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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Enhanced Foamability of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Surfactant Mixed with Superspreader Trisiloxane-(poly)ethoxylate.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Gravitational drainage from thin vertical surfactant solution films and gravitational drainage in a settler column are used to study the behavior of foams based on two-surfactant mixtures. Namely, solutions of the anionic Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and non-ionic superspreader SILWET L-77, and their mixtures at different mixing ratios are studied. It is shown that solutions having a longer lifetime in the vertical film drainage process also possess a higher foamability. An additional and unexpected result is that when using a mixed surfactant system, the foamability can be much greater than the foamabilities of the individual components.
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Specific Gene Repression by CRISPRi System Transferred through Bacterial Conjugation.
ACS Synth Biol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In microbial communities, bacterial populations are commonly controlled using indiscriminate, broad range antibiotics. There are few ways to target specific strains effectively without disrupting the entire microbiome and local environment. Here we use conjugation, a natural DNA horizontal transfer process among bacterial species, to deliver an engineered CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system for targeting specific genes in recipient Escherichia coli cells. We show that delivery of the CRISPRi system is successful and can specifically repress a reporter gene in recipient cells, thereby establishing a new tool for gene regulation across bacterial cells and potentially for bacterial population control.
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Nanofluidity of Fatty Acid Hydrocarbon Chains as Monitored by Benchtop Time-domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The functional properties of lipid-rich assemblies such as serum lipoproteins, cell membranes and intracellular lipid droplets are modulated by the fluidity of the hydrocarbon chain environment. Existing methods to monitor hydrocarbon chain fluidity include fluorescence, electron spin resonance and NMR spectroscopy; each possesses advantages and limitations. Here we introduce a new approach based on benchtop time-domain 1H NMR relaxometry (TD-NMR). Unlike conventional NMR spectroscopy, TD-NMR does not rely on the chemical shift resolution made possible by homogeneous, high-field magnets and Fourier transforms. Rather, it focuses on a multi-exponential analysis of the time-decay signal. In this study, we investigated a series of single-phase fatty acid oils, which enabled us to correlate 1H spin-spin relaxation time constants (T2) with experimental measures of sample fluidity, as obtained using a viscometer. Remarkably, benchtop TD-NMR at 40 MHz was able to resolve two-to-four T2 components in biologically relevant fatty acids, assigned to nanometer-scale domains in different segments of the hydrocarbon chain. The T2 values for each domain were exquisitely sensitive to hydrocarbon chain structure; the largest values were observed for pure fatty acids or mixtures with the highest cis-double bond content. Moreover, the T2 values for each domain exhibited positive linear correlations with fluidity. The TD-NMR T2 and fluidity measurements appear to be monitoring the same underlying phenomenon - variations in hydrocarbon chain packing. The results from this study validate the use of benchtop TD-NMR T2 as a nanofluidity meter and demonstrate its potential for probing nanofluidity in other systems of biological interest.
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Secondary organic aerosol formation during evaporation of droplets containing atmospheric aldehydes, amines, and ammonium sulfate.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Reactions of carbonyl compounds in cloudwater produce organic aerosol mass through in-cloud oxidation and during post-cloud evaporation. In this work, post-cloud evaporation was simulated in laboratory experiments on evaporating droplets that contain mixtures of common atmospheric aldehydes with ammonium sulfate (AS), methylamine, or glycine. Aerosol diameters were measured during monodisperse droplet drying experiments and during polydisperse droplet equilibration experiments at 75% relative humidity, and condensed-phase mass was measured in bulk thermogravimetric experiments. The evaporation of water from a droplet was found to trigger aldehyde reactions that increased residual particle volumes by a similar extent in room-temperature experiments, regardless of whether AS, methylamine, or glycine was present. The production of organic aerosol volume was highest from droplets containing glyoxal, followed by similar production from methylglyoxal or hydroxyacetone. Significant organic aerosol production was observed for glycolaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde only at elevated temperatures in thermogravimetric experiments. In many experiments, the amount of aerosol produced was greater than the sum of all solutes plus non-volatile solvent impurities, indicating the additional presence of trapped water, likely caused by increasing aerosol-phase viscosity due to oligomer formation.
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Closure of the cytoplasmic gate formed by TM5 and TM11 during transport in the oxalate/formate exchanger from Oxalobacter formigenes.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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OxlT, the oxalate/formate exchanger of Oxalobacter formigenes, is a member of the Major Facilitator Superfamily of transporters. In the present work, substrate (oxalate) was found to enhance the reactivity of the cysteine mutant S336C on the cytoplasmic end of helix 11 to methanethiosulfonate ethyl carboxylate. In addition, S336C is found to spontaneously cross-link to S143C in TM5 in either native or reconstituted membranes under conditions that support transport. Continuous wave EPR measurements are consistent with this result and indicate that positions 143 and 336 are in close proximity in the presence of substrate. These two residues are localized within helix interacting GxxxG-like motifs (G140LASG144 and S336DIFG340) at the cyto-plasmic poles of TM5 and TM11. Pulse EPR measurements were used to determine distances and distance distributions across the cytoplasmic or periplasmic ends of OxlT and were compared with the predictions of an inside-open homology model. The data indicate that a significant population of transporter is in an outside-open configuration in the presence of substrate; however, each end of the transporter exhibits significant conformational heterogeneity, where both inside-open and outside-open configurations are present. These data indicate that TM5 and TM11, which form part of the transport pathway, transiently close during transport, and that there is a conformational equilibrium between inside-open and outside-open states of OxlT in the presence of substrate.
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Dose-response for Starting and Stopping HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for MSM.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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?This study estimated the number of daily tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/ emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) doses required to achieve and maintain (after discontinuation) intracellular drug concentrations that protect against HIV infection for men who have sex with men (MSM).
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Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Factor IX Gene Therapy in Hemophilia B.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Background In patients with severe hemophilia B, gene therapy that is mediated by a novel self-complementary adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) vector has been shown to raise factor IX levels for periods of up to 16 months. We wanted to determine the durability of transgene expression, the vector dose-response relationship, and the level of persistent or late toxicity. Methods We evaluated the stability of transgene expression and long-term safety in 10 patients with severe hemophilia B: 6 patients who had been enrolled in an initial phase 1 dose-escalation trial, with 2 patients each receiving a low, intermediate, or high dose, and 4 additional patients who received the high dose (2×10(12) vector genomes per kilogram of body weight). The patients subsequently underwent extensive clinical and laboratory monitoring. Results A single intravenous infusion of vector in all 10 patients with severe hemophilia B resulted in a dose-dependent increase in circulating factor IX to a level that was 1 to 6% of the normal value over a median period of 3.2 years, with observation ongoing. In the high-dose group, a consistent increase in the factor IX level to a mean (±SD) of 5.1±1.7% was observed in all 6 patients, which resulted in a reduction of more than 90% in both bleeding episodes and the use of prophylactic factor IX concentrate. A transient increase in the mean alanine aminotransferase level to 86 IU per liter (range, 36 to 202) occurred between week 7 and week 10 in 4 of the 6 patients in the high-dose group but resolved over a median of 5 days (range, 2 to 35) after prednisolone treatment. Conclusions In 10 patients with severe hemophilia B, the infusion of a single dose of AAV8 vector resulted in long-term therapeutic factor IX expression associated with clinical improvement. With a follow-up period of up to 3 years, no late toxic effects from the therapy were reported. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00979238 .).
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An outbreak of norovirus genogroup II associated with New South Wales oysters.
Commun Dis Intell Q Rep
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Introduction: Currently available antigen tests for norovirus (NoV) have excellent specificity but negative results do not always rule out infection. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a useful method for detecting and genotyping NoV in humans and oysters. An outbreak of NoV associated with oyster consumption in northern New South Wales confirmed the value of real-time RT-PCR where immunochromatography (ICT) tests were negative. Methods: Eight cases of gastrointestinal illness in northern NSW, clinically suggestive of NoV infection, were associated with consumption of oysters. A joint environmental investigation was conducted by the New South Wales Food Authority and local council. One human sample was collected and tested for NoV using ICT and real-time RT-PCR. Oyster samples were tested for NoV utilising real-time RT-PCR. Results: The patient with a stool sample had NoV genogroup II (GII) confirmed by real-time RT-PCR after testing negative by ICT. Illness in all cases was consistent with NoV with median incubation and duration of 36 and 50.5 hours respectively. All cases consumed oysters that were harvested from the same area. Three oyster samples from the harvest area were also positive for NoV GII. A nearby leaking sewer line was identified as the likely source of the contamination with hydrological studies confirming its potential to contaminate implicated oyster leases. Conclusion: This investigation confirmed the value of real-time RT-PCR testing of human specimens where ICT tests are negative and clinical illness is suggestive of NoV infection. NoV real-time RT-PCR and epidemiological evidence effectively linked human infection with oyster contamination to motivate a thorough environmental investigation and appropriate action to mitigate further public health risk. Commun Dis Intell 2014;38(1):E9-E15.
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Testing tuberculosis drug efficacy in a zebrafish high-throughput translational medicine screen.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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The translational value of zebrafish high throughput screens can be improved when more knowledge is available on uptake characteristics of potential drugs. We investigated reference antibiotics and 15 preclinical compounds in a translational zebrafish-rodent screening system for tuberculosis. As a major advance we have developed a new tool for testing drug uptake in the zebrafish model. This is important because despite the many applications of assessing drug efficacy in zebrafish research, the current methods for measuring uptake using mass spectrometry do not take into account the possible adherence of drugs to the larvae surface. Our approach combines nanoliter-sampling from the yolk using a micro-needle, followed by mass spectrometric analysis. As of to date no single physico-chemical property has been identified to accurately predict compound uptake; our method offers a great possibility to monitor how any novel compound behaves within the system. We have correlated the uptake data with high-throughput drug screening data from M. marinum infected zebrafish larvae. As a result, we present an improved zebrafish larvae drug screening platform which offers new insights into drug efficacy and identifies potential false negatives and drugs that are effective in zebrafish and rodents. Thereby we demonstrate that this improved zebrafish drug screening platform can complement conventional models of in vivo M. tuberculosis infected rodent assays. The detailed comparison of two vertebrate systems, fish and rodent, may give more predictive value for efficacy of drugs in humans.
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Telomere Length and the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation: Insights into the Role of Biological versus Chronological Aging.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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-Advanced age is the most important risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF), however the mechanism remains unknown. Telomeres, regions of DNA that shorten with cell division, are considered reliable markers of biological aging. We sought to examine the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and incident AF in a large population-based cohort using direct LTL measurements and genetic data. To further explore our findings, we compared atrial cell telomere length (ATL) and LTL in cardiac surgery patients.
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Australia's polio risk.
Commun Dis Intell Q Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Australia, like all polio-free countries and regions, remains at risk of a wild poliovirus importation until polio is eradicated globally. The most probable route of importation will be through a traveller arriving in Australia either by air or sea from a polio-endemic or re-infected country. While the overall risk of an imported wild poliovirus infection leading to transmission within Australia is assessed as being low, some areas of the country have been identified as at increased risk. Local areas with relatively high arrivals from polio endemic countries, areas of low vaccination coverage and the potential for transmission to occur when these 2 factors are combined, were identified by this review as Australia's main polio risk. The risk of an importation event leading to locally acquired cases is mitigated by generally high polio vaccination coverage in Australia. This high coverage extends to residents of the Torres Strait Islands who are in close proximity to Papua New Guinea, a country identified as at high risk of poliovirus transmission should an importation occur. In 2012, all states and territories had vaccination coverage of greater than 90% at 1 year of age and all exceeded 93% at 2 years of age. Population immunity to wild poliovirus type 1, which remains the major cause of paralysis globally, has been estimated at 82%. This is sufficient to prevent outbreaks of this type in Australia. Of the 211 eligible non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases classified between 2008 and 2011, 91% (193) were vaccinated against polio at least once. High quality surveillance for AFP, which is supplemented by sentinel enterovirus and environmental surveillance activities, gives confidence that an imported case would be detected and appropriate public health action would ensue.
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Traumatic injuries in professional dance-past and present: ballet injuries in berlin, 1994/95 and 2011/12.
Med Probl Perform Art
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2014
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The physical requirement profile for professional dancers has changed significantly during the past decades. The aim of this first comparative study is to present a differentiated analysis of work-related traumatic injuries sustained by professional ballet dancers at the end of the 20th century (1994/95) and now (2011/12).
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Effectiveness of low emission zones: large scale analysis of changes in environmental NO2, NO and NOx concentrations in 17 German cities.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Low Emission Zones (LEZs) are areas where the most polluting vehicles are restricted from entering. The effectiveness of LEZs to lower ambient exposures is under debate. This study focused on LEZs that restricted cars of Euro 1 standard without appropriate retrofitting systems from entering and estimated LEZ effects on NO2, NO, and NOx (?= NO2+NO).
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Bacterial meningitis: a density-equalizing mapping analysis of the global research architecture.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Bacterial meningitis is caused by a variety of pathogens and displays an important public health threat all over the world. Despite the necessity to develop customized public health-related research projects, a thorough study of global meningitis research is not present, so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was a combined density-equalizing and scientometric study. To evaluate the scientific efforts of bibliometric methods, density-equalizing algorithms and large-scale data analysis of the Web of Science were applied in the period between 1900 and 2007. From this, 7998 publications on bacterial meningitis have been found. With a number of 2698, most publications have been written by U.S. authors, followed by the UK (912), Germany (749) and France (620). This dominance can also be shown in the international cooperation. The specific citation analyses reveal that the nation with the highest average citation rate (citations per publications) was Norway (26.36), followed by Finland (24.16) and the U.S. (24.06). This study illustrates the architecture of global research on bacterial meningitis and points to the need for customized research programs with a focus on local public health issues in countries with a low development index, but high incidences, to target this global public health problem.
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Brown carbon formation by aqueous-phase carbonyl compound reactions with amines and ammonium sulfate.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Reactions between small water-soluble carbonyl compounds, ammonium sulfate (AS), and/or amines were evaluated for their ability to form light-absorbing species in aqueous aerosol. Aerosol chemistry was simulated with bulk phase reactions at pH 4, 275 K, initial concentrations of 0.05 to 0.25 M, and UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring. Glycolaldehyde-glycine mixtures produced the most intense absorbance. In carbonyl compound reactions with AS, methylamine, or AS/glycine mixtures, product absorbance followed the order methylglyoxal > glyoxal > glycolaldehyde > hydroxyacetone. Absorbance extended into the visible, with a wavelength dependence fit by absorption Ångstrom coefficients (Å(abs)) of 2 to 11, overlapping the Å(abs) range of atmospheric, water-soluble brown carbon. Many reaction products absorbing between 300 and 400 nm were strongly fluorescent. On a per mole basis, amines are much more effective than AS at producing brown carbon. In addition, methylglyoxal and glyoxal produced more light-absorbing products in reactions with a 5:1 AS-glycine mixture than with AS or glycine alone, illustrating the importance of both organic and inorganic nitrogen in brown carbon formation. Through comparison to biomass burning aerosol, we place an upper limit on the contribution of these aqueous carbonyl-AS-amine reactions of ? 10% of global light absorption by brown carbon.
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Education Against Tobacco (EAT): a quasi-experimental prospective evaluation of a programme for preventing smoking in secondary schools delivered by medical students: a study protocol.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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A survey conducted by the German Federal Centre for Health Education in 2012 showed that 35.2% of all young adults (18-25?years) and 12.0% of all adolescents (12-17?years) in Germany are regular cigarette smokers. Most smoked their first cigarette in early adolescence. We recently reported a significantly positive short-term effect of a physician-delivered school-based smoking prevention programme on the smoking behaviour of schoolchildren in Germany. However, physician-based programmes are usually very expensive. Therefore, we will evaluate and optimise Education against Tobacco (EAT), a widespread, low-cost programme delivered by about 400 medical students from 16 universities in Germany.
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MRSA: a density-equalizing mapping analysis of the global research architecture.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has evolved as an alarming public health thread due to its global spread as hospital and community pathogen. Despite this role, a scientometric analysis has not been performed yet. Therefore, the NewQIS platform was used to conduct a combined density-equalizing mapping and scientometric study. As database, the Web of Science was used, and all entries between 1961 and 2007 were analyzed. In total, 7671 entries were identified. Density equalizing mapping demonstrated a distortion of the world map for the benefit of the USA as leading country with a total output of 2374 publications, followed by the UK (1030) and Japan (862). Citation rate analysis revealed Portugal as leading country with a rate of 35.47 citations per article, followed by New Zealand and Denmark. Country cooperation network analyses showed 743 collaborations with US-UK being most frequent. Network citation analyses indicated the publications that arose from the cooperation of USA and France as well as USA and Japan as the most cited (75.36 and 74.55 citations per collaboration article, respectively). The present study provides the first combined density-equalizing mapping and scientometric analysis of MRSA research. It illustrates the global MRSA research architecture. It can be assumed that this highly relevant topic for public health will achieve even greater dimensions in the future.
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Timeliness of Salmonella Typhimurium notifications after the introduction of routine MLVA typing in NSW.
N S W Public Health Bull
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Salmonella Typhimurium is the most common bacterial cause of gastrointestinal disease in NSW. Regular review of surveillance procedures ensures system objectives are met and informs improvements in system utility and efficiency. This paper assesses the timeliness and data completeness of NSW Salmonella Typhimurium surveillance after the routine introduction of multilocus variable repeat analysis (MLVA), a rapid sub-typing technique. MLVA results were available significantly earlier than alternate sub-typing techniques over the 2 years of this review. Accordingly, from a timeliness perspective, MLVA offers a favourable Salmonella Typhimurium sub-typing option in NSW. Further opportunities to improve timeliness and data completeness are identified. This paper was produced as part of a review of Salmonella Typhimurium surveillance in NSW for the period 2008-2009 by members of OzFoodNet based at Hunter New England Population Health. OzFoodNet is a national network established by the then Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing in 2000 to enhance foodborne disease surveillance in Australia.
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Syphilis predicts HIV incidence among men and transgender women who have sex with men in a preexposure prophylaxis trial.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Syphilis infection may potentiate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We sought to determine the extent to which HIV acquisition was associated with syphilis infection within an HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial and whether emtricitabine/tenofovir (FTC/TDF) modified that association.
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Diminished White Matter Injury over Time in a Cohort of Premature Newborns.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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To determine the rate of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected noncystic white matter injury (WMI) in a prospective cohort of premature newborns, and to evaluate its associations with changes in clinical predictors of WMI over the study period.
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Programmed death-1 expression on CD4? and CD8? T cells in treated and untreated HIV disease.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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There is intense interest in the role of programmed death 1 (PD-1) in causing persistent T-cell dysfunction in HIV infection. However, the impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment (ART) on the expression of PD-1 on T cells is still poorly defined.
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Tenofovir diphosphate concentrations and prophylactic effect in a macaque model of rectal simian HIV transmission.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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This study evaluated the relationship between intracellular tenofovir diphosphate concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and prophylactic efficacy in a macaque model for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).
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HIV-1 drug resistance in the iPrEx preexposure prophylaxis trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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The iPrEx study demonstrated that combination oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) protects against HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men and transgender women. Selection for drug resistance could offset PrEP benefits.
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Understanding human - bat interactions in NSW, Australia: improving risk communication for prevention of Australian bat lyssavirus.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infects a number of flying fox and insectivorous bats species in Australia. Human infection with ABLV is inevitably fatal unless prior vaccination and/or post-exposure treatment (PET) is given. Despite ongoing public health messaging about the risks associated with bat contact, surveillance data have revealed a four-fold increase in the number of people receiving PET for bat exposure in NSW between 2007 and 2011. Our study aimed to better understand these human - bat interactions in order to identify additional risk communication messages that could lower the risk of potential ABLV exposure. All people aged 18 years or over whom received PET for non-occupation related potential ABLV exposure in the Hunter New England Local Health District of Australia between July 2011 and July 2013 were considered eligible for the study. Eligible participants were invited to a telephone interview to explore the circumstances of their bat contact. Interviews were then transcribed and thematically analysed by two independent investigators.
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Vaxtracker: Active on-line surveillance for adverse events following inactivated influenza vaccine in children.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Vaxtracker is a web based survey for active post marketing surveillance of Adverse Events Following Immunisation. It is designed to efficiently monitor vaccine safety of new vaccines by early signal detection of serious adverse events. The Vaxtracker system automates contact with the parents or carers of immunised children by email and/or sms message to their smart phone. A hyperlink on the email and text messages links to a web based survey exploring adverse events following the immunisation. The Vaxtracker concept was developed during 2011 (n=21), and piloted during the 2012 (n=200) and 2013 (n=477) influenza seasons for children receiving inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in the Hunter New England Local Health District, New South Wales, Australia. Survey results were reviewed by surveillance staff to detect any safety signals and compare adverse event frequencies among the different influenza vaccines administered. In 2012, 57% (n=113) of the 200 participants responded to the online survey and 61% (290/477) in 2013. Vaxtracker appears to be an effective method for actively monitoring adverse events following influenza vaccination in children.
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The theatrical stage as accident site in professional dance.
Med Probl Perform Art
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Reducing work-related health hazards at the different theatre workplaces is one aspect of preventive options in professional dance. This also applies to hazards on the highly variable theatrical stage areas. However, detailed information on these stages and their risks is not available. The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate work-related traumatic injuries in the stage area.
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Global research on smoking and pregnancy-a scientometric and gender analysis.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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The exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy is considered to be amongst the most harmful avoidable risk factors. In this scientometric and gender study scientific data on smoking and pregnancy was analyzed using a variety of objective scientometric methods like the number of scientific contributions, the number of citations and the modified h-index in combination with gender-specific investigations. Covering a time period from 1900 to 2012, publishing activities of 27,955 authors, institutions and countries, reception within the international scientific community and its reactions were analyzed and interpreted. Out of 10,043 publications the highest number of scientific works were published in the USA (35.5%), followed by the UK (9.9%) and Canada (5.3%). These nations also achieve the highest modified h-indices of 128, 79 and 62 and the highest citation rates of 41.4%, 8.6% and 5.3%, respectively. Out of 12,596 scientists 6,935 are female (55.1%), however they account for no more than 49.7% of publications (12,470) and 42.8% of citations (172,733). The highest percentage of female experts about smoking and pregnancy is found in Australasia (60.7%), while the lowest is found in Asia (41.9%). The findings of the study indicate an increase in gender equality as well as in quantity and quality of international scientific research about smoking and pregnancy in the future.
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HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in men who have sex with men and transgender women: a secondary analysis of a phase 3 randomised controlled efficacy trial.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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For maximum effect pre-exposure prophylaxis should be targeted to the subpopulations that account for the largest proportion of infections (population-attributable fraction [PAF]) and for whom the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent infection is lowest. We aimed to estimate the PAF and NNT of participants in the iPrEx (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Initiative) trial.
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Traumatic injuries in revue dancers.
J Dance Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Revue productions are a combination of dancing and singing, musical and spoken sequences, and acrobatics, performed with or without a story line, and characterized by a versatility of dance styles and a high number of performances (over 250 in a 10-month season). The aim of this quantitative single cohort study is to evaluate work-related traumatic injuries in this dance genre. Data were obtained from work accident reports of the German Social Accident Insurance Institution for the public sector in Berlin (UKB) involving 440 revue dancers (183 males and 257 females). Analysis was conducted with Excel 2007 and PASW Statistics 18. One out of three female dancers and one out of two male dancers sustained an acute injury in the course of a theatrical season (0.22 injuries per 1,000 hours). The incidence rate was 0.44 for males and 0.31 for females, with the lower extremity as the most commonly injured body region, followed by the spine. Of all occupational accidents, 75.1% happened on stage, with 69% during performances. The dance partner and dance floor were the most common exogenous factors resulting in a traumatic injury. Of all traumatic injuries, 81.7% occurred in the first 3 hours after starting work. Gender specific differences could be observed. Due to the limited availability of comparable studies of other forms of professional dance, in this study revue dance is largely considered as an independent genre.
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Airborne particulate matter in public transport: a field study at major intersection points in Frankfurt am Main (Germany).
J Occup Med Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Chronic particulate matter (PM) exposure is correlated to various health effects, even at low amounts. WHO has defined PM concentration limits as daily and annual mean values which were made legally binding in the European Union. While many studies have focused on PM concentrations in special environments, little is known about the average PM- exposure for both employees and passengers in the German public transportation system.
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Changes in renal function associated with oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate use for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) pre-exposure prophylaxis decreases sexual acquisition of HIV infection. We sought to evaluate the renal safety of TDF in HIV-uninfected persons.
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Formation of semisolid, oligomerized aqueous SOA: lab simulations of cloud processing.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and hydroxyacetone form N-containing and oligomeric compounds during simulated cloud processing with small amines. Using a novel hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analysis (HTDMA) system that allows varied humidification times, the hygroscopic growth (HG) of each of the resulting products of simulated cloud processing was measured. Continuous water uptake (gradual deliquescence) was observed beginning at ? 40% RH for all aldehyde-methylamine products. Particles containing ionic reaction products of either glyoxal or glycine were most hygroscopic, with HG between 1.16 and 1.20 at 80% RH. Longer humidification times (up to 20 min) produced an increase in growth factors for glyoxal-methylamine (19% by vol) and methylglyoxal-methylamine (8% by vol) aerosol, indicating that unusually long equilibration times can be required for HTDMA measurements of such particles. Glyoxal- and methylglyoxal-methylamine aerosol particles shattered in Raman microscopy impact-flow experiments, revealing that the particles were semisolid. Similar experiments on glycolaldehyde- and hydroxyacetone-methylamine aerosol found that the aerosol particles were liquid when dried for <1 h, but semisolid when dried for 20 h under ambient conditions. The RH required for flow (liquification) during humidification experiments followed the order methylglyoxal > glyoxal > glycolaldehyde = hydroxyacetone, likely caused by the speed of oligomer formation in each system.
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Heterogeneous ice nucleation on simulated secondary organic aerosol.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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In this study, we have explored the phase behavior and the ice nucleation properties of secondary organic aerosol made from aqueous processing (aqSOA). AqSOA was made from the dark reactions of methylglyoxal with methylamine in simulated evaporated cloud droplets. The resulting particles were probed from 215 to 250 K using Raman spectroscopy coupled to an environmental cell. We find these particles are in a semisolid or glassy state based upon their behavior when exposed to mechanical pressure as well as their flow behavior. Further, we find that these aqSOA particles are poor depositional ice nuclei, in contrast to previous studies on simple mixtures of glassy organics. Additionally, we have studied the effect of ammonium sulfate on the phase, morphology, and ice nucleation behavior of the aqSOA. We find that the plasticizing effect of ammonium sulfate lowers the viscosity of the aqSOA, allowing the ammonium sulfate to effloresce within the aqSOA matrix. Upon humidification, the aqSOA matrix liquefies before it can depositionally nucleate ice, and the effloresced ammonium sulfate can act as an immersion mode ice nucleus. This change in the mode of nucleation is accompanied by an increase in the overall ice nucleation efficiency of the aqSOA particles.
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Silicosis: geographic changes in research: an analysis employing density-equalizing mapping.
J Occup Med Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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A critical evaluation of scientific efforts is needed in times of modified evaluation criteria for academic personnel and institutions.
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Effect of selected insecticides on Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Miridae) oviposition behavior in cotton.
Environ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Oviposition behavior of western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, as affected by residual insecticides, was studied in potted as well as field-grown cotton. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution and phytotomical preference of Lygus oviposition in presquaring and blooming cotton, as affected by selected insecticides. Flonicamid, acephate, and cypermethrin were applied to cotton at 82, 516, and 114 g (active ingredient)/ha, respectively. At 3 d posttreatment, a gravid female Lygus was caged on the plants. After 4 d, caged plants were harvested and eggs were counted by whole plant dissection. Results indicated significantly greater egg deposition in untreated controls than treated plants in both potted and field-grown cotton. For untreated plants, Lygus preferred to oviposit on the pulvinus and leaf petiole, where 76 and 85% of eggs were laid in potted and field-grown cotton, respectively. For insecticide-treated plants, no plant structure preference was observed, although fewer eggs were laid. The upper stratum of the plant canopy had significantly more eggs than the lower or middle strata of untreated plants, while more eggs were observed in the middle strata of plants treated with acephate in field-grown cotton. Sublethal effects could not be adequately assessed in the cypermethrin treatment owing to high Lygus mortality.
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Biochemical and Structural Characterization of Mycobacterial Aspartyl-tRNA Synthetase AspS, a Promising TB Drug Target.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), a disease with high worldwide mortality rates. Current treatment programs are under significant threat from multi-drug and extensively-drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, and it is essential to identify new inhibitors and their targets. We generated spontaneous resistant mutants in Mycobacterium bovis BCG in the presence of 10× the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of compound 1, a previously identified potent inhibitor of mycobacterial growth in culture. Whole genome sequencing of two resistant mutants revealed in one case a single nucleotide polymorphism in the gene aspS at 535GAC>535AAC (D179N), while in the second mutant a single nucleotide polymorphism was identified upstream of the aspS promoter region. We probed whole cell target engagement by overexpressing either M. bovis BCG aspS or Mycobacterium smegmatis aspS, which resulted in a ten-fold and greater than ten-fold increase, respectively, of the MIC against compound 1. To analyse the impact of inhibitor 1 on M. tuberculosis AspS (Mt-AspS) activity we over-expressed, purified and characterised the kinetics of this enzyme using a robust tRNA-independent assay adapted to a high-throughput screening format. Finally, to aid hit-to-lead optimization, the crystal structure of apo M. smegmatis AspS was determined to a resolution of 2.4 Å.
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Curare - A Curative Poison: A Scientometric Analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Curare is one of the best-examined neurotoxins of the world, which has empirically been used for centuries by American Indigenes. Research on curare has been performed much later, a global scientometric analysis on curare research or its derivates does not yet exist. This bibliometric analysis is part of the global NewQis-project and should illuminate both toxic and historic issues of research on curare.
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Immunohistochemistry of Colorectal Cancer Biomarker Phosphorylation Requires Controlled Tissue Fixation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Phosphorylated signaling molecules are biomarkers of cancer pathophysiology and resistance to therapy, but because phosphoprotein analytes are often labile, poorly controlled clinical laboratory practices could prevent translation of research findings in this area from the bench to the bedside. We therefore compared multiple biomarker and phosphoprotein immunohistochemistry (IHC) results in 23 clinical colorectal carcinoma samples after either a novel, rapid tissue fixation protocol or a standard tissue fixation protocol employed by clinical laboratories, and we also investigated the effect of a defined post-operative "cold" ischemia period on these IHC results. We found that a one-hour cold ischemia interval, allowed by ASCO/CAP guidelines for certain cancer biomarker assays, is highly deleterious to certain phosphoprotein analytes, specifically the phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR), but shorter ischemic intervals (less than 17 minutes) facilitate preservation of phosphoproteins. Second, we found that a rapid 4-hour, two temperature, formalin fixation yielded superior staining in several cases with select markers (pEGFR, pBAD, pAKT) compared to a standard overnight room temperature fixation protocol, despite taking less time. These findings indicate that the future research and clinical utilities of phosphoprotein IHC for assessing colorectal carcinoma pathophysiology absolutely depend upon attention to preanalytical factors and rigorously controlled tissue fixation protocols.
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A Challenge for the Seed Mixture Refuge Strategy in Bt Maize: Impact of Cross-Pollination on an Ear-Feeding Pest, Corn Earworm.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To counter the threat of insect resistance, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize growers in the U.S. are required to plant structured non-Bt maize refuges. Concerns with refuge compliance led to the introduction of seed mixtures, also called RIB (refuge-in-the-bag), as an alternative approach for implementing refuge for Bt maize products in the U.S. Maize Belt. A major concern in RIB is cross-pollination of maize hybrids that can cause Bt proteins to be present in refuge maize kernels and negatively affect refuge insects. Here we show that a mixed planting of 5% nonBt and 95% Bt maize containing the SmartStax traits expressing Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2 and Cry1F did not provide an effective refuge for an important above-ground ear-feeding pest, the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Cross-pollination in RIB caused a majority (>90%) of refuge kernels to express ? one Bt protein. The contamination of Bt proteins in the refuge ears reduced neonate-to-adult survivorship of H. zea to only 4.6%, a reduction of 88.1% relative to larvae feeding on ears of pure non-Bt maize plantings. In addition, the limited survivors on refuge ears had lower pupal mass and took longer to develop to adults.
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Healthcare utilization and clinical outcomes after catheter ablation of atrial flutter.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Atrial flutter ablation is associated with a high rate of acute procedural success and symptom improvement. The relationship between ablation and other clinical outcomes has been limited to small studies primarily conducted at academic centers. We sought to determine if catheter ablation of atrial flutter is associated with reductions in healthcare utilization, atrial fibrillation, or stroke in a large, real world population. California Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project databases were used to identify patients undergoing atrial flutter ablation between 2005 and 2009. The adjusted association between atrial flutter ablation and healthcare utilization, atrial fibrillation, or stroke was investigated using Cox proportional hazards models. Among 33,004 patients with a diagnosis of atrial flutter observed for a median of 2.1 years, 2,733 (8.2%) underwent catheter ablation. Atrial flutter ablation significantly lowered the adjusted risk of inpatient hospitalization (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.84-0.92, p<0.001), emergency department visits (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.54-0.65, p<0.001), and overall hospital-based healthcare utilization (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.98, p?=?0.001). Atrial flutter ablation was also associated with a statistically significant 11% reduction in the adjusted hazard of atrial fibrillation (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.97, p?=?0.01). Risk of acute stroke was not significantly reduced after ablation (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.81-1.45, p?=?0.57). In a large, real world population, atrial flutter ablation was associated with significant reductions in hospital-based healthcare utilization and a reduced risk of atrial fibrillation. These findings support the early use of catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial flutter.
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Daily oral emtricitabine/tenofovir preexposure prophylaxis and herpes simplex virus type 2 among men who have sex with men.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In addition to protecting against HIV acquisition, antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using topical 1% tenofovir gel reduced Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) acquisition by 51% among women in the CAPRISA 004 study. We examined the effect of daily oral emtricitabine/tenofovir (FTC/TDF) PrEP on HSV-2 seroincidence and ulcer occurrence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the iPrEx trial.
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Building influenza surveillance pyramids in near real time, Australia.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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A timely measure of circulating influenza virus severity has been elusive. Flutracking, the Australian online influenza-like illness surveillance system, was used to construct a surveillance pyramid in near real time for 2011/2012 participants and demonstrated a striking difference between years. Such pyramids will facilitate rapid estimation of attack rates and disease severity.
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The health of Hunter Valley communities in proximity to coal mining and power generation, general practice data, 1998-2010.
N S W Public Health Bull
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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An analysis of general practice data for rural communities in close proximity to coal mining and coal-fired power generation in the Hunter Valley region of NSW was conducted to identify unusual patterns of illness.
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Review of Australias polio surveillance.
Commun Dis Intell Q Rep
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.
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Transcriptional down-regulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
J Occup Med Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Tobacco is a leading environmental factor in the initiation of respiratory diseases and causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family members are involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases and SOCS-3 has been shown to play an important role in the regulation, onset and maintenance of airway allergic inflammation indicating that SOCS-3 displays a potential therapeutic target for anti-inflammatory respiratory drugs development. Since chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is also characterized by inflammatory changes and airflow limitation, the present study assessed the transcriptional expression of SOCS-3 in COPD.
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Expression of VPAC1 in a murine model of allergic asthma.
J Occup Med Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter of the inhibitory non-adrenergic non-cholinergic nervous system and influences the mammalian airway function in various ways. Hence known for bronchodilatory, immunomodulatory and mucus secretion modulating effects by interacting with the VIP receptors VPAC1 and VPAC2, it is discussed to be a promising target for pharmaceutical intervention in common diseases such as COPD and bronchial asthma. Here we examined the expression and transcriptional regulation of VPAC1 in the lungs of allergic mice using an ovalbumin (OVA) -induced model of allergic asthma. Mice were sensitized to OVA and challenged with an OVA aerosol. In parallel a control group was sham sensitized with saline. VPAC1 expression was examined using RT-PCR and real time-PCR studies were performed to quantify gene transcription. VPAC1 mRNA expression was detected in all samples of OVA-sensitized and challenged animals and control tissues. Further realtime analysis did not show significant differences at the transcriptional level.Although the present studies did not indicate a major transcriptional regulation of VPAC1 in states of allergic airway inflammation, immunomodulatory effects of VPAC1 might still be present due to regulations at the translational level.
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Influenza: a scientometric and density-equalizing analysis.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Novel influenza in 2009 caused by H1N1, as well as the seasonal influenza, still are a challenge for the public health sectors worldwide. An increasing number of publications referring to this infectious disease make it difficult to distinguish relevant research output. The current study used scientometric indices for a detailed investigation on influenza related research activity and the method of density equalizing mapping to make the differences of the overall research worldwide obvious. The aim of the study was to compare scientific effort over the time as well as geographical distribution including the cooperation on national and international level.
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Dance partner or dance floor?: exogenous factors resulting in accidents in professional dancers.
Med Probl Perform Art
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Injury prevention in professional dancers is very important due to the high risk for acute injuries posing a threat to dancers careers. Causative factors of acute injuries in professional dance can be divided into exogenous and endogenous factors. Although both are known in professional dance, there is still a lack of data to have a differentiated view. The aim of this study is to analyze exogenous factors resulting in work accidents of professional dancers.
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Occupational accidents in professional dancers with regard to different professional dance styles.
Work
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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The term "professional dance" comprises various dance styles. There are no studies which investigated work related traumatic injuries with regard to five different dance styles.
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Yellow fever disease: density equalizing mapping and gender analysis of international research output.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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A number of scientific papers on yellow fever have been published but no broad scientometric analysis on the published research of yellow fever has been reported.The aim of the article based study was to provide an in-depth evaluation of the yellow fever field using large-scale data analysis and employment of bibliometric indicators of production and quantity.
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Occupational accidents in professional dance with focus on gender differences.
J Occup Med Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail.
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Gold nanoparticles: recent aspects for human toxicology.
J Occup Med Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Nanoparticles (particles sized between 1 and 100 nanometers) are more and more used in all fields of science and medicine for their physicochemical properties. As gold has traditionally been considered as chemically inert and biocompatible, in particular, gold nanoparticles have been established as valuable tools in several areas of biomedical research. But in contrast to the multitude of studies that addressed the clinical use of gold nanoparticles, only little is known about potential toxicological effects such as induction of inflammatory immune responses, possible apoptotic cell death or developmental growth inhibition in embryos. Therefore the present study performed a systematic review of toxicological data, especially experimentally acquired data concerning in-vivo-toxicity, published in the PubMed. It can be stated that the data in this area of research is still largely limited. Especially, knowledge about size-, charge- and surface-chemistry dependent in-vivo-toxicity is needed to predict the hazard potential of auric nanoparticles (AuNPs) for humans.
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Epidemiology of enteroviral meningoencephalitis in neonates and young infants.
J Paediatr Child Health
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2013
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To describe the epidemiology of enteroviral meningoencephalitis in northern New South Wales, Australia, with a specific focus on neonatal and young infant cases.
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Gout: a critical analysis of scientific development.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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In recent years, scientific efforts on the topic "gout" have focused on pathogenetic aspects. This has opened new strategies of anti-inflammatory therapy and has improved urate-lowering therapy. So far, a scientometric analysis of the topic "gout" has not been generated despite an increased need for it in times of modified evaluation criteria for academic personnel and a subsequent tendency to co-authorship and author self-citation. The study aims to evaluate quality and quantity of scientific research dealing with the topic "gout" and to contribute to distinguish relevant research output. The current study uses scientometric methods and large-scale data analysis to evaluate quality and quantity of scientific efforts in the field of "gout." Data were gained from PubMed and ISI-Web. In the last 22 years (1990–2012), 4,424 items were published by 71 countries, of which the USA have been the most productive supplier with 32 % of all publications, followed in considerable distance by the United Kingdom, Japan, Spain and Germany, respectively. The USA have established their position as center of international cooperation. The most prolific journals in the field of gout were "Arthritis and Rheumatism," "Annals of the Rheumatic diseases" and the "Journal of Rheumatology." Our analysis specifies the most productive authors and institutions engaged with the topic, the most successful international and national cooperation and the most prolific journals and subject areas. Nevertheless, scientometric indicators, such as h-index, citation rate and impact factor, commonly used for assessment of scientific quality, should be seen critically due to distortion by bias of self-citation and co-authorship.
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Glycolaldehyde monomer and oligomer equilibria in aqueous solution: comparing computational chemistry and NMR data.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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A computational protocol utilizing density functional theory calculations, including Poisson-Boltzmann implicit solvent and free energy corrections, is applied to study the thermodynamic and kinetic energy landscape of glycolaldehyde in solution. Comparison is made to NMR measurements of dissolved glycolaldehyde, where the initial dimeric ring structure interconverts among several species before reaching equilibrium where the hydrated monomer is dominant. There is good agreement between computation and experiment for the concentrations of all species in solution at equilibrium, that is, the calculated relative free energies represent the system well. There is also relatively good agreement between the calculated activation barriers and the estimated rate constants for the hydration reaction. The computational approach also predicted that two of the trimers would have a small but appreciable equilibrium concentration (>0.005 M), and this was confirmed by NMR measurements. Our results suggest that while our computational protocol is reasonable and may be applied to quickly map the energy landscape of more complex reactions, knowledge of the caveats and potential errors in this approach need to be taken into account.
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Eating behavior and nutrition knowledge among musical theatre students.
Med Probl Perform Art
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Eating is a central part in human (social) life. Athletic performance and physical attractiveness are linked to appropriate nutritional behavior, especially for performing artists. Eating behavior and nutrition knowledge have not been examined in musical theatre students so far, which this study aims to analyze. We administered a cross-sectional questionnaire study to 37 musical theatre students. Results for the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) showed non-pathological values for 92% of all participants, but 81% of participants answered correctly on only 30-59% of questions on the General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ). Our study results reveal the need for specific nutritional knowledge transfer programs for this target group.
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Failure to initiate antiretroviral therapy, loss to follow-up and mortality among HIV-infected patients during the pre-ART period in Uganda.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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Delays and failures in initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among treatment eligible patients may compromise the effectiveness of HIV care in Africa. An accurate understanding, however, of the pace and completeness of ART initiation and mortality during the waiting period is obscured by frequent losses to follow-up.
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Perception of stress-related working conditions in hospitals (iCept-study): a comparison between physicians and medical students.
J Occup Med Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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The students perception of working conditions in hospitals hasnt been subject of research in Germany so far. However the perception plays an important role talking about the sustainability of working conditions. The iCept Study wants to examine the perception of medical students compared to the perception of practicing physicians.
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Moxifloxacin susceptibility mediates the relationship between causative organism and clinical outcome in bacterial keratitis.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Bacterial keratitis is a sight-threatening infection of the cornea that is one of the leading causes of blindness globally. In this report, we analyze the role of moxifloxacin susceptibility in the relationship between causative organisms and clinical outcome in bacteria keratitis.
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Rapid two-temperature formalin fixation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Formalin fixation is a mainstay of modern histopathologic analysis, yet the practice is poorly standardized and a significant potential source of preanalytical errors. Concerns of workflow and turnaround time drive interest in developing shorter fixation protocols, but rapid protocols can lead to poor histomorphology or inadequate downstream assay results. Additionally, assays such as immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated epitopes have historically been challenging in the context of formalin-fixed tissue, indicating that there may be room for improvement in this process that is fundamental to the practice of anatomic pathology. With these issues in mind, we studied basic formalin biochemistry to develop a novel formalin fixation protocol that involves a pre-incubation in subambient temperature formalin prior to a brief exposure to heated formalin. This new protocol is more rapid than standard protocols yet preserves histomorphology and yields tissue that is compatible with an expanded set of downstream clinical and research assays, including immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated epitopes.
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Smoking behaviour and attitudes among German nursing students.
Nurse Educ Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Tobacco consumption is a major public health threat. Healthcare workers can contribute to the reduction of tobacco use. The principles of intervention need to be provided already during vocational school. This research examines the smoking habits, the personal attitudes towards smoking and the professional beliefs of healthcare trainees. The aim of this study is to ascertain the necessity and the general conditions for multilevel interventions of prevention and health promotion. In 2010, a questionnaire survey was conducted in a Berlin vocational school for healthcare workers. Of 148 students (RR = 49.3%) 41.9% of the students are daily or occasional smokers. The nicotine dependency and the number of cigarettes per day are comparatively low. The majority of smoking students is willing to quit and has already undertaken several attempts. Non-smoking protection is evaluated to be very important and intervention rates in patient care range between 49% and 72%. In both questions, non-smokers and smokers differ significantly. The self-reported smoking prevalence in our population is considerably lower than in previous studies. However, the smoking rate among healthcare trainees is still higher than in the general population. The students own smoking behaviours and its influences on the treatment of patients should be reflected during school. It is necessary to develop adequate recruitment strategies and attractive interventions for this target group.
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Fueling open-source drug discovery: 177 small-molecule leads against tuberculosis.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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With the aim of fuelling open-source, translational, early-stage drug discovery activities, the results of the recently completed antimycobacterial phenotypic screening campaign against Mycobacterium bovis BCG with hit confirmation in M. tuberculosis H37Rv were made publicly accessible. A set of 177 potent non-cytotoxic H37Rv hits was identified and will be made available to maximize the potential impact of the compounds toward a chemical genetics/proteomics exercise, while at the same time providing a plethora of potential starting points for new synthetic lead-generation activities. Two additional drug-discovery-relevant datasets are included: a) a drug-like property analysis reflecting the latest lead-like guidelines and b) an early lead-generation package of the most promising hits within the clusters identified.
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Potential for the Australian and New Zealand paediatric intensive care registry to enhance acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Australia: a data-linkage study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Australia uses acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance to monitor its polio-free status. The World Health Organization criterion for a sensitive AFP surveillance system is the annual detection of at least one non-polio AFP case per 100,000 children aged less than 15 years, a target Australia has not consistently achieved. Children exhibiting AFP are likely to be hospitalised and may be admitted to an intensive care unit. This provides a potential opportunity for active AFP surveillance.
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No Evidence of Sexual Risk Compensation in the iPrEx Trial of Daily Oral HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) reduced HIV acquisition in the iPrEx trial among men who have sex with men and transgender women. Self-reported sexual risk behavior decreased overall, but may be affected by reporting bias. We evaluated potential risk compensation using biomarkers of sexual risk behavior.
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Spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides) and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey provides candidates for further evaluation as potential management tools against a variety of pests and diseases when present as endophytes in cotton and other plants.
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Tetrahydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-3-carboxamide and N-benzyl-6,7-dihydrospiro[piperidine-4,4-thieno[3,2-c]pyran] analogues with bactericidal efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis targeting MmpL3.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major human pathogen and the causative agent for the pulmonary disease, tuberculosis (TB). Current treatment programs to combat TB are under threat due to the emergence of multi-drug and extensively-drug resistant TB. As part of our efforts towards the discovery of new anti-tubercular leads, a number of potent tetrahydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-3-carboxamide (THPP) and N-benzyl-6,7-dihydrospiro[piperidine-4,4-thieno[3,2-c]pyran] (Spiro) analogues were recently identified against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG through a high-throughput whole-cell screening campaign. Herein, we describe the attractive in vitro and in vivo anti-tubercular profiles of both lead series. The generation of M. tuberculosis spontaneous mutants and subsequent whole genome sequencing of several resistant mutants identified single mutations in the essential mmpL3 gene. This genetic phenotype was further confirmed by a chemical phenotype, whereby M. bovis BCG treated with both the THPP and Spiro series resulted in the accumulation of trehalose monomycolate. In vivo efficacy evaluation of two optimized THPP and Spiro leads showed how the compounds were able to reduce >2 logs bacterial cfu counts in the lungs of infected mice.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.