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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
New insights into the evolution of vertebrate CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) and invertebrate DH44 (diuretic hormone 44) receptors in metazoans.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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The corticotropin releasing hormone receptors (CRHR) and the arthropod diuretic hormone 44 receptors (DH44R) are structurally and functionally related members of the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) of the secretin-like receptor superfamily. We show here that they derive from a bilaterian predecessor. In protostomes, the receptor became DH44R that has been identified and functionally characterised in several arthropods but the gene seems to be absent from nematode genomes. Duplicate DH44R genes (DH44 R1 and DH44R2) have been described in some arthropods resulting from lineage-specific duplications. Recently, CRHR-DH44R-like receptors have been identified in the genomes of some lophotrochozoans (molluscs, which have a lineage-specific gene duplication, and annelids) as well as representatives of early diverging deuterostomes. Vertebrates have previously been reported to have two CRHR receptors that were named CRHR1 and CRHR2. To resolve their origin we have analysed recently assembled genomes from representatives of early vertebrate divergencies including elephant shark, spotted gar and coelacanth. We show here by analysis of synteny conservation that the two CRHR genes arose from a common ancestral gene in the early vertebrate tetraploidizations (2R) approximately 500 million years ago. Subsequently, the teleost-specific tetraploidization (3R) resulted in a duplicate of CRHR1 that has been lost in some teleost lineages. These results help distinguish orthology and paralogy relationships and will allow studies of functional conservation and changes during evolution of the individual members of the receptor family and their multiple native peptide agonists.
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Molecular evolution of GPCRs: Somatostatin/urotensin II receptors.
J. Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Somatostatin (SS) and urotensin II (UII) are members of two families of structurally related neuropeptides present in all vertebrates. They exert a large array of biological activities that are mediated by two families of G-protein-coupled receptors called SSTR and UTS2R respectively. It is proposed that the two families of peptides as well as those of their receptors probably derive from a single ancestral ligand-receptor pair. This pair had already been duplicated before the emergence of vertebrates to generate one SS peptide with two receptors and one UII peptide with one receptor. Thereafter, each family expanded in the three whole-genome duplications (1R, 2R, and 3R) that occurred during the evolution of vertebrates, whereupon some local duplications and gene losses occurred. Following the 2R event, the vertebrate ancestor is deduced to have possessed three SS (SS1, SS2, and SS5) and six SSTR (SSTR1-6) genes, on the one hand, and four UII (UII, URP, URP1, and URP2) and five UTS2R (UTS2R1-5) genes, on the other hand. In the teleost lineage, all these have been preserved with the exception of SSTR4. Moreover, several additional genes have been gained through the 3R event, such as SS4 and a second copy of the UII, SSTR2, SSTR3, and SSTR5 genes, and through local duplications, such as SS3. In mammals, all the genes of the SSTR family have been preserved, with the exception of SSTR6. In contrast, for the other families, extensive gene losses occurred, as only the SS1, SS2, UII, and URP genes and one UTS2R gene are still present.
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Neuropeptide Y, social function and long-term outcome in schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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There is a lack of biomarkers in schizophrenia and the mechanisms underlying the observed deficits in social functioning are poorly understood. This cohort study aimed to explore whether neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with schizophrenia is correlated to social function and clinical variables. A further aim was to determine whether baseline levels of NPY were associated with subsequent 3-year outcome. Fifty-six consecutively admitted patients with schizophrenia were included and underwent lumbar puncture and symptom ratings before antipsychotic treatment. NPY levels in CSF were determined by radioimmunoassay. Social function (Social Competence and Social Interest) was assessed by Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation while psychiatric symptoms were rated using the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale. Three-year outcome was assessed with the Strauss-Carpenter Outcome Scale. Cross-sectional analysis showed a correlation between level of NPY and Social Competence at index admission (r(s)=0.37, p<0.05). The longitudinal analysis (i.e., at the 3-year follow-up) indicated that, for each standard deviation increase in baseline NPY, there was an increased risk of being unemployed (odds ratio [OR] 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-3.82), having moderate or severe symptoms (OR 3.09, CI 1.30-7.32) or being hospitalized at least 6 months the previous year (OR 3.24, CI 1.09-9.64). However, NPY was not correlated to Social Interest or clinical variables at index admission. In conclusion, NPY levels in CSF are correlated to Social Competence and seem to predict some aspects of longitudinal outcome in schizophrenia.
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Unexpected multiplicity of QRFP receptors in early vertebrate evolution.
Front Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The neuropeptide QRFP, also called 26RFa, and its G protein-coupled receptor GPR103 have been identified in all vertebrates investigated. In mammals, this peptide-receptor pair has been found to have several effects including stimulation of appetite. Recently, we reported that a QRFP peptide is present in amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, and we also identified a QRFP receptor (QRFPR) that mediates a functional response to sub-nanomolar concentrations of the amphioxus peptide as well as short and long human QRFP (Xu et al., submitted). Because the ancestral vertebrate underwent two tetraploidizations, it might be expected that duplicates of the QRFP gene and its receptor gene may exist. Indeed, we report here the identification of multiple vertebrate QRFPR genes. Three QRFPR genes are present in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, representing an early diverging sarcopterygian lineage. Three QRFPR genes are present in the basal actinopterygian fish, the spotted gar. Phylogenetic and chromosomal analyses show that only two of these receptor genes are orthologous between the two species, thus demonstrating a total of four distinct vertebrate genes. Three of the QRFPR genes resulted from the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and were copied along with syntenic neuropeptide Y receptor genes. The fourth QRFPR gene may be an even older and distinct lineage. Because mammals and birds have only a single QRFPR gene, this means that three genes have been lost in these lineages, and at least one of these was lost independently in mammals and birds because it is still present in a turtle. In conclusion, these results show that the QRFP system gained considerable complexity in the early stages of vertebrate evolution and still maintains much of this in some lineages, and that it has been secondarily reduced in mammals.
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Mutagenesis and computational modeling of human G-protein-coupled receptor Y2 for neuropeptide Y and peptide YY.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Neuropeptide Y and peptide YY receptor type 2 (Y2) is involved in appetite regulation and several other physiological processes. We have investigated the structure of the human Y2 receptor. Computational modeling of receptor-agonist interactions was used as a guide to design a series of receptor mutants, followed by binding assays using full-length and truncated peptide agonists and the Y2-specific antagonist BIIE0246. Our model suggested a hydrogen bond network among highly conserved residues Thr2.61, Gln3.32, and His7.39, which could play roles in ligand binding and/or receptor structure. In addition, the C-terminus of the peptide could make contact with residues Tyr5.38 and Leu6.51. Mutagenesis of all these positions, followed by binding assays, provides experimental support for our computational model: most of the mutants for the residues forming the proposed hydrogen bond network displayed reduced peptide agonist affinities as well as reduced hPYY3-36 potency in a functional assay. The Ala and Leu mutants of Gln3.32 and His7.39 disrupted membrane expression of the receptor. Combined with the modeling, the experimental results support roles for these hydrogen bond network residues in peptide binding as well as receptor architecture. The reduced agonist affinity for mutants of Tyr5.38 and Leu6.51 supports their role in a binding pocket surrounding the invariant tyrosine at position 36 of the peptide ligands. The results for antagonist BIIE0246 suggest several differences in interactions compared to those of the peptides. Our results lead to a new structural model for NPY family receptors and peptide binding.
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Detecting ligand interactions with G protein-coupled receptors in real-time on living cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large group of receptors of great biological and clinical relevance. Despite this, the tools for a detailed analysis of ligand-GPCR interactions are limited. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how ligand binding to GPCRs can be followed in real-time on living cells. This was conducted using two model systems, the radiolabeled porcine peptide YY (pPYY) interacting with transfected human Y2 receptor (hY2R) and the bombesin antagonist RM26 binding to the naturally expressed gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR). By following the interaction over time, the affinity and kinetic properties such as association and dissociation rate were obtained. Additionally, data were analyzed using the Interaction Map method, which can evaluate a real-time binding curve and present the number of parallel interactions contributing to the curve. It was found that pPYY binds very slowly with an estimated time to equilibrium of approximately 12h. This may be problematic in standard end-point assays where equilibrium is required. The RM26 binding showed signs of heterogeneity, observed as two parallel interactions with unique kinetic properties. In conclusion, measuring binding in real-time using living cells opens up for a better understanding of ligand interactions with GPCRs.
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The vertebrate ancestral repertoire of visual opsins, transducin alpha subunits and oxytocin/vasopressin receptors was established by duplication of their shared genomic region in the two rounds of early vertebrate genome duplications.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Vertebrate color vision is dependent on four major color opsin subtypes: RH2 (green opsin), SWS1 (ultraviolet opsin), SWS2 (blue opsin), and LWS (red opsin). Together with the dim-light receptor rhodopsin (RH1), these form the family of vertebrate visual opsins. Vertebrate genomes contain many multi-membered gene families that can largely be explained by the two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) in the vertebrate ancestor (2R) followed by a third round in the teleost ancestor (3R). Related chromosome regions resulting from WGD or block duplications are said to form a paralogon. We describe here a paralogon containing the genes for visual opsins, the G-protein alpha subunit families for transducin (GNAT) and adenylyl cyclase inhibition (GNAI), the oxytocin and vasopressin receptors (OT/VP-R), and the L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (CACNA1-L).
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Interactions of zebrafish peptide YYb with the neuropeptide Y-family receptors Y4, Y7, Y8a, and Y8b.
Front Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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The neuropeptide Y (NPY) system influences numerous physiological functions including feeding behavior, endocrine regulation, and cardiovascular regulation. In jawed vertebrates it consists of 3-4 peptides and 4-7 receptors. Teleost fishes have unique duplicates of NPY and PYY as well as the Y8 receptor. In the zebrafish, the NPY system consists of the peptides NPYa, PYYa, and PYYb (NPYb appears to have been lost) and at least seven NPY receptors: Y1, Y2, Y2-2, Y4, Y7, Y8a, and Y8b. Previously PYYb binding has been reported for Y2 and Y2-2. To search for peptide-receptor preferences, we have investigated PYYb binding to four of the remaining receptors and compared with NPYa and PYYa. Taken together, the most striking observations are that PYYa displays reduced affinity for Y2 (3 nM) compared to the other peptides and receptors and that all three peptides have higher affinity for Y4 (0.028-0.034 nM) than for the other five receptors. The strongest peptide preference by any receptor selectivity is the one previously reported for PYYb by the Y2 receptor, as compared to NPY and PYYa. These affinity differences may be helpful to elucidate specific details of peptide-receptor interactions. Also, we have investigated the level of mRNA expression in different organs using qPCR. All peptides and receptors have higher expression in heart, kidney, and brain. These quantitative aspects on receptor affinities and mRNA distribution help provide a more complete picture of the NPY system.
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Ancient Grandeur of the Vertebrate Neuropeptide Y System Shown by the Coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae.
Front Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The neuropeptide Y (NPY) family receptors and peptides have previously been characterized in several tetrapods, teleost fishes, and in a holocephalan cartilaginous fish. This has shown that the ancestral NPY system in the jawed vertebrates consisted of the peptides NPY and peptide YY (PYY) and seven G-protein-coupled receptors named Y1-Y8 (Y3 does not exist). The different vertebrate lineages have subsequently lost or gained a few receptor genes. For instance, the human genome has lost three of the seven receptors while the zebrafish has lost two and gained two receptor genes. Here we describe the NPY system of a representative of an early diverging lineage among the sarcopterygians, the West Indian Ocean coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae. The coelacanth was found to have retained all seven receptors from the ancestral jawed vertebrate. The receptors display the typical characteristics found in other vertebrates. Interestingly, the coelacanth was found to have the local duplicate of the PYY gene, called pancreatic polypeptide, previously only identified in tetrapods. Thus, this duplication took place very early in the sarcopterygian lineage, before the origin of tetrapods. These findings confirm the ancient complexity of the NPY system and show that mammals have lost more NPY receptors than any other vertebrate lineage. The coelacanth has all three peptides found in tetrapods and has retained the ancestral jawed vertebrate receptor repertoire with neither gains or losses.
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Regulation of synaptic vesicle budding and dynamin function by an EHD ATPase.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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Eps15 homology domain-containing proteins (EHDs) are conserved ATPases implicated in membrane remodeling. Recently, EHD1 was found to be enriched at synaptic release sites, suggesting a possible involvement in the trafficking of synaptic vesicles. We have investigated the role of an EHD1/3 ortholog (l-EHD) in the lamprey giant reticulospinal synapse. l-EHD was detected by immunogold at endocytic structures adjacent to release sites. In antibody microinjection experiments, perturbation of l-EHD inhibited synaptic vesicle endocytosis and caused accumulation of clathrin-coated pits with atypical, elongated necks. The necks were covered with helix-like material containing dynamin. To test whether l-EHD directly interferes with dynamin function, we used fluid-supported bilayers as in vitro assay. We found that l-EHD strongly inhibited vesicle budding induced by dynamin in the constant presence of GTP. l-EHD also inhibited dynamin-induced membrane tubulation in the presence of GTP?S, a phenomenon linked with dynamin helix assembly. Our in vivo results demonstrate the involvement of l-EHD in clathrin/dynamin-dependent synaptic vesicle budding. Based on our in vitro observations, we suggest that l-EHD acts to limit the formation of long, unproductive dynamin helices, thereby promoting vesicle budding.
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The oxytocin/vasopressin receptor family has at least five members in the gnathostome lineage, inclucing two distinct V2 subtypes.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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The vertebrate oxytocin and vasopressin receptors form a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate a large variety of functions, including social behavior and the regulation of blood pressure, water balance and reproduction. In mammals four family members have been identified, three of which respond to vasopressin (VP) named V1A, V1B and V2, and one of which is activated by oxytocin (OT), called the OT receptor. Four receptors have been identified in chicken as well, but these have received different names. Until recently only V1-type receptors have been described in several species of teleost fishes. We have identified family members in several gnathostome genomes and performed phylogenetic analyses to classify OT/VP-receptors across species and determine orthology relationships. Our phylogenetic tree identifies five distinct ancestral gnathostome receptor subtypes in the OT/VP receptor family: V1A, V1B, V2A, V2B and OT receptors. The existence of distinct V2A and V2B receptors has not been previously recognized. We have found these two subtypes in all examined teleost genomes as well as in available frog and lizard genomes and conclude that the V2A-type is orthologous to mammalian V2 receptors whereas the V2B-type is orthologous to avian V2 receptors. Some teleost fishes have acquired additional and more recent gene duplicates with up to eight receptor family members. Thus, this analysis reveals an unprecedented complexity in the gnathostome repertoire of OT/VP receptors, opening interesting research avenues regarding functions such as regulation of water balance, reproduction and behavior, particularly in reptiles, amphibians, teleost fishes and cartilaginous fishes.
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Neuropeptide Y/peptide YY receptor Y2 duplicate in zebrafish with unique introns displays distinct peptide binding properties.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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The neuropeptide Y-family peptides and receptors are involved in a broad range of functions including appetite regulation. Both the peptide genes and the receptor genes are known to have duplicated in early vertebrate evolution. The ancestral jawed vertebrate had 7 NPY receptors but the number varies between 4 and 7 in extant vertebrates. Herein we describe the identification of an additional NPY receptor in two fish species, zebrafish and medaka. They cluster together with the Y2 receptors in phylogenetic analyses and seem to be orthologous to each other that is why we have named them Y2-2. Their genes differ from Y2 in having introns in the coding region. Binding studies with zebrafish Y2-2 receptors show that the three endogenous peptides NPY, PYYa and PYYb have similar affinities, 0.15-0.66 nM. This is in contrast to the Y2 receptor where they differed considerably from one another. N-terminally truncated NPY binds poorly and the Y2 antagonist BIIE0246 binds well to Y2-2, results that are reversed in comparison to Y2. Zebrafish Y2-2 mRNA was detected by PCR in the intestine and the eye, but not in the brain. In conclusion, we have found a novel Y2-like NPY/PYY receptor that probably arose in early teleost fish evolution.
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Evolution of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) family.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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The evolution of the IGF binding protein (IGFBP) gene family has been difficult to resolve. Both chromosomal and serial duplications have been suggested as mechanisms for the expansion of this gene family. We have identified and annotated IGFBP sequences from a wide selection of vertebrate species as well as Branchiostoma floridae and Ciona intestinalis. By combining detailed sequence analysis with sequence-based phylogenies and chromosome information, we arrive at the following scenario: the ancestral chordate IGFBP gene underwent a local gene duplication, resulting in a gene pair adjacent to a HOX cluster. Subsequently, the gene family expanded in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidization (2R) resulting in the six IGFBP types that are presently found in placental mammals. The teleost fish ancestor underwent a third tetraploidization (3R) that further expanded the IGFBP repertoire. The five sequenced teleost fish genomes retain 9-11 of IGFBP genes. This scenario is supported by the phylogenies of three adjacent gene families in the HOX gene regions, namely the epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) and the Ikaros and distal-less (DLX) transcription factors. Our sequence comparisons show that several important structural components in the IGFBPs are ancestral vertebrate features that have been maintained in all orthologs, for instance the integrin interaction motif Arg-Gly-Asp in IGFBP-2. In contrast, the Arg-Gly-Asp motif in IGFBP-1 has arisen independently in mammals. The large degree of retention of IGFBP genes after the ancient expansion of the gene family strongly suggests that each gene evolved distinct and important functions early in vertebrate evolution.
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Identification of positions in the human neuropeptide Y/peptide YY receptor Y2 that contribute to pharmacological differences between receptor subtypes.
Neuropeptides
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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The members of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family are key players in food-intake regulation. In humans this family consists of NPY, peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) which interact with distinct preference for the four receptors showing very low sequence identity, i.e. Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5. The binding of similar peptides to these divergent receptors makes them highly interesting for mutagenesis studies. We present here a site-directed mutagenesis study of four amino acid positions in the human Y2 receptor. T(3.40) was selected based on sequence alignments both between subtypes and between species and G(2.68), L(4.60) and Q(6.55) also on previous binding studies of the corresponding positions in the Y1 receptor. The mutated receptors were characterized pharmacologically with the peptide agonists NPY, PYY, PYY(3-36), NPY(13-36) and the non-peptide antagonist BIIE0246. Interestingly, the affinity of NPY and PYY(3-36) increased for the mutants T(3.40)I and Q(6.55)A. Increased affinity was also observed for PYY to Q(6.55)A. PYY(3-36) displayed decreased affinity for G(2.68)N and L(4.60)A whereas binding of NPY(13-36) was unaffected by all mutations. The antagonist BIIE0246 showed decreased affinity for T(3.40)I, L(4.60)A and Q(6.55)A. Although all positions investigated were found important for interaction with at least one of the tested ligands the corresponding positions in hY1 seem to be of greater importance for ligand binding. Furthermore these data indicate that binding of the agonists and the antagonist differs in their points of interaction. The increase in the binding affinity observed may reflect an indirect effect caused by a conformational change of the receptor. These findings will help to improve the structural models of the human NPY receptors.
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Internalization studies of chimeric neuropeptide Y receptors Y1 and Y2 suggest complex interactions between cytoplasmic domains.
Regul. Pept.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Agonist stimulation readily internalizes neuropeptide Y receptor Y1 while there are contradictory results for the Y2 receptor. In order to explore putative functional differences between the Y1 and Y2 receptors we generated reciprocal chimeras by swapping the third intracellular loop, the carboxy terminus or both between human Y1 and Y2. Internalization was studied in a quantitative radioligand binding assay with removal of surface-bound ligand in an acidic-wash procedure. The internalization assay revealed a lower degree of internalization as well as slower kinetics for the Y2 receptor. Generally, reciprocal exchange of receptor segments did not convey properties of the donor receptor but tended to enhance internalization. Surprisingly, insertion of the Y2 carboxy terminus into Y1 gave almost complete internalization (92%), rather than reduced internalization, while the insertion of both segments resulted in internalization equal to the native Y1 receptor. These findings were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy of immuno-stained receptors tagged with a C-terminal FLAG epitope. However, after exposure to high agonist concentrations (100 nM) Y2 was internalized. Studies of Y2 and the closely related Y7 receptor confirmed low internalization for Y2 from chicken and teleost fishes as well as Y7 from two teleosts. The conservation across species of low internalization at physiological concentrations suggests that this is an ancient feature and of vital importance for Y2 function. We propose that amino acid motifs in the third intracellular loop as well as the C terminus of both Y1 and Y2 are able to drive agonist-promoted internalization and that there may be constraining motifs in the Y2 receptor.
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Differential evolution of voltage-gated sodium channels in tetrapods and teleost fishes.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
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The voltage-gated sodium channel (SCN) alpha subunits are large proteins with central roles in the generation of action potentials. They consist of approximately 2,000 amino acids encoded by 24-27 exons. Previous evolutionary studies have been unable to reconcile the proposed gene duplication schemes with the species distribution and molecular phylogeny of the genes. We have carefully annotated the complete SCN gene sequences, correcting numerous database errors, for a broad range of vertebrate species and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships. We have also compared the chromosomal positions of the SCN genes relative to adjacent gene families. Our studies show that the ancestor of the vertebrates probably had a single sodium channel gene with two characteristic AT-AC introns, the second of which is unique to vertebrate SCN genes. This ancestral gene, located close to a HOX gene cluster, was quadrupled along with HOX in the two rounds of basal vertebrate tetraploidizations to generate the ancestors of the four channels SCN1A, SCN4A, SCN5A, and SCN8A. The third tetraploidization in the teleost fish ancestor doubled this set of genes and all eight are still present in at least three of four investigated teleost fish genomes. In tetrapods, the gene family expanded by local duplications before the radiation of amniotes, generating the cluster SCN5A, SCN10A, and SCN11A on one chromosome and the cluster SCN1A, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A on a different chromosome. In eutherian mammals, a tenth gene, SCN7A, arose in a local duplication in the SCN1A gene cluster. The SCN7A gene has undergone rapid evolution and has lost the ability to cause action potentials-instead, it functions as a sodium sensor. The three genes in the SCN5A cluster were translocated from the HOX-bearing chromosome in a mammalian ancestor along with several adjacent genes. This evolutionary scenario is supported by the adjacent TGF-? receptor superfamily (comprised of five distinct families) and the cysteine-serine-rich nuclear protein gene family as well as the HOX clusters. The independent expansions of the SCN repertoires in tetrapods and teleosts suggest that the functional diversification may differ between the two lineages.
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Peripheral administration of pancreatic polypeptide inhibits components of food-intake behavior in dogs.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2010
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Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) belongs to the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family of peptides and is released from pancreatic F cells postprandially. PP functions as a peptide hormone and has been associated with decreased food intake in humans and rodents. Our study describes the effects of PP on feeding behavior in dogs, whose mammalian order (Carnivora) is more distantly related to primates and rodents than these are to each other. Furthermore, obesity is becoming more prevalent in dogs which makes knowledge about their appetite regulation highly relevant. Repeated peripheral administration of physiological doses of PP (three injections of 30 pmol/kg each that were administered within 30 min) to six male beagle dogs prolonged the median time spent eating three servings of food by 19% but resulted in no reduction of food intake. In addition, PP decreased the duration of food-seeking behavior after the first serving by 71%. Thus, a physiological dose of PP seems to decrease both the appetitive and the consummatory drive in dogs.
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Concomitant duplications of opioid peptide and receptor genes before the origin of jawed vertebrates.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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The opioid system is involved in reward and pain mechanisms and consists in mammals of four receptors and several peptides. The peptides are derived from four prepropeptide genes, PENK, PDYN, PNOC and POMC, encoding enkephalins, dynorphins, orphanin/nociceptin and beta-endorphin, respectively. Previously we have described how two rounds of genome doubling (2R) before the origin of jawed vertebrates formed the receptor family.
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Mutagenesis of human neuropeptide Y/peptide YY receptor Y2 reveals additional differences to Y1 in interactions with highly conserved ligand positions.
Regul. Pept.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2010
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Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) share approximately 70% of their 36 amino acids and bind to the same three human receptor subtypes, Y1, Y2 and Y5, even though these receptors only share approximately 30% sequence identity. Based on our previous investigation of human Y1 we describe here a mutagenesis study of three corresponding positions in human Y2, i.e. Tyr2.64, Val6.58 and Tyr7.31. Pharmacological characterization was performed with the four peptide agonists PYY, NPY, PYY(3-36) and NPY(13-36) as well as the non-peptide antagonist BIIE0246. Results from mutants where Tyr2.64 has been substituted by Ala suggest that Tyr2.64 is involved in the interaction with all investigated ligands whereas position Tyr7.31 seems to be more important for interaction with the truncated peptide PYY(3-36) than with intact NPY. Surprisingly, substitution of Tyr7.31 with His, the corresponding residue in Y1, resulted in total loss of binding of iodinated porcine PYY. The third position, Val6.58, did not influence binding of any of the ligands. These findings differ from those obtained for Y1 where Ala substitution resulted in lost or changed binding for each of the three positions. Although Tyr2.64 and Tyr7.31 in Y2 are involved in ligand binding, their interactions with the peptide ligands seem to be different from the corresponding positions in Y1. This suggests that the receptor-ligand interactions have changed during evolution after Y1 and Y2 arose from a common ancestral receptor.
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Evolution of vertebrate rod and cone phototransduction genes.
Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2009
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Vertebrate cones and rods in several cases use separate but related components for their signal transduction (opsins, G-proteins, ion channels, etc.). Some of these proteins are also used differentially in other cell types in the retina. Because cones, rods and other retinal cell types originated in early vertebrate evolution, it is of interest to see if their specific genes arose in the extensive gene duplications that took place in the ancestor of the jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) by two tetraploidizations (genome doublings). The ancestor of teleost fishes subsequently underwent a third tetraploidization. Our previously reported analyses showed that several gene families in the vertebrate visual phototransduction cascade received new members in the basal tetraploidizations. We here expand these data with studies of additional gene families and vertebrate species. We conclude that no less than 10 of the 13 studied phototransduction gene families received additional members in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidizations. Also the remaining three families seem to have undergone duplications during the same time period but it is unclear if this happened as a result of the tetraploidizations. The implications of the many early vertebrate gene duplications for functional specialization of specific retinal cell types, particularly cones and rods, are discussed.
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Neuropeptide Y-family peptides and receptors in the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii confirm gene duplications before the gnathostome radiation.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2009
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We describe here the repertoire of neuropeptide Y (NPY) peptides and receptors in the elephant shark Callorhinchus milii, belonging to the chondrichthyans that diverged from the rest of the gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) lineage about 450 million years ago and the first chondrichthyan with a genome project. We have identified two peptide genes that are orthologous to NPY and PYY (peptide YY) in other vertebrates, and seven receptor genes orthologous to the Y1, Y2, Y4, Y5, Y6, Y7 and Y8 subtypes found in tetrapods and teleost fishes. The repertoire of peptides and receptors seems to reflect the ancestral configuration in the predecessor of all gnathostomes, whereas other lineages such as mammals and teleosts have lost one or more receptor genes or have acquired 1-2 additional peptide genes. Both the peptides and receptors showed broad and overlapping mRNA expression which may explain why some receptor gene losses could take place in some lineages, but leaves open the question why all the known ancestral receptors have been retained in the elephant shark.
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Perspective on Roseroot (Rhodiola rosea) studies.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2009
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Rhodiola rosea (roseroot) extract is a commercially successful product, primarily used to reduce the effect of fatigue on physical and mental performance. In this perspective we present our investigation of the most recent studies performed on human subjects. With a focus on the statistical methods we found considerable shortcomings in all but one of the studies that claim significant improvement from roseroot extract. Overall, the study designs have not been well explained. Experimental results have been confused and appear to be in some cases incorrect. Some of the conclusions are based on selected results and contradicting data have not been adequately taken into account. We point to other studies of higher quality performed on roseroot, several that found no significant effect and one that did. We conclude that the currently available evidence for the claimed effects is insufficient and that the effect of Rhodiola rosea is in need of further investigation before therapeutic claims can be made.
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Evolution of the growth hormone-prolactin-somatolactin system in relation to vertebrate tetraploidizations.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Gene sequences from several species representing major vertebrate groups were used to create phylogenetic trees for the growth hormone family of peptide hormones as well as the growth hormone receptor family. These analyses show that both the peptide and receptor families were formed through local duplications in early vertebrate evolution and chromosome duplications.
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Early duplications of opioid receptor and Peptide genes in vertebrate evolution.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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The opioid receptor family in mammals has four members called delta, kappa, mu, and NOP (the nociceptin/orphanin receptor). We show here that they arose from a common ancestral gene through quadruplication of a large chromosomal region, presumably in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidizations. The four opioid peptide precursor genes have a more complicated evolutionary history involving chromosomal rearrangements but nevertheless seem to have arisen in the same time period as the receptors. Thus the system of opioid peptides and receptors was already established approximately 450 Ma at the dawn of gnathostome evolution.
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Major genomic events and their consequences for vertebrate evolution and endocrinology.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Comparative studies of proteins often face the problem of distinguishing a true orthologue (species homologue) from a paralogue (a gene duplicate). This identification task is particularly challenging for endocrine peptides and neuropeptides because they are short and usually have several invariant positions. For some peptide families, this has led to a terminology with peptide names relating to the first species where a specific peptide sequence was determined, such as chicken or salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone, or names that highlight amino acid differences, e.g., Lys-vasopressin. With accumulating information from multiple species, such a terminology becomes almost impenetrable for nonexperts and difficult even for aficionados. The sequenced genomes offer a new way to distinguish orthologues and paralogues, namely by location of the genes relative to neighboring genes on the chromosomes. In addition, the genome databases can ideally provide a complete listing of the family members in each species. Many vertebrate gene families have expanded in the two basal tetraploidizations (2R) and the teleost fish third tetraploidization (3R), after which some vertebrate lineages have lost some of the duplicates. We review here some peptide families (neuropeptide Y, oxytocin-vasopressin, and somatostatin) where genomic information helps simplify nomenclature. This approach is useful also for other gene families, such as peptide receptors.
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Steroid biosynthesis within the frog brain: a model of neuroendocrine regulation.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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There is now clear evidence that the brain, similar to the adrenal gland, gonads, and placenta, is a steroidogenic organ. Notably in the frog brain, the presence of various steroidogenic enzymes has been detected by immunohistochemistry in specific populations of neurons and/or glial cells. These steroidogenic enzymes are biologically active, as shown by the ability of brain tissue explants to convert [(3)H]pregnenolone into various radiolabeled steroids. The frog brain has also been extensively used as a model to study the mechanism of regulation of neurosteroidogenesis by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. It has been demonstrated that the biosynthesis of neurosteroids is inhibited by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting through GABA(A) receptors, and neuropeptide Y, acting through Y1 receptors, and is stimulated by the octadecaneuropeptide (ODN), acting through central-type benzodiazepine receptors, triakontatetraneuropeptide (TTN), acting through peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors, and vasotocin, acting through V1a-like receptors. These data indicate that some of the neurophysiological effects of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides may be mediated through modulation of neurosteroid biosynthesis.
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Melanocortin peptides affect the motivation to feed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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In this study, we investigated the effects of one melanocortin receptor (MCR) agonist and two antagonists on food intake in juvenile rainbow trout. Baseline food intake was established prior to 1 microl intracerebroventricular injection (ICV) of the non-specific agonist MTII, the MC4R antagonist HS024 and the MC3/4R antagonist SHU9119 at concentrations of 0.3, 1 or 3 nM. Saline-injected fish and untreated fish served as controls. Changes in food intake were observed 1h after the ICV injections. Our results showed that treatment with MTII significantly decreased food intake at 3 nM compared to control, HS024 significantly increased food intake at 3 nM compared to control and saline-treated fish, and SHU9119 significantly increased food intake at 3 nM compared to saline-treated fish. In conclusion, our study provides further evidence, and hence strengthens the hypothesis, that MC4R participates in the control of energy balance in fish in the same manner as in mammals. Our findings that HS024 is more potent than SHU9119 in increasing food intake suggest that the effects of melanocortin on energy balance in rainbow trout are mainly regulated by activation of MC4R. Hence, HS024 seems an excellent tool as a MC4R antagonist in rainbow trout.
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Neuropeptide Y and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone (gamma-MSH) share a common pressor mechanism of action.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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Central circuits known to regulate food intake and energy expenditure also affect central cardiovascular regulation. For example, both the melanocortin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) peptide families, known to regulate food intake, also produce central hypertensive effects. Members of both families share a similar C-terminal amino acid residue sequence, RF(Y) amide, a sequence distinct from that required for melanocortin receptor binding. A recently delineated family of RFamide receptors recognizes both of these C-terminal motifs. We now present evidence that an antagonist with Y1 and RFamide receptor activity, BIBO3304, will attenuate the central cardiovascular effects of both gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone (gamma-MSH) and NPY. The use of synthetic melanocortin and NPY peptide analogs excluded an interaction with melanocortin or Y family receptors. We suggest that the anatomical convergence of NPY and melanocortin neurons on cardiovascular control centers may have pathophysiological implications through a common or similar RFamide receptor(s), much as they converge on other nuclei to coordinately control energy homeostasis.
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The evolution of vertebrate somatostatin receptors and their gene regions involves extensive chromosomal rearrangements.
BMC Evol. Biol.
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Somatostatin and its related neuroendocrine peptides have a wide variety of physiological functions that are mediated by five somatostatin receptors with gene names SSTR1-5 in mammals. To resolve their evolution in vertebrates we have investigated the SSTR genes and a large number of adjacent gene families by phylogeny and conserved synteny analyses in a broad range of vertebrate species.
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Cloning and pharmacological characterization of the neuropeptide Y receptor Y5 in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.
Peptides
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The neuropeptide Y system is known to have expanded in early vertebrate evolution. Three neuropeptide Y receptors have been proposed to have existed before the two basal vertebrate tetraploidizations, namely a Y1-like, a Y2-like, and a Y5-like receptor, with their genes in the same chromosomal region. Previously we have described a Y1-subfamily and a Y2-subfamily receptor in the river lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis. Here we report the identification of a Y5 receptor in the genome of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. In phylogenetic analyses, the Y5 receptor clusters together with gnathostome Y5 receptors with high bootstrap value and shares the long intracellular loop 3. This lamprey receptor has an even longer loop 3 than the gnathostome Y5 receptors described so far, with the expansion of amino acid repeats. Functional expression in a human cell line, co-transfected with a modified human G-protein, resulted in inositol phosphate turnover in response to the three lamprey NPY-family peptides NPY, PYY and PMY at nanomolar concentrations. Our results confirm that the Y1-Y2-Y5 receptor gene triplet arose before the cyclostome-gnathostome divergence. However, it is not clear from the NPY receptors whether cyclostomes diverged from the gnathostome lineage after the first or the second tetraploidization. Duplicates resulting from the tetraploidizations exist for both Y1 and Y2 in gnathostomes, but only a single copy of Y5 has survived in all vertebrates characterized to date, making the physiological roles of Y5 interesting to explore.
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Evolution of the vertebrate paralemmin gene family: ancient origin of gene duplicates suggests distinct functions.
PLoS ONE
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Paralemmin-1 is a protein implicated in plasma membrane dynamics, the development of filopodia, neurites and dendritic spines, as well as the invasiveness and metastatic potential of cancer cells. However, little is known about its mode of action, or about the biological functions of the other paralemmin isoforms: paralemmin-2, paralemmin-3 and palmdelphin. We describe here evolutionary analyses of the paralemmin gene family in a broad range of vertebrate species. Our results suggest that the four paralemmin isoform genes (PALM1, PALM2, PALM3 and PALMD) arose by quadruplication of an ancestral gene in the two early vertebrate genome duplications. Paralemmin-1 and palmdelphin were further duplicated in the teleost fish specific genome duplication. We identified a unique sequence motif common to all paralemmins, consisting of 11 highly conserved residues of which four are invariant. A single full-length paralemmin homolog with this motif was identified in the genome of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus and an isolated putative paralemmin motif could be detected in the genome of the lancelet Branchiostoma floridae. This allows us to conclude that the paralemmin gene family arose early and has been maintained throughout vertebrate evolution, suggesting functional diversification and specific biological roles of the paralemmin isoforms. The paralemmin genes have also maintained specific features of gene organisation and sequence. This includes the occurrence of closely linked downstream genes, initially identified as a readthrough fusion protein with mammalian paralemmin-2 (Palm2-AKAP2). We have found evidence for such an arrangement for paralemmin-1 and -2 in several vertebrate genomes, as well as for palmdelphin and paralemmin-3 in teleost fish genomes, and suggest the name paralemmin downstream genes (PDG) for this new gene family. Thus, our findings point to ancient roles for paralemmins and distinct biological functions of the gene duplicates.
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Expansion of transducin subunit gene families in early vertebrate tetraploidizations.
Genomics
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Hundreds of gene families expanded in the early vertebrate tetraploidizations including many gene families in the phototransduction cascade. We have investigated the evolution of the heterotrimeric G-proteins of photoreceptors, the transducins, in relation to these events using both phylogenetic analyses and synteny comparisons. Three alpha subunit genes were identified in amniotes and the coelacanth, GNAT1-3; two of these were identified in amphibians and teleost fish, GNAT1 and GNAT2. Most tetrapods have four beta genes, GNB1-4, and teleosts have additional duplicates. Finally, three gamma genes were identified in mammals, GNGT1, GNG11 and GNGT2. Of these, GNGT1 and GNGT2 were found in the other vertebrates. In frog and zebrafish additional duplicates of GNGT2 were identified. Our analyses show all three transducin families expanded during the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and the beta and gamma families gained additional copies in the teleost-specific genome duplication. This suggests that the tetraploidizations contributed to visual specialisations.
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