Recognition of peptide Major Histocompatibility Complexes (MHC) by the T cell receptor causes rapid production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in naïve CD8(+) T cells. Because ROI such as H2O2 are membrane permeable, mechanisms must exist to prevent overoxidation of surface proteins. In this study we used fluorescently labeled conjugates of maleimide to measure the level of cell surface free thiols (CSFT) during the development, activation and differentiation of CD8(+) T cells. We found that during development CSFT were higher on CD8 SP compared to CD4 SP or CD4CD8 DP T cells. After activation CSFT became elevated prior to division but once proliferation started levels continued to rise. During acute viral infection CSFT levels were elevated on antigen-specific effector cells compared to memory cells. Additionally, the CSFT level was always higher on antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in lymphoid compared to nonlymphoid organs. During chronic viral infection, CSFT levels were elevated for extended periods on antigen-specific effector CD8(+) T cells. Finally, CSFT levels on effector CD8(+) T cells, regardless of infection, identified cells undergoing TCR stimulation. Taken together these data suggest that CD8(+) T cells upregulate CSFT following receptor ligation and ROI production during infection to prevent overoxidation of surface proteins.
B-cell receptor (BCR) ligation generates reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) that play a role in cellular responses. Although ROIs can oxidize all macromolecules, it was unclear which modifications control B-cell responses. In this study, we demonstrate the importance of the first oxidation product of cysteine, sulfenic acid, and its reversible formation in B-cell activation. Upon BCR crosslinking, B cells increase ROI levels with maximal production occurring within 15 min. Increased ROIs preceded elevated cysteine sulfenic acid, which localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus. Analysis of individual proteins revealed that the protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN, as well as actin, were modified to sulfenic acid following BCR ligation. Additionally, we used 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione (dimedone), a compound that covalently reacts with sulfenic acid to prevent its further oxidation or reduction, to determine the role of reversible cysteine sulfenic acid formation in regulating B-cell responses. Dimedone incubation resulted in a concentration-dependent block in anti-IgM-induced cell division, accompanied by a failure to induce capacitative calcium entry (CCE), and maintain tyrosine phosphorylation. These studies illustrate that reversible cysteine sulfenic acid formation is a mechanism by which B cells modulate pathways critical for activation and proliferation.
Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) generated in response to receptor stimulation play an important role in cellular responses. However, the effect of increased H(2)O(2) on an antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell response was unknown. Following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, the expression and oxidation of peroxiredoxin II (PrdxII), a critical antioxidant enzyme, increased in CD8(+) T cells. Deletion of PrdxII increased ROI, S phase entry, division, and death during in vitro division. During primary acute viral and bacterial infection, the number of effector CD8(+) T cells in PrdxII-deficient mice was increased, while the number of memory cells were similar to those of the wild-type cells. Adoptive transfer of P14 TCR transgenic cells demonstrated that the increased expansion of effector cells was T cell autonomous. After rechallenge, effector CD8(+) T cells in mutant animals were more skewed to memory phenotype than cells from wild-type mice, resulting in a larger secondary memory CD8(+) T cell pool. During chronic viral infection, increased antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells accumulated in the spleens of PrdxII mutant mice, causing mortality. These results demonstrate that PrdxII controls effector CD8(+) T cell expansion, secondary memory generation, and immunopathology.
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