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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Adjuvant stereotactic body radiotherapy following transarterial chemoembolization in patients with non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma tumours of ?3?cm.
HPB (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The optimal locoregional treatment for non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of ?3?cm in diameter is unclear. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the initial intervention most commonly performed, but it rarely eradicates HCC. The purpose of this study was to measure survival in HCC patients treated with adjuvant stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) following TACE.
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Predictors of repeat transarterial chemoembolization in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
HPB (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Repeat transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a common intervention performed for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to identify predictors of the need for repeat TACE.
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Chemoembolization outcomes for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients with compromised liver function.
HPB (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is recommended as a treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with normal underlying liver function. The efficacy of TACE in cirrhotic patients with compromised liver function is unknown.
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Effect of self-referral on bone mineral density testing and osteoporosis treatment.
Med Care
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Despite national guidelines recommending bone mineral density screening with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in women aged 65 years and older, many women do not receive initial screening.
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Impact of a hospice emergency kit for veterans and their caregivers: a prospective cohort study.
J Palliat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Although hospice emergency kits (HEKs) are provided by many home hospice agencies, little is known about their use, side effects, and perceived impact.
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Temporal summation of pain as a prospective predictor of clinical pain severity in adults aged 45 years and older with knee osteoarthritis: ethnic differences.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Enhanced pain facilitation is reportedly an important contributor to the clinical pain experiences of individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Ethnic differences in the prevalence and severity of knee OA in addition to associated pain are also well documented. Temporal summation (TS) of pain is a widely applicable quantitative sensory testing method that invokes neural mechanisms related to pain facilitatory processes. This study tested whether TS of pain, an index of pain facilitation, differentially predicts the clinical pain experiences of African Americans and non-Hispanic whites with symptomatic knee OA.
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Fc? receptor IIIa single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes affect human IgG binding and are associated with lupus nephritis in African Americans.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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To investigate whether the Fc? receptor IIIa-66L/R/H (Fc?RIIIa-66L/R/H) polymorphism influences net effective receptor function and to assess if the FCGR3A combined genotypes formed by Fc?RIIIa-66L/R/H and Fc?RIIIa-176F/V, as well as copy number variation (CNV), confer risk of developing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis.
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The effect of trauma care on the temporal distribution of homicide mortality in Jefferson County, Alabama.
Am Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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The distribution of time from acute traumatic injury to death has three peaks: immediate (less than or equal to one hour), early (6 to 24 hours), and late (days to weeks). It has been suggested that coordinated trauma care dampens the late peak; however, this research may be more reflective of unintentional than intentional deaths. This study examines whether a coordinated trauma system (TS) alters the temporal distribution for assault-related deaths. Data were obtained from homicides examined by the Jefferson County Coroner's/Medical Examiner's Office from 1987 to 2008. Homicides were categorized-based on year of death-as occurring in the presence of no TS, during TS implementation, in the early years of the TS, or in a mature TS. The temporal distribution of homicide mortality was compared among TS categories using a ?(2) test. A Cox Markov multistate model was used to estimate proportional changes in the temporal distribution of death adjusted for assault mechanism. With a TS, after adjusting for assault mechanism, a lower proportion of homicide victims survived through the first hour (hazard ratio [HR], 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 1.03) and from one to six hours (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.96). Additionally, the presence of a TS was associated with a proportional decrease in deaths after 24 hours (P = 0.0005). These results suggest that a trauma system is effective in preventing late homicide deaths; however, other means of preventing death (such as violence prevention programs) are needed to decrease the burden of immediate homicide-related deaths.
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Moving towards multiple site outcomes in spinal cord injury pain clinical trials: An issue of clustered observations in trial design and analysis.
J Spinal Cord Med
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Introduction Pain remains a problem for many with spinal cord injury (SCI), and there is a need for sound, randomized clinical trials examining the efficacy of existing and novel therapeutics. SCI-related pain is complex, as more than one type of pain is often experienced. The purpose of this report is to (i) demonstrate how to design and power calculation of a clinical trial of SCI pain using multiple pain sites per individual; (ii) discuss consequences of failing to adjust for this; and (iii) provide intraclass correlation (ICC) estimates for common pain outcome measures that may be used to power future clinical trials in SCI pain. Method Using an existing dataset from a past SCI pain clinical trial, the ICC was calculated for common pain outcome measures to illustrate appropriate corrections for powering, analyzing and interpreting results from multiple pain sites per individual. The problem associated with not accounting for multiple pain sites per individual and the effect on the Type I error rate is also shown. Results and Discussion Not accounting for the ICC can lead to (1) incorrect power estimates in the design of a trial, and (2) an inflated Type I error rate with a higher likelihood of misinterpretation of outcomes. Conclusions Powering for future SCI pain trials and statistical analysis of trial outcomes may be substantially compromised if methods do not account for the intra-individual associations between pain sites, ultimately affecting study interpretations and evidence-based practice. We present ICC estimates based on SCI pain data for purposes of estimating power for future trials.
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Racial and ethnic differences in older adults with knee osteoarthritis.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Knee osteoarthritis (OA) contributes significantly to disability in older individuals, and racial/ethnic minorities are disproportionately affected. The present study aimed to characterize differences in clinical and experimental pain, including pain inhibition, among older African American (AA) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) subjects with knee OA.
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The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.
J. Forensic Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs.
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Resource utilization associated with procurement of transplantable organs from donors that do not meet OPTN eligible death criteria.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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The strategy of evaluating every donation opportunity warrants an investigation into the financial feasibility of this practice. The purpose of this investigation is to measure resource utilization required for procurement of transplantable organs in an organ procurement organization (OPO).
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Prevalence and trends of symptomatic pelvic floor disorders in U.S. women.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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To estimate the prevalence and trends of these pelvic floor disorders in U.S. women from 2005 to 2010.
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Intervention to improve care at life's end in inpatient settings: the BEACON trial.
J Gen Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Widespread implementation of palliative care treatment plans could reduce suffering in the last days of life by adopting best practices of traditionally home-based hospice care in inpatient settings.
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Application of the OMERACT filter to measures of core outcome domains in recent clinical studies of acute gout.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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To determine the extent to which instruments that measure core outcome domains in acute gout fulfill the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) filter requirements of truth, discrimination, and feasibility.
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Small sample performance of bias-corrected sandwich estimators for cluster-randomized trials with binary outcomes.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The sandwich estimator in generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach underestimates the true variance in small samples and consequently results in inflated type I error rates in hypothesis testing. This fact limits the application of the GEE in cluster-randomized trials (CRTs) with few clusters. Under various CRT scenarios with correlated binary outcomes, we evaluate the small sample properties of the GEE Wald tests using bias-corrected sandwich estimators. Our results suggest that the GEE Wald z-test should be avoided in the analyses of CRTs with few clusters even when bias-corrected sandwich estimators are used. With t-distribution approximation, the Kauermann and Carroll (KC)-correction can keep the test size to nominal levels even when the number of clusters is as low as 10 and is robust to the moderate variation of the cluster sizes. However, in cases with large variations in cluster sizes, the Fay and Graubard (FG)-correction should be used instead. Furthermore, we derive a formula to calculate the power and minimum total number of clusters one needs using the t-test and KC-correction for the CRTs with binary outcomes. The power levels as predicted by the proposed formula agree well with the empirical powers from the simulations. The proposed methods are illustrated using real CRT data. We conclude that with appropriate control of type I error rates under small sample sizes, we recommend the use of GEE approach in CRTs with binary outcomes because of fewer assumptions and robustness to the misspecification of the covariance structure. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Allelic-dependent expression of an activating fc receptor on B cells enhances humoral immune responses.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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B cells are pivotal regulators of acquired immune responses, and recent work in both experimental murine models and humans has demonstrated that subtle changes in the regulation of B cell function can substantially alter immunological responses. The balance of negative and positive signals in maintaining an appropriate B cell activation threshold is critical in B lymphocyte immune tolerance and autoreactivity. Fc?RIIb (CD32B), the only recognized Fc? receptor on B cells, provides immunoglobulin G (IgG)-mediated negative modulation through a tyrosine-based inhibition motif, which down-regulates B cell receptor-initiated signaling. These properties make Fc?RIIb a promising target for antibody-based therapy. We report the discovery of allele-dependent expression of the activating Fc?RIIc on B cells. Identical to Fc?RIIb in the extracellular domain, Fc?RIIc has a tyrosine-based activation motif in its cytoplasmic domain. In both human B cells and B cells from mice transgenic for human Fc?RIIc, Fc?RIIc expression counterbalances the negative feedback of Fc?RIIb and enhances humoral responses to immunization in mice and to BioThrax vaccination in a human anthrax vaccine trial. Moreover, the FCGR2C-ORF allele is associated with the risk of development of autoimmunity in humans. Fc?RIIc expression on B cells challenges the prevailing paradigm of unidirectional negative feedback by IgG immune complexes via the inhibitory Fc?RIIb, is a previously unrecognized determinant in human antibody/autoantibody responses, and opens the opportunity for more precise personalized use of B cell-targeted antibody-based therapy.
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Macronutrients, Diet Quality, and Frailty in Older Men.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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Frailty, a phenotype of multisystem impairment and expanding vulnerability, is associated with higher risk of adverse health outcomes not entirely explained by advancing age. We investigated associations of macronutrients, dietary fiber, and overall diet quality with frailty status in older community-dwelling men.
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Perceived racial discrimination, but not mistrust of medical researchers, predicts the heat pain tolerance of African Americans with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Studies have shown that perceived racial discrimination is a significant predictor of clinical pain severity among African Americans. It remains unknown whether perceived racial discrimination also alters the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli, which, in turn, could influence clinical pain severity. This study examined associations between perceived racial discrimination and responses to noxious thermal stimuli among African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Mistrust of medical researchers was also assessed given its potential to affect responses to the noxious stimuli.
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Do trained specialists solicit familial authorization at equal frequency, regardless of deceased donor characteristics?
Prog Transplant
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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The Organ Donor Breakthrough Collaborative recommended high-leverage changes including "master effective requesting.
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Comparison of the disease activity score using erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein in African Americans with rheumatoid arthritis.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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The Disease Activity Score based on 28 joints (DAS28) has been increasingly used in clinical practice and research studies of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Studies have reported discordance between DAS28 based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) versus C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with RA. However, such comparison is lacking in African Americans with RA.
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Military Exposure and Urinary Incontinence among American Men.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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We examined the association between military exposure and urinary incontinence in American men.
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Multiple lupus-associated ITGAM variants alter Mac-1 functions on neutrophils.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Multiple studies have demonstrated that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ITGAM locus (including the nonsynonymous SNPs rs1143679, rs1143678, and rs1143683) are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). ITGAM encodes the protein CD11b, a subunit of the ?2 integrin Mac-1. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ITGAM genetic variation on the biologic functions of neutrophil Mac-1.
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Age and race effects on pain sensitivity and modulation among middle-aged and older adults.
J Pain
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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This study tested the effects of aging and race on responses to noxious stimuli using a wide range of stimulus modalities. The participants were 53 non-Hispanic Blacks and 138 non-Hispanic White adults, ages 45 to 76. The participants completed a single 3-hour sensory testing session where responses to thermal, mechanical, and cold stimuli were assessed. The results suggest that there are selected age differences, with the older group less sensitive to warm and painful heat stimuli than middle-aged participants, particularly at the knee. This site effect supports the hypothesis that the greatest decrement in pain sensitivity associated with aging occurs in the lower extremities. In addition, there were several instances where age and race effects were compounded, resulting in greater race differences in pain sensitivity among the older participants. Overall, the data suggest that previously reported race differences in pain sensitivity emerged in our older samples, and this study contributes new findings in that these differences may increase with age in non-Hispanic Blacks for temporal summation and both heat and cold immersion tolerance. We have added to the aging and pain literature by reporting several small to moderate differences in responses to heat stimuli between middle and older age adults.
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Computed tomography predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma tumour necrosis after chemoembolization.
HPB (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Radiographical features associated with a favourable response to trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) are poorly defined for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Efficacy of adding behavioural treatment or antimuscarinic drug therapy to ?-blocker therapy in men with nocturia.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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WHATS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Nocturia is a common and bothersome lower urinary tract symptom, particularly in men. Many single drug therapies have limited benefit. For men who have persistent nocturia despite alpha-blocker therapy, the addition of behavioural and exercise therapy is statistically superior to anticholinergic therapy.
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Psychological profiles and pain characteristics of older adults with knee osteoarthritis.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Objective: The main objectives were to identify psychological profiles in persons with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to determine the relationship between these profiles and specific pain and sensory characteristics including temporal summation and conditioned pain modulation. Methods: Individuals with knee OA (n=194) completed psychological, health and sensory assessments. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to derive psychological profiles that were compared across several clinical pain/disability and experimental pain responses. Results: Cluster 1 had high optimism with low negative affect, pain vigilance, anger and depression along with the lowest self-reported pain/disability and the lowest sensitivity to mechanical, pressure and thermal pain (ps<0.01). Cluster 2 had low positive affect with high somatic reactivity while Cluster 3 showed high pain vigilance with low optimism. Clusters 2 and 3 had intermediate levels of self-reported pain/disability and Cluster 3 experienced central sensitization to mechanical stimuli. Participants in Cluster 3 also displayed significant pain facilitation (p<0.05). Cluster 4 exhibited the lowest positive affect with the highest pain vigilance, reactivity, negative affect, anger and depression. These individuals experienced the highest self-reported pain/disability including widespread pain (ps<0.001). Cluster 4 was most sensitive to mechanical, pressure and thermal stimuli and showed significant central sensitization to mechanical and thermal stimuli (ps<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate the existence of homogeneous psychological profiles displaying unique sets of clinical and somatosensory characteristics. Multidisciplinary treatment approaches consistent with the biopsychosocial model of pain should provide significant advantages if targeted to profiles such as those in our OA sample. © 2013 American College of Rheumatology.
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Behavioral versus drug treatment for overactive bladder in men: the Male Overactive Bladder Treatment in Veterans (MOTIVE) Trial.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
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To compare the effectiveness of behavioral treatment with that of antimuscarinic therapy in men without bladder outlet obstruction who continue to have overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms with alpha-blocker therapy.
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Capitalizing on admixture in genome-wide association studies: a two-stage testing procedure and application to height in African-Americans.
Front Genet
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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As genome-wide association studies expand beyond populations of European ancestry, the role of admixture will become increasingly important in the continued discovery and fine-mapping of variation influencing complex traits. Although admixture is commonly viewed as a confounding influence in association studies, approaches such as admixture mapping have demonstrated its ability to highlight disease susceptibility regions of the genome. In this study, we illustrate a powerful two-stage testing strategy designed to uncover trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in the presence of ancestral allele frequency differentiation. In the first stage, we conduct an association scan by using predicted genotypic values based on regional admixture estimates. We then select a subset of promising markers for inclusion in a second-stage analysis, where association is tested between the observed genotype and the phenotype conditional on the predicted genotype. We prove that, under the null hypothesis, the test statistics used in each stage are orthogonal and asymptotically independent. Using simulated data designed to mimic African-American populations in the case of a quantitative trait, we show that our two-stage procedure maintains appropriate control of the family wise error rate and has higher power under realistic effect sizes than the one-stage testing procedure in which all markers are tested for association simultaneously with control of admixture. We apply the proposed procedure to a study of height in 201 African-Americans genotyped at 108 ancestry informative markers. The two-stage procedure identified two statistically significant markers rs1985080 (PTHB1/BBS9) and rs952718 (ABCA12). PTHB1/BBS9 is downregulated by parathyroid hormone in osteoblastic cells and is thought to be involved in parathyroid hormone action in bones and may play a role in height. ABCA12 is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette transporters and its potential involvement in height is unclear.
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How to estimate the measurement error variance associated with ancestry proportion estimates.
Stat Interface
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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To show how the variance of the measurement error (ME) associated with individual ancestry proportion estimates can be estimated, especially when the number of ancestral populations (k) is greater than 2. We extend existing internal consistency measures to estimate the ME variance, and we compare these estimates with the ME variance estimated by use of the repeated measurement (RM) approach. Both approaches work by dividing the genotyped markers into subsets. We examine the effect of the number of subsets and of the allocation of markers to each subset on the performance of each approach. We used simulated data for all comparisons. Independently of the value of k, the measures of internal reliability provided less biased and more precise estimates of the ME variance than did those obtained with the RM approach. Both methods tend to perform better when a large number of subsets of markers with similar sizes are considered. Our results will facilitate the use of ME correction methods to address the ME problem in individual ancestry proportion estimates. Our method will improve the ability to control for type I error inflation and loss of power in association tests and other genomic research involving ancestry estimates.
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Dietary glycemic load, glycemic index, and carbohydrate and risk of breast cancer in the Womens Health Initiative.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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Dietary glycemic load (GL), glycemic index (GI), and carbohydrate could be associated with breast cancer risk by influencing long-term blood glucose and insulin concentrations. We examined associations between GL, GI, and carbohydrate and incident breast cancer in 148,767 Womens Heath Initiative (WHI) participants. Dietary variables were estimated from food frequency questionnaires administered at baseline. Self-reported breast cancers during follow-up were confirmed by medical records review. Cox proportional hazards regression modeled time to breast cancer within quintiles of GL, GI, and carbohydrate. There were 6,115 total breast cancers after a median follow-up of 8.0 yr. We observed no associations between GL, GI, or carbohydrate and total incident breast cancer, with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the highest vs. lowest quintiles of 1.08, 0.92-1.29 (P for trend = 0.27); 1.01, 0.91-1.12 (P = 0.74); and 0.95, 0.80-1.14 (P = 0.98), respectively. There was a trend toward significance for the positive association between GL and in situ cancers (1.40, 0.94-2.13; P = 0.07). Although there was no evidence of associations between GL, GI, or carbohydrate and total breast cancer risk in WHI participants, the suggestion of an association between GL and risk of in situ cancers requires further investigation.
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Dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of prostate cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) cohort.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2011
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To evaluate the associations between dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and incident prostate cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) cohort.
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Vitamin D and lower urinary tract symptoms among US men: results from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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To evaluate the association of vitamin D levels and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among US men.
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Comparing self-reported ethnicity to genetic background measures in the context of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
BMC Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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Questions remain regarding the utility of self-reported ethnicity (SRE) in genetic and epidemiologic research. It is not clear whether conditioning on SRE provides adequate protection from inflated type I error rates due to population stratification and admixture. We address this question using data obtained from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), which enrolled individuals from 4 self-reported ethnic groups. We compare the agreement between SRE and genetic based measures of ancestry (GBMA), and conduct simulation studies based on observed MESA data to evaluate the performance of each measure under various conditions.
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Prevalence of nocturia in United States men: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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We estimated the prevalence of nocturia in the United States male population and identified associated factors.
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Factors impacting quality of life in women with fecal incontinence.
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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The aim of this study was to characterize differences in health-related quality of life among women presenting for treatment of fecal incontinence.
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Combined behavioral and individualized drug therapy versus individualized drug therapy alone for urge urinary incontinence in women.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2010
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We tested whether individualized drug therapy enhanced with behavioral training would result in better outcomes than individualized drug therapy alone.
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Incidence and risk factors for fecal incontinence in black and white older adults: a population-based study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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To determine the incidence of fecal incontinence (FI) in community-dwelling older adults and identify risk factors associated with incident FI.
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Generalized bone loss as a predictor of three-year radiographic damage in African American patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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To examine the association between baseline bone mineral density (BMD) and radiographic damage at 3 years of disease duration in a longitudinal cohort of African Americans with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
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Prevalence of urinary incontinence in men: results from the national health and nutrition examination survey.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2010
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We estimated the prevalence of urinary incontinence in the United States adult male population and identified associated factors.
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Targeted antiviral prophylaxis with oseltamivir in a summer camp setting.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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To describe the effectiveness of containment of novel influenza A(H1N1) infection at a summer camp.
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Association of glycemic load with cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Womens Health Initiative Observational Study.
Nutrition
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
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Associations between dietary glycemic load (GL) and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including plasma lipoprotein/lipid levels, blood pressure, and glucose metabolism factors, in the Womens Health Initiative Observational Study were examined.
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Ten putative contributors to the obesity epidemic.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2009
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The obesity epidemic is a global issue and shows no signs of abating, while the cause of this epidemic remains unclear. Marketing practices of energy-dense foods and institutionally-driven declines in physical activity are the alleged perpetrators for the epidemic, despite a lack of solid evidence to demonstrate their causal role. While both may contribute to obesity, we call attention to their unquestioned dominance in program funding and public efforts to reduce obesity, and propose several alternative putative contributors that would benefit from equal consideration and attention. Evidence for microorganisms, epigenetics, increasing maternal age, greater fecundity among people with higher adiposity, assortative mating, sleep debt, endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical iatrogenesis, reduction in variability of ambient temperatures, and intrauterine and intergenerational effects as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic are reviewed herein. While the evidence is strong for some contributors such as pharmaceutical-induced weight gain, it is still emerging for other reviewed factors. Considering the role of such putative etiological factors of obesity may lead to comprehensive, cause specific, and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this global epidemic.
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The use of plasmodes as a supplement to simulations: A simple example evaluating individual admixture estimation methodologies.
Comput Stat Data Anal
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
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With the advent of powerful computers, simulation studies are becoming an important tool in statistical methodology research. However, computer simulations of a specific process are only as good as our understanding of the underlying mechanisms. An attractive supplement to simulations is the use of plasmode datasets. Plasmodes are data sets that are generated by natural biologic processes, under experimental conditions that allow some aspect of the truth to be known. The benefit of the plasmode approach is that the data are generated through completely natural processes, thus circumventing the common concern of the realism and accuracy of computer simulated data. The estimation of admixture, or the proportion of an individuals genome that originates from different founding populations, is a particularly difficult research endeavor that is well suited to the use of plasmodes. Current methods have been tested with simulations of complex populations where the underlying mechanisms such as the rate and distribution of recombination are not well understood. To demonstrate the utility of this method data derived from mouse crosses is used to evaluate the effectiveness of several admixture estimation methodologies. Each cross shares a common founding population so that the ancestry proportion for each individual is known, allowing for the comparison of true and estimated individual admixture values. Analysis shows that the different estimation methodologies (Structure, AdmixMap and FRAPPE) examined all perform well with simple datasets. However, the performance of the estimation methodologies varied greatly when applied to a plasmode consisting of three founding populations. The results of these examples illustrate the utility of plasmodes in the evaluation of statistical genetics methodologies.
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The underrecognized epidemic of low mobility during hospitalization of older adults.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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To examine the proportion of time spent in three levels of mobility (lying, sitting, and standing or walking) by a cohort of hospitalized older veterans as measured by validated wireless accelerometers.
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Predictors of rapid HIV testing acceptance and successful nevirapine administration in Zambian labor wards.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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Provision of HIV testing in labor provides an opportunity to reach susceptible women and infants.
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Effects of low- and high-glycemic index/glycemic load diets on coronary heart disease risk factors in overweight/obese men.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Chronic insulin resistance contributes to subclinical inflammation, thrombosis/impaired fibrinolysis, and dyslipidemia. The effect of dietary carbohydrate, specifically of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), on established and emerging coronary heart disease risk factors has not been elucidated fully. We conducted a randomized crossover feeding study of matched diets differing only in GI and GL in 24 overweight or obese but otherwise healthy men to investigate the effects on insulin sensitivity, inflammation, thrombosis/fibrinolysis, lipoproteins/lipids, and body composition. All meals for the high- and low-GI/GL diets were prepared in a metabolic kitchen. Each participant consumed both diets in random order for 4 weeks each, with a 4-week washout period in between. Each participant underwent a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test for assessment of insulin sensitivity; blood sampling for the measurement of inflammatory markers, coagulation factors, and lipoproteins/lipids; and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for assessment of body composition at the beginning and end of each dietary period. There were no statistically significant differences in glucose metabolism factors, inflammatory markers, or coagulation factors after 4 weeks on the high- and low-GI/GL diets. The high-GI/GL diet resulted in a slightly greater reduction in fat mass and a slightly greater increase in lean mass compared with the low-GI/GL diet. The high-GI/GL diet resulted in significant, but unexpected, reductions in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was significantly reduced on the high-GI/GL diet compared with the low-GI/GL diet. Overall, high- and low-GI/GL diets of 4 weeks duration had no consistent effects on coronary heart disease risk factors in this group of overweight/obese men.
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Caffeine intake and its association with urinary incontinence in United States men: results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2006 and 2007-2008.
J. Urol.
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Epidemiological studies in women have revealed an association between caffeine intake and urinary incontinence, although evidence among men is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the association between caffeine intake and urinary incontinence in United States men.
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The association of greater dispositional optimism with less endogenous pain facilitation is indirectly transmitted through lower levels of pain catastrophizing.
J Pain
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Dispositional optimism has been shown to beneficially influence various experimental and clinical pain experiences. One possibility that may account for decreased pain sensitivity among individuals who report greater dispositional optimism is less use of maladaptive coping strategies such as pain catastrophizing, a negative cognitive/affective response to pain. An association between dispositional optimism and conditioned pain modulation, a measure of endogenous pain inhibition, has previously been reported. However, it remains to be determined whether dispositional optimism is also associated with temporal summation (TS), a measure of endogenous pain facilitation. The current study examined whether pain catastrophizing mediated the association between dispositional optimism and TS among 140 older, community-dwelling adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Individuals completed measures of dispositional optimism and pain catastrophizing. TS was then assessed using a tailored heat pain stimulus on the forearm. Greater dispositional optimism was significantly related to lower levels of pain catastrophizing and TS. Bootstrapped confidence intervals revealed that less pain catastrophizing was a significant mediator of the relation between greater dispositional optimism and diminished TS. These findings support the primary role of personality characteristics such as dispositional optimism in the modulation of pain outcomes by abatement of endogenous pain facilitation and less use of catastrophizing.
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Effects of nicotine on spinal cord injury pain vary among subtypes of pain and smoking status: results from a randomized, controlled experiment.
J Pain
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Smoking has been associated with increased pain severity in general chronic pain populations. Less is known about the effects of smoking and nicotine on the multifaceted and often complex subtypes of pain that frequently occur following spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of nicotine on self-reported pain among individuals with SCI and to determine if the effect of nicotine varied by pain subtype. A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design was used to determine the effect of nicotine exposure on subtypes of SCI-related pain among smokers and nonsmokers. A complex relationship emerged, such that the degree of reported pain with exposure to 2 mg of nicotine compared to placebo varied according to pain type and smoking status of the subject. Pain sites that had characteristics of both neuropathic and musculoskeletal symptoms (deemed complex neuropathic pain sites) exhibited pain reduction after nicotine exposure in nonsmokers. In sharp contrast, smokers with this form of pain exhibited an increase in pain severity. Data were also examined descriptively to determine potentially unique factors associated with complex neuropathic pain that may explain trends associated with clinically relevant changes following nicotine exposure. In sum, smoking or tobacco use history may determine the analgesic (or enhanced pain perception) effect of nicotine on post-SCI pain.
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Is decedent race an independent predictor of organ donor consent or merely a surrogate marker of socioeconomic status?
Transplantation
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Studies have demonstrated that African American race is a strong predictor of nondonation. However, it is often and correctly argued that African American race is a crude explanatory variable that is a surrogate marker of socioeconomic status, education, and access to health care. We hypothesized that, when controlling for these factors, African American race would cease to be a predictor of organ donation.
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Opioid pain medication orders and administration in the last days of life.
J Pain Symptom Manage
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Most patients with serious and life-limiting illness experience pain at some point in the illness trajectory.
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Caffeine and urinary incontinence in US women.
Int Urogynecol J
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The goal of this study was to characterize associations between caffeine consumption and severity of urinary incontinence (UI) in US women. We hypothesized that moderate and high caffeine intake would be associated with UI in US women when controlling for other factors associated with UI.
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Correlation and clinical utility of pp65 antigenemia and quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of cytomegalovirus in pediatric renal transplant patients.
Pediatr Transplant
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qPCR and pp65 antigenemia assays are used to monitor CMV infection in renal transplant recipients, but correlation of assays in a pediatric population has not been evaluated. Paired CMV real-time qPCR and pp65 antigenemia tests from 882 blood samples collected from 115 pediatric renal transplant recipients were analyzed in this retrospective cohort study for the strength of association and clinical correlates. The assays correlated well in detecting infection (? = 0.61). Higher qPCR values were demonstrated with increasing levels of antigenemia (p < 0.01). Discordant test results were associated with antiviral treatment (OR 4.33, p < 0.01) and low-level viremia, with odds of concordance increasing at higher qPCR values (OR 3.67, p < 0.01), and no discordance occurring above 8500 genomic equivalents/mL. Among discordant samples, neither test preceded the other in detecting initial infection or in returning to negative while on treatment. Only two cases of disease occurred during the two-yr study period. With strong agreement in the detection of CMV infection, either qPCR or pp65 antigenemia assays can be used effectively for monitoring pediatric renal transplant patients for both detection and resolution of infection.
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Do-not-resuscitate orders in the last days of life.
J Palliat Med
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The purpose of this analysis was to describe the presence and timing of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders for imminently dying patients in VA Medical Centers, and to examine factors associated with these processes.
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Gene expression patterns in peripheral blood cells associated with radiographic severity in African Americans with early rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatol. Int.
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Gene expression profiling may be used to stratify patients by disease severity to test the hypothesis that variable disease outcome has a genetic component. In order to define unique expression signatures in African American rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with severe erosive disease, we undertook a gene expression study using samples of RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). RNA from baseline PBMC samples of 96 African American RA patients with early RA (<2 years disease duration) was hybridized to cDNA probes of the Illumina Human HT-V3 expression array. Expression analyses were performed using the ca. 25,000 cDNA probes, and then expression levels were compared to the total number of erosions in radiographs of the hands and feet at baseline and 36 months. Using a false discovery rate cutoff of Q = 0.30, 1,138 genes at baseline and 680 genes at 36 months significantly correlated with total erosions. No evidence of a signal differentiating disease progression, or change in erosion scores between baseline and 36 months, was found. Further analyses demonstrated that the differential gene expression signature was localized to the patients with the most erosive disease (>10 erosions). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis demonstrated that genes with fold change greater than 1.5 implicated immune pathways such as CTLA signaling in cytotoxic T lymphocytes. These results demonstrate that CLEAR patients with early RA having the most severe erosive disease, as compared to more mild cases (<10 erosions), may be characterized by a set of differentially expressed genes that represent biological pathways with relevance to autoimmune disease.
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Complementary and alternative medicine use in african-americans with rheumatoid arthritis.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)
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Racial/ethnic differences with regard to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use have been reported in the United States. However, specific details of CAM use by African-Americans (AAs) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are lacking.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.