Calumin is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-transmembrane protein, and little is known about its physiological roles. Here we showed that calumin homozygous mutant embryos die at embryonic days (E) 10.5-11.5. At mid-gestation, calumin was expressed predominantly in the yolk sac. Apoptosis was enhanced in calumin homozygous mutant yolk sacs at E9.5, pointing to a possible link to the embryonic lethality. Calumin co-immunoprecipitated with ERAD components such as p97, BIP, derlin-1, derlin-2 and VIMP, suggesting its involvement in ERAD. Indeed, calumin knockdown in HEK 293 cells resulted in ERAD being less efficient, as demonstrated by attenuation in both degradations of a misfolded ?1-antitrypsin variant and the ER-to-cytosol dislocation of cholera toxin A1 subunit. In calumin homozygous mutant yolk sac endoderm cells, ER stress-associated alterations were observed, including lipid droplet accumulation, fragmentation of the ER and dissociation of ribosomes from the ER. In this context, the ER-overload response, assumed to be cytoprotective, was also triggered in the mutant endoderm cells, but seemed to fully counteract the excessive ER stress generated due to defective ERAD. Taken together, our findings suggested that calumin serves to maintain the yolk sac integrity through participation in the ERAD activity, contributing to embryonic development.
Trimeric intracellular cation channels (TRIC) represents a novel class of trimeric intracellular cation channels. Two TRIC isoforms have been identified in both the human and the mouse genomes: TRIC-A, a subtype predominantly expressed in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of muscle cells, and TRIC-B, a ubiquitous subtype expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of all tissues. Genetic ablation of either TRIC-A or TRIC-B leads to compromised K(+) permeation and Ca(2+) release across the SR/ER membrane, supporting the hypothesis that TRIC channels provide a counter balancing K(+) flux that reduces SR/ER membrane depolarization for maintenance of the electrochemical gradient that drives SR/ER Ca(2+) release. TRIC-A and TRIC-B seem to have differential functions in Ca(2+) signaling in excitable and nonexcitable cells. Tric-a(-/-) mice display defective Ca(2+) sparks and spontaneous transient outward currents in arterial smooth muscle and develop hypertension, in addition to skeletal muscle dysfunction. Knockout of TRIC-B results in abnormal IP3 receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release in airway epithelial cells, respiratory defects, and neonatal lethality. Double knockout mice lacking both TRIC-A and TRIC-B show embryonic lethality as a result of cardiac arrest. Such an aggravated lethality indicates that TRIC-A and TRIC-B share complementary physiological functions in Ca(2+) signaling in embryonic cardiomyocytes. Tric-a(-/-) and Tric-b(+/-) mice are viable and susceptible to stress-induced heart failure. Recent evidence suggests that TRIC-A directly modulates the function of the cardiac ryanodine receptor 2 Ca(2+) release channel, which in turn controls store-overload-induced Ca(2+) release from the SR. Thus, the TRIC channels, in addition to providing a countercurrent for SR/ER Ca(2+) release, may also function as accessory proteins that directly modulate the ryanodine receptor/IP3 receptor channel functions.
The TRIC channel subtypes, namely TRIC-A and TRIC-B, are intracellular monovalent cation-specific channels and likely mediate counterion movements to support efficient Ca(2+) release from the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contain both TRIC subtypes and two Ca(2+) release mechanisms; incidental opening of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) generates local Ca(2+) sparks to induce hyperpolarization and relaxation, whereas agonist-induced activation of inositol trisphosphate receptors produces global Ca(2+) transients causing contraction. Tric-a knock-out mice develop hypertension due to insufficient RyR-mediated Ca(2+) sparks in VSMCs. Here we describe transgenic mice overexpressing TRIC-A channels under the control of a smooth muscle cell-specific promoter. The transgenic mice developed congenital hypotension. In Tric-a-overexpressing VSMCs from the transgenic mice, the resting membrane potential decreased because RyR-mediated Ca(2+) sparks were facilitated and cell surface Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels were hyperactivated. Under such hyperpolarized conditions, L-type Ca(2+) channels were inactivated, and thus, the resting intracellular Ca(2+) levels were reduced in Tric-a-overexpressing VSMCs. Moreover, Tric-a overexpression impaired inositol trisphosphate-sensitive stores to diminish agonist-induced Ca(2+) signaling in VSMCs. These altered features likely reduced vascular tonus leading to the hypotensive phenotype. Our Tric-a-transgenic mice together with Tric-a knock-out mice indicate that TRIC-A channel density in VSMCs is responsible for controlling basal blood pressure at the whole-animal level.
TRIC channel subtypes form bullet-shaped homo-trimeric assemblies and behave as K (+) channels in intracellular membrane systems. The pathophysiological defects observed in knockout mice suggest that TRIC channels mediate counter-K (+) movements to facilitate Ca(2 +) release from intracellular stores in various cell types. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) , Ca(2 +) release mediated by ryanodine receptors (RyRs) generates local Ca(2 +) sparks, which activate cell-surface Ca(2 +) -dependent K (+) channels and induce hyperpolarization. Tric-a-knockout mice develop hypertension due to elevated resting tonus in the mutant VSMCs. In Tric-a-knockout VSMCs, RyR-mediated Ca(2 +) sparks are compromised and the hyperpolarization signaling is thus impaired. Under such depolarized conditions, voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2 +) channels are hyper-activated to enhance resting tonus in Tric-a-knockout VSMCs. Therefore, the expression level of TRIC-A channels in VSMCs seems to set resting blood pressure at whole animal level. Moreover, our association study identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) around the TRIC-A gene that increase a hypertension risk and restrict the efficiency of antihypertensive drugs. The observations suggest that the TRIC-A SNPs can provide biomarkers for the diagnosis and personalized medical treatment of essential hypertension.
Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR) and nuclear membranes contain two related cation channels named TRIC-A and TRIC-B. In many tissues, both subtypes are co-expressed, making it impossible to distinguish the distinct single-channel properties of each subtype. We therefore incorporated skeletal muscle SR vesicles derived from Tric-a-knockout mice into bilayers in order to characterise the biophysical properties of native TRIC-B without possible misclassification of the channels as TRIC-A, and without potential distortion of functional properties by detergent purification protocols. The native TRIC-B channels were ideally selective for cations. In symmetrical 210 mM?K(+), the maximum (full) open channel level (199 pS) was equivalent to that observed when wild-type SR vesicles were incorporated into bilayers. Analysis of TRIC-B gating revealed complex and variable behaviour. Four main sub-conductance levels were observed at approximately 80 % (161 pS), 60 % (123 pS), 46 % (93 pS), and 30 % (60 pS) of the full open state. Seventy-five percent of the channels were voltage sensitive with Po being markedly reduced at negative holding potentials. The frequent, rapid transitions between TRIC-B sub-conductance states prevented development of reliable gating models using conventional single-channel analysis. Instead, we used mean-variance plots to highlight key features of TRIC-B gating in a more accurate and visually useful manner. Our study provides the first biophysical characterisation of native TRIC-B channels and indicates that this channel would be suited to provide counter current in response to Ca(2+) release from the SR. Further experiments are required to distinguish the distinct functional properties of TRIC-A and TRIC-B and understand their individual but complementary physiological roles.
Ca2+ signaling in skeletal and cardiac muscles is a bi-directional process that involves cross-talk between signaling molecules in the sarcolemmal membrane and Ca2+ release machinery in the intracellular organelles. Maintenance of a junctional membrane structure between the sarcolemmal membrane and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) provides a framework for the conversion of action potential arrived at the sarcolemma into release of Ca2+ from the SR, leading to activation of a variety of physiological processes. Activity-dependent changes in Ca2+ storage inside the SR provides a retrograde signal for the activation of store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOC) on the sarcolemmal membrane, which plays important roles in the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis in physiology and pathophysiology. Research progress during the last 30 years had advanced our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms for the control of Ca2+ signaling in muscle and cardiovascular physiology. Here we summarize the functions of three key molecules that are located in the junctional membrane complex of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells: junctophilin as a "glue" that physiologically links the SR membrane to the sarcolemmal membrane for formation of the junctional membrane framework, mitsugumin29 as a muscle-specific synaptophysin family protein that contributes to maintain the coordinated Ca2+ signaling in skeletal muscle, and TRIC as a novel cation-selective channel located on the SR membrane that provides counter-ion current during the rapid process of Ca2+ release from the SR.
Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) form blood brain barrier (BBB) to maintain brain homeostasis. Cell turnover of BCECs by the balance of cell proliferation and cell death is critical for maintaining the integrity of BBB. Here we found that stimuli with tunicamycin, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, up-regulated inward rectifier K(+) channel (K(ir)2.1) and facilitated cell death in t-BBEC117, a cell line derived from bovine BCECs. The activation of K(ir) channels contributed to the establishment of deeply negative resting membrane potential in t-BBEC117. The deep resting membrane potential increased the resting intracellular Ca(2+) concentration due to Ca(2+) influx through non-selective cation channels and thereby partly but significantly regulated cell death in t-BBEC117. The present results suggest that the up-regulation of K(ir)2.1 is, at least in part, responsible for cell death/cell turnover of BCECs induced by a variety of cellular stresses, particularly ER stress, under pathological conditions.
TRIC channel subtypes, namely TRIC-A and TRIC-B, are intracellular monovalent cation channels postulated to mediate counter-ion movements facilitating physiological Ca(2+) release from internal stores. Tric-a-knockout mice developed hypertension during the daytime due to enhanced myogenic tone in resistance arteries. There are two Ca(2+) release mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs); incidental opening of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) generates local Ca(2+) sparks to induce hyperpolarization, while agonist-induced activation of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) evokes global Ca(2+) transients causing contraction. Tric-a gene ablation inhibited RyR-mediated hyperpolarization signaling to stimulate voltage-dependent Ca(2+) influx, and adversely enhanced IP(3)R-mediated Ca(2+) transients by overloading Ca(2+) stores in VSMCs. Moreover, association analysis identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) around the human TRIC-A gene that increase hypertension risk and restrict the efficiency of antihypertensive drugs. Therefore, TRIC-A channels contribute to maintaining blood pressure, while TRIC-A SNPs could provide biomarkers for constitutional diagnosis and personalized medical treatment of essential hypertension.
Cellular turnover of brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) by the balance of cell proliferation and death is essential for maintaining the homeostasis of the blood-brain barrier. Stimulation of metabotropic ATP receptors (P2Y) transiently increased intracellular Ca²(+) concentration ([Ca²(+)](i)) in t-BBEC 117, a cell line derived from bovine BCECs. The [Ca²(+)](i) rise induced membrane hyperpolarization via the activation of apamin-sensitive small-conductance Ca²(+)-activated K(+) channels (SK2) and enhanced cell proliferation in t-BBEC 117. Here, we found anomalous membrane hyperpolarization lasting for over 10 min in response to ATP in ?15% of t-BBEC 117, in which inward rectifier K(+) channel (K(ir)2.1) was extensively expressed. Once anomalous hyperpolarization was triggered by ATP, it was removed by Ba²(+) but not by apamin. Prolonged exposure to ATP?S increased the relative population of t-BBEC 117, in which the expression of K(ir)2.1 mRNAs was significantly higher and Ba²(+)-sensitive anomalous hyperpolarization was observed. The cultivation of t-BBEC 117 in serum-free medium also increased this population and reduced the cell number. The reduction of cell number was enhanced by the addition of ATP?S and the enhancement was antagonized by Ba²(+). In the human embryonic kidney 293 cell model, where SK2 and K(ir)2.1 were heterologously coexpressed, [Ca²(+)](i) rise by P2Y stimulation triggered anomalous hyperpolarization and cell death. In conclusion, P2Y stimulation in BCECs enhances cell proliferation by SK2 activation in the majority of cells but also triggers cell death in a certain population showing a substantial expression of K(ir)2.1. This dual action of P2Y stimulation may effectively facilitate BCEC turnover.
The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal muscle contains K(+), Cl(-), and H(+) channels may facilitate charge neutralization during Ca(2+) release. Our recent studies have identified trimeric intracellular cation (TRIC) channels on SR as an essential counter-ion permeability pathway associated with rapid Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. Skeletal muscle contains TRIC-A and TRIC-B isoforms as predominant and minor components, respectively. Here we test the physiological function of TRIC-A in skeletal muscle. Biochemical assay revealed abundant expression of TRIC-A relative to the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor with a molar ratio of TRIC-A/ryanodine receptor ?5:1. Electron microscopy with the tric-a(-/-) skeletal muscle showed Ca(2+) overload inside the SR with frequent formation of Ca(2+) deposits compared with the wild type muscle. This elevated SR Ca(2+) pool in the tric-a(-/-) muscle could be released by caffeine, whereas the elemental Ca(2+) release events, e.g. osmotic stress-induced Ca(2+) spark activities, were significantly reduced likely reflecting compromised counter-ion movement across the SR. Ex vivo physiological test identified the appearance of "alternan" behavior with isolated tric-a(-/-) skeletal muscle, i.e. transient and drastic increase in contractile force appeared within the decreasing force profile during repetitive fatigue stimulation. Inhibition of SR/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+ ATPase) function could lead to aggravation of the stress-induced alternans in the tric-a(-/-) muscle. Our data suggests that absence of TRIC-A may lead to Ca(2+) overload in SR, which in combination with the reduced counter-ion movement may lead to instability of Ca(2+) movement across the SR membrane. The observed alternan behavior with the tric-a(-/-) muscle may reflect a skeletal muscle version of store overload-induced Ca(2+) release that has been reported in the cardiac muscle under stress conditions.
TRIC channels function as monovalent cation-specific channels that mediate counter ion movements coupled with ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores in muscle cells. Mammalian tissues differentially contain two TRIC channel subtypes: TRIC-A is abundantly expressed in excitable cells, whereas TRIC-B is ubiquitously expressed throughout tissues. Here, we report the physiological role of TRIC-B channels in mouse perinatal development. TRIC-B-knockout neonates were cyanotic owing to respiratory failure and died shortly after birth. In the mutant neonates, the deflated lungs exhibited severe histological defects, and alveolar type II epithelial cells displayed ultrastructural abnormalities. The metabolic conversion of glycogen into phospholipids was severely interrupted in the mutant type II cells, and surfactant phospholipids secreted into the alveolar space were insufficient in the mutant neonates. Moreover, the mutant type II cells were compromised for Ca(2+) release mediated by inositol-trisphosphate receptors, despite Ca(2+) overloading in intracellular stores. Our results indicate that TRIC-B channels take an active part in Ca(2+) signalling to establish specialised functions in type II cells and are thus essential for perinatal lung maturation.
Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores is mediated by Ca(2+) release channels, designated ryanodine and IP(3) receptors, and directly regulates important cellular reactions including muscle contraction, endo/exocrine secretion, and neural excitability. In order to function as an intracellular store, the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum is equipped with cooperative Ca(2+) uptake, storage and release machineries, comprising synergic collaborations among integral-membrane, cytoplasmic and luminal proteins. Our recent studies have demonstrated that junctophilins form junctional membrane complexes between the plasma membrane and the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum in excitable cells, and that TRIC (trimeric intracellular cation) channels act as novel monovalent cation-specific channels on intracellular membrane systems. Knockout mice have provided evidence that both junctophilins and TRIC channels support efficient ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release in muscle cells. This review focuses on cardiac Ca(2+) release by discussing pathological defects of mutant cardiomyocytes lacking ryanodine receptors, junctophilins, or TRIC channels.
Trimeric intracellular cation-selective (TRIC) channel subtypes, namely TRIC-A and TRIC-B, are derived from distinct genes and distributed throughout the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) and nuclear membranes. TRIC-A is preferentially expressed at high levels in excitable tissues, while TRIC-B is ubiquitously detected at relatively low levels in various tissues. TRIC channels are composed of ~300 amino acid residues and contain three putative membrane-spanning segments to form a bullet-shaped homo-trimeric assembly. Both native and purified recombinant TRIC subtypes form functional monovalent cation-selective channels in a lipid bilayer reconstitution system. The electrophysiological data indicate that TRIC channels behave as K(+) channels under intracellular conditions, although the detailed channel characteristics remain to be investigated. The pathophysiological defects detected in knockout mice suggest that TRIC channels support SR/ER Ca(2+) release mediated by ryanodine (RyR) and inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) channels. For example, Tric-a-knockout mice develop hypertension resulting from vascular hypertonicity, and the mutant vascular smooth muscle cells exhibit insufficient RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release for inducing hyperpolarization. Tric-b-knockout mice show respiratory failure at birth, and IP(3)R-mediated Ca(2+) release essential for surfactant handling is impaired in the mutant alveolar epithelial cells. Moreover, double-knockout mice lacking both TRIC subtypes show embryonic heart failure, and SR Ca(2+) handling is deranged in the mutant cardiomyocytes. Current evidence strongly suggests that TRIC channels mediate counter-K(+) movements, in part, to facilitate physiological Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores.
TRIC (trimeric intracellular cation) channel subtypes, namely TRIC-A and TRIC-B, are intracellular monovalent cation channels postulated to mediate counter-ion movements facilitating physiological Ca²? release from intracellular stores. Tric-a-knockout mice developed hypertension during the daytime due to enhanced myogenic tone in resistance arteries. There are two Ca²? release mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs); incidental opening of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) generates local Ca²? sparks to induce hyperpolarization, while agonist-induced activation of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP?Rs) evokes global Ca²? transients causing contraction. Tric-a gene ablation inhibited RyR-mediated hyperpolarization signaling to stimulate voltage-dependent Ca²? influx, and adversely enhanced IP?R-mediated Ca²? transients by overloading Ca²? stores in VSMCs. Therefore, TRIC-A channels contribute to maintaining blood pressure in vascular smooth muscles.
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