JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Increased cell surface free thiols identify effector CD8(+) T cells undergoing T cell receptor stimulation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recognition of peptide Major Histocompatibility Complexes (MHC) by the T cell receptor causes rapid production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in naïve CD8(+) T cells. Because ROI such as H2O2 are membrane permeable, mechanisms must exist to prevent overoxidation of surface proteins. In this study we used fluorescently labeled conjugates of maleimide to measure the level of cell surface free thiols (CSFT) during the development, activation and differentiation of CD8(+) T cells. We found that during development CSFT were higher on CD8 SP compared to CD4 SP or CD4CD8 DP T cells. After activation CSFT became elevated prior to division but once proliferation started levels continued to rise. During acute viral infection CSFT levels were elevated on antigen-specific effector cells compared to memory cells. Additionally, the CSFT level was always higher on antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in lymphoid compared to nonlymphoid organs. During chronic viral infection, CSFT levels were elevated for extended periods on antigen-specific effector CD8(+) T cells. Finally, CSFT levels on effector CD8(+) T cells, regardless of infection, identified cells undergoing TCR stimulation. Taken together these data suggest that CD8(+) T cells upregulate CSFT following receptor ligation and ROI production during infection to prevent overoxidation of surface proteins.
Related JoVE Video
The reversible formation of cysteine sulfenic acid promotes B-cell activation and proliferation.
Eur. J. Immunol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
B-cell receptor (BCR) ligation generates reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) that play a role in cellular responses. Although ROIs can oxidize all macromolecules, it was unclear which modifications control B-cell responses. In this study, we demonstrate the importance of the first oxidation product of cysteine, sulfenic acid, and its reversible formation in B-cell activation. Upon BCR crosslinking, B cells increase ROI levels with maximal production occurring within 15 min. Increased ROIs preceded elevated cysteine sulfenic acid, which localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus. Analysis of individual proteins revealed that the protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN, as well as actin, were modified to sulfenic acid following BCR ligation. Additionally, we used 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione (dimedone), a compound that covalently reacts with sulfenic acid to prevent its further oxidation or reduction, to determine the role of reversible cysteine sulfenic acid formation in regulating B-cell responses. Dimedone incubation resulted in a concentration-dependent block in anti-IgM-induced cell division, accompanied by a failure to induce capacitative calcium entry (CCE), and maintain tyrosine phosphorylation. These studies illustrate that reversible cysteine sulfenic acid formation is a mechanism by which B cells modulate pathways critical for activation and proliferation.
Related JoVE Video
Peroxiredoxin II regulates effector and secondary memory CD8+ T cell responses.
J. Virol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) generated in response to receptor stimulation play an important role in cellular responses. However, the effect of increased H(2)O(2) on an antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell response was unknown. Following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, the expression and oxidation of peroxiredoxin II (PrdxII), a critical antioxidant enzyme, increased in CD8(+) T cells. Deletion of PrdxII increased ROI, S phase entry, division, and death during in vitro division. During primary acute viral and bacterial infection, the number of effector CD8(+) T cells in PrdxII-deficient mice was increased, while the number of memory cells were similar to those of the wild-type cells. Adoptive transfer of P14 TCR transgenic cells demonstrated that the increased expansion of effector cells was T cell autonomous. After rechallenge, effector CD8(+) T cells in mutant animals were more skewed to memory phenotype than cells from wild-type mice, resulting in a larger secondary memory CD8(+) T cell pool. During chronic viral infection, increased antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells accumulated in the spleens of PrdxII mutant mice, causing mortality. These results demonstrate that PrdxII controls effector CD8(+) T cell expansion, secondary memory generation, and immunopathology.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.