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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Human perivascular stem cell-based bone graft substitute induces rat spinal fusion.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Adipose tissue is an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) because of its abundance and accessibility. We have previously defined a population of native MSCs termed perivascular stem cells (PSCs), purified from diverse human tissues, including adipose tissue. Human PSCs (hPSCs) are a bipartite cell population composed of pericytes (CD146+CD34-CD45-) and adventitial cells (CD146-CD34+CD45-), isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and with properties identical to those of culture identified MSCs. Our previous studies showed that hPSCs exhibit improved bone formation compared with a sample-matched unpurified population (termed stromal vascular fraction); however, it is not known whether hPSCs would be efficacious in a spinal fusion model. To investigate, we evaluated the osteogenic potential of freshly sorted hPSCs without culture expansion and differentiation in a rat model of posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion. We compared increasing dosages of implanted hPSCs to assess for dose-dependent efficacy. All hPSC treatment groups induced successful spinal fusion, assessed by manual palpation and microcomputed tomography. Computerized biomechanical simulation (finite element analysis) further demonstrated bone fusion with hPSC treatment. Histological analyses showed robust endochondral ossification in hPSC-treated samples. Finally, we confirmed that implanted hPSCs indeed differentiated into osteoblasts and osteocytes; however, the majority of the new bone formation was of host origin. These results suggest that implanted hPSCs positively regulate bone formation via direct and paracrine mechanisms. In summary, hPSCs are a readily available MSC population that effectively forms bone without requirements for culture or predifferentiation. Thus, hPSC-based products show promise for future efforts in clinical bone regeneration and repair.
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One-Stage Augmentation Mastopexy: A Review of 1192 Simultaneous Breast Augmentation and Mastopexy Procedures in 615 Consecutive Patients.
Aesthet Surg J
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Despite the increasing popularity of the combined augmentation mastopexy procedure among patients, the safety and efficacy of this surgery have been questioned by many surgeons.
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Human perivascular stem cells show enhanced osteogenesis and vasculogenesis with Nel-like molecule I protein.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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An ideal mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) source for bone tissue engineering has yet to be identified. Such an MSC population would be easily harvested in abundance, with minimal morbidity and with high purity. Our laboratories have identified perivascular stem cells (PSCs) as a candidate cell source. PSCs are readily isolatable through fluorescent-activated cell sorting from adipose tissue and have been previously shown to be indistinguishable from MSCs in the phenotype and differentiation potential. PSCs consist of two distinct cell populations: (1) pericytes (CD146+, CD34-, and CD45-), which surround capillaries and microvessels, and (2) adventitial cells (CD146-, CD34+, and CD45-), found within the tunica adventitia of large arteries and veins. We previously demonstrated the osteogenic potential of pericytes by examining pericytes derived from the human fetal pancreas, and illustrated their in vivo trophic and angiogenic effects. In the present study, we used an intramuscular ectopic bone model to develop the translational potential of our original findings using PSCs (as a combination of pericytes and adventitial cells) from human white adipose tissue. We evaluated human PSC (hPSC)-mediated bone formation and vascularization in vivo. We also examined the effects of hPSCs when combined with the novel craniosynostosis-associated protein, Nel-like molecule I (NELL-1). Implants consisting of the demineralized bone matrix putty combined with NELL-1 (3??g/?L), hPSC (2.5×10(5) cells), or hPSC+NELL-1, were inserted in the bicep femoris of SCID mice. Bone growth was evaluated using microcomputed tomography, histology, and immunohistochemistry over 4 weeks. Results demonstrated the osteogenic potential of hPSCs and the additive effect of hPSC+NELL-1 on bone formation and vasculogenesis. Comparable osteogenesis was observed with NELL-1 as compared to the more commonly used bone morphogenetic protein-2. Next, hPSCs induced greater implant vascularization than the unsorted stromal vascular fraction from patient-matched samples. Finally, we observed an additive effect on implant vascularization with hPSC+NELL-1 by histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry, accompanied by in vitro elaboration of vasculogenic growth factors. These findings hold significant implications for the cell/protein combination therapy hPSC+NELL-1 in the development of strategies for vascularized bone regeneration.
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Restoration and recognition of distant, blurry irises.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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Raw iris images collected outdoors at standoff distances exceeding 25 m are susceptible to noise and atmospheric blur and even under ideal imaging conditions are too degraded to carry out recognition with high accuracy. Traditionally, atmospherically distorted images have been corrected through the use of unique hardware components such as adaptive optics. Here we apply a pure digital image restoration approach to correct for optical aberrations. Image restoration was applied to both single images and image sequences. We propose both a single-frame denoising and deblurring approach, and a multiframe fusion and deblurring approach. To compare performance of the proposed methods, iris recognitions were carried out using the approach of Daugman. Hamming distances (HDs) of computed binary iris codes were measured before and after the restoration. We found the HD decreased from >0.46 prior to a mean value of <0.39 for random single images. The multiframe fusion approach produced the most robust restoration and achieved a mean HD for all subjects in our data set of 0.33 while known false matches remained at 0.44. These results show that, when used properly, image restoration approaches do significantly increase recognition performance for known true positives with low increase in false positive detections, and irises can be recognized in turbulent atmospheric conditions.
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Consenting practice for laparoscopic cholecystectomy - are we doing enough to warn patients about their operation?
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2011
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Provision of informed consent prior to surgery is fundamental in allowing patients to make balanced choices about their care. This study compares consenting practice amongst different grade of surgeons for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC) with specific reference to the documentation of the complications of surgery. Timing and delivery of source of information is also evaluated.
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The role of integrated F-18-FDG-PET scanning in the detection of M1 disease in oesophageal adenocarcinoma and impact on clinical management.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scanning in the staging of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
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The clonal origins of dysplasia from intestinal metaplasia in the human stomach.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2011
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Studies of the clonal architecture of gastric glands with intestinal metaplasia are important in our understanding of the progression from metaplasia to dysplasia. It is not clear if dysplasias are derived from intestinal metaplasia or how dysplasias expand. We investigated whether cells within a metaplastic gland share a common origin, whether glands clonally expand by fission, and determine if such metaplastic glands are genetically related to the associated dysplasia. We also examined the clonal architecture of entire dysplastic lesions and the genetic changes associated with progression within dysplasia.
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Malignant gastro-colic fistula presenting with upper extremity deep vein thrombosis.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Locally invasive colonic carcinomas are seldom complicated by the formation of gastro-colic fistula. The authors present a case of a 52-year-old man with malignant gastro-colic fistula presenting with upper extremity deep vein thrombosis posing operative challenges.
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Safe and consistent outcomes of successfully combining breast surgery and abdominoplasty: an update.
Aesthet Surg J
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2009
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Combined cosmetic procedures have become increasingly popular. One of the most common combinations of cosmetic procedures includes abdominoplasty and cosmetic breast surgery. The shortened recovery and financial savings associated with combined surgery contribute to the increased demand for these combined surgeries.
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Patient retention and replacement trends after saline breast implants: are deflations inflationary?
Aesthetic Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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This study aimed to examine serial operative trends with patients who have experienced surgical implant deflation. In addition, the economic impact of deflation on practice caseload was analyzed.
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Routine underwater seal drains are not required after transthoracic oesophagectomy: a pilot study.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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Underwater seal drainage of the pleural cavity has been standard practice after transthoracic oesophagectomy. However these chest tubes cause pain and hamper mobility, thereby causing significant morbidity and delaying recovery. We postulated that if complete lung expansion and optimum pulmonary function could be achieved and maintained following a transthoracic oesophagectomy using simple gravity aided transabdominal tube drainage of the pleural cavity, then these may be a simpler alternative to the conventional underwater seal chest drains.
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An abundant perivascular source of stem cells for bone tissue engineering.
Stem Cells Transl Med
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Adipose tissue is an ideal mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) source, as it is dispensable and accessible with minimal morbidity. However, the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is a heterogeneous cell population, which has disadvantages for tissue regeneration. In the present study, we prospectively purified human perivascular stem cells (PSCs) from n = 60 samples of human lipoaspirate and documented their frequency, viability, and variation with patient demographics. PSCs are a fluorescence-activated cell sorting-sorted population composed of pericytes (CD45-, CD146+, CD34-) and adventitial cells (CD45-, CD146-, CD34+), each of which we have previously reported to have properties of MSCs. Here, we found that PSCs make up, on average, 43.2% of SVF from human lipoaspirate (19.5% pericytes and 23.8% adventitial cells). These numbers were minimally changed by age, gender, or body mass index of the patient or by length of refrigerated storage time between liposuction and processing. In a previous publication, we observed that human PSCs (hPSCs) formed significantly more bone in vivo in comparison with unsorted human SVF (hSVF) in an intramuscular implantation model. We now extend this finding to a bone injury model, observing that purified hPSCs led to significantly greater healing of mouse critical-size calvarial defects than hSVF (60.9% healing as opposed to 15.4% healing at 2 weeks postoperative by microcomputed tomography analysis). These studies suggest that adipose-derived hPSCs are a new cell source for future efforts in skeletal regenerative medicine. Moreover, hPSCs are a stem cell-based therapeutic that is readily approvable by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, with potentially increased safety, purity, identity, potency, and efficacy.
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Perivascular stem cells: a prospectively purified mesenchymal stem cell population for bone tissue engineering.
Stem Cells Transl Med
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Adipose tissue is an ideal source of mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue engineering: it is largely dispensable and readily accessible with minimal morbidity. However, the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is a heterogeneous cell population, which leads to unreliable bone formation. In the present study, we prospectively purified human perivascular stem cells (PSCs) from adipose tissue and compared their bone-forming capacity with that of traditionally derived SVF. PSCs are a population (sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting) of pericytes (CD146+CD34-CD45-) and adventitial cells (CD146-CD34+CD45-), each of which we have previously reported to have properties of mesenchymal stem cells. Here, we found that PSCs underwent osteogenic differentiation in vitro and formed bone after intramuscular implantation without the need for predifferentiation. We next sought to optimize PSCs for in vivo bone formation, adopting a demineralized bone matrix for osteoinduction and tricalcium phosphate particle formulation for protein release. Patient-matched, purified PSCs formed significantly more bone in comparison with traditionally derived SVF by all parameters. Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 increased in vivo bone formation but with a massive adipogenic response. In contrast, recombinant Nel-like molecule 1 (NELL-1; a novel osteoinductive growth factor) selectively enhanced bone formation. These studies suggest that adipose-derived human PSCs are a new cell source for future efforts in skeletal regenerative medicine. Moreover, PSCs are a stem cell-based therapeutic that is readily approvable by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, with potentially increased safety, purity, identity, potency, and efficacy. Finally, NELL-1 is a candidate growth factor able to induce human PSC osteogenesis.
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Epidemiological study of provision of cholecystectomy in England from 2000 to 2009: retrospective analysis of Hospital Episode Statistics.
Surg Endosc
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The aim of this study was to report the trends in provision of cholecystectomy in the National Health System in England over the 9 year period from 2000 to 2009 and to determine the major risk factors associated with subsequent poor outcome.
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Additive effects of sonic hedgehog and Nell-1 signaling in osteogenic versus adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stromal cells.
Stem Cells Dev.
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A theoretical inverse relationship exists between osteogenic (bone forming) and adipogenic (fat forming) mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. This inverse relationship in theory partially underlies the clinical entity of osteoporosis, in which marrow MSCs have a preference for adipose differentiation that increases with age. Two pro-osteogenic cytokines have been recently studied that each also possesses antiadipogenic properties: Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and NELL-1 proteins. In the present study, we assayed the potential additive effects of the biologically active N-terminus of SHH (SHH-N) and NELL-1 protein on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human primary adipose-derived stromal cell (hASCs). We observed that both recombinant SHH-N and NELL-1 protein significantly enhanced osteogenic differentiation and reduced adipose differentiation across all markers examined (alkaline phosphatase, Alizarin red and Oil red O staining, and osteogenic gene expression). Moreover, SHH-N and NELL-1 directed signaling produced additive effects on the pro-osteogenic and antiadipogenic differentiation of hASCs. NELL-1 treatment increased Hedgehog signaling pathway expression; coapplication of the Smoothened antagonist Cyclopamine reversed the pro-osteogenic effect of NELL-1. In summary, Hedgehog and Nell-1 signaling exert additive effects on the pro-osteogenic and antiadipogenic differentiation of ASCs. These studies suggest that the combination cytokines SHH-N+NELL-1 may represent a viable future technique for inducing the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.