean Stroke Patients.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite substantial differences in clinical features between Asian and Western stroke patients, there are no published prognostic tools validated in an Asiatic population for thrombolytic therapy. We assessed the ability of the iScore to predict the clinical response after intravenous thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in a Korean stroke population.
Related JoVE Video
Direct Relationship between Angiographic Characteristics of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque and Filling Defect in the Cerebral Protection Filters : Based on the Conventional Angiography.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neurologic complications during carotid artery stenting (CAS) are usually associated with distal embolic event. These embolic incident during CAS are highly associated with the carotid plaque instability. The current study was undertaken to identify the angiographic characteristics of carotid plaque vulnerability, which was represented as filling defect in the cerebral protection filters during CAS.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy in T2aN0 stage IB non-small cell lung cancer.
J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although overall survival for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has increased, survival rate for pathologically staged T2aN0M0 stage IB NSCLC remains low. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not a standard treatment for stage IB NSCLC. Our purpose was to determine the efficacy of platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy in stage IB NSCLC.
Related JoVE Video
Thoracolumbar Junction Syndrome Causing Pain around Posterior Iliac Crest: A Case Report.
Korean J Fam Med
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Thoracolumbar junction syndrome is characterized by referred pain which may originate at the thoracolumbar junction, which extends from 12th thoracic vertebra to 2nd lumbar vertebra, due to functional abnormalities. Clinical manifestations include back pain, pseudo-visceral pain and pseudo-pain on the posterior iliac crest, as well as irritable bowel symptoms. During clinical examination, pain can be demonstrated by applying pressure on the facet joints or to the sides of the spinous processes. Radiological studies show only mild and insignificant degenerative changes in most cases. We report a 42-year-old female patient with osteogenesis imperfecta who suffered from chronic low back pain. Under the diagnosis of thoracolumbar junction syndrome, she was treated with an epidural block and a sympathetic nerve block, which improved her symptoms.
Related JoVE Video
Relationship between Family Meals and Depressive Symptoms in Children.
Korean J Fam Med
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recently, importance of family meals has been emphasized at home and abroad, and several journals reported that family meals had a big impact on childrens development. In this paper, we would like to report the relationship between family meals and depressive symptoms in children.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.