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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
EVpedia: A Community Web Portal for Extracellular Vesicles Research.
Dae-Kyum Kim, Jaewook Lee, Sae Rom Kim, Dong-Sic Choi, Yae Jin Yoon, Ji Hyun Kim, Gyeongyun Go, Dinh Nhung, Kahye Hong, Su Chul Jang, Si-Hyun Kim, Kyong-Su Park, Oh Youn Kim, Hyun Taek Park, Ji Hye Seo, Elena Aikawa, Monika Baj-Krzyworzeka, Bas W M van Balkom, Mattias Belting, Lionel Blanc, Vincent Bond, Antonella Bongiovanni, Francesc E Borràs, Luc Buée, Edit I Buzás, Lesley Cheng, Aled Clayton, Emanuele Cocucci, Charles S Dela Cruz, Dominic M Desiderio, Dolores Di Vizio, Karin Ekström, Juan M Falcon-Perez, Chris Gardiner, Bernd Giebel, David W Greening, Julia Christina Gross, Dwijendra Gupta, An Hendrix, Andrew F Hill, Michelle M Hill, Esther Nolte-'t Hoen, Do Won Hwang, Jameel Inal, Medicharla V Jagannadham, Muthuvel Jayachandran, Young-Koo Jee, Malene Jørgensen, Kwang Pyo Kim, Yoon-Keun Kim, Thomas Kislinger, Cecilia Lässer, Dong Soo Lee, Hakmo Lee, Johannes van Leeuwen, Thomas Lener, Ming-Lin Liu, Jan Lötvall, Antonio Marcilla, Suresh Mathivanan, Andreas Möller, Jess Morhayim, François Mullier, Irina Nazarenko, Rienk Nieuwland, Diana N Nunes, Ken Pang, Jaesung Park, Tushar Patel, Gabriella Pocsfalvi, Hernando Del Portillo, Ulrich Putz, Marcel I Ramirez, Marcio L Rodrigues, Tae-Young Roh, Felix Royo, Susmita Sahoo, Raymond Schiffelers, Shivani Sharma, Pia Siljander, Richard J Simpson, Carolina Soekmadji, Philip Stahl, Allan Stensballe, Ewa Stępień, Hidetoshi Tahara, Arne Trummer, Hadi Valadi, Laura J Vella, Sun Nyunt Wai, Kenneth Witwer, María Yáñez-Mó, Hyewon Youn, Reinhard Zeidler, Yong Song Gho.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Extracellular vesicles are spherical bilayered proteolipids, harboring various bioactive molecules. Due to the complexity of the vesicular nomenclatures and components, online searches for extracellular vesicle-related publications and vesicular components are currently challenging.
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Deep Sequencing of RNA from Three Different Extracellular Vesicle (EV) Subtypes Released from the Human LIM1863 Colon Cancer Cell Line Uncovers Distinct Mirna-Enrichment Signatures.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Secreted microRNAs (miRNAs) enclosed within extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a pivotal role in intercellular communication by regulating recipient cell gene expression and affecting target cell function. Here, we report the isolation of three distinct EV subtypes from the human colon carcinoma cell line LIM1863 - shed microvesicles (sMVs) and two exosome populations (immunoaffinity isolated A33-exosomes and EpCAM-exosomes). Deep sequencing of miRNA libraries prepared from parental LIM1863 cells/derived EV subtype RNA yielded 254 miRNA identifications, of which 63 are selectively enriched in the EVs - miR-19a/b-3p, miR-378a/c/d, and miR-577 and members of the let-7 and miR-8 families being the most prominent. Let-7a-3p*, let-7f-1-3p*, miR-451a, miR-574-5p*, miR-4454 and miR-7641 are common to all EV subtypes, and 6 miRNAs (miR-320a/b/c/d, miR-221-3p, and miR-200c-3p) discern LIM1863 exosomes from sMVs; miR-98-5p was selectively represented only in sMVs. Notably, A33-Exos contained the largest number (32) of exclusively-enriched miRNAs; 14 of these miRNAs have not been reported in the context of CRC tissue/biofluid analyses and warrant further examination as potential diagnostic markers of CRC. Surprisingly, miRNA passenger strands (star miRNAs) for miR-3613-3p*, -362-3p*, -625-3p*, -6842-3p* were the dominant strand in A33-Exos, the converse to that observed in parental cells. This finding suggests miRNA biogenesis may be interlinked with endosomal/exosomal processing.
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Global protein profiling reveals anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody 806-modulated proteins in A431 tumor xenografts.
Growth Factors
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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An important mediator of tumorigenesis, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is expressed in almost all non-transformed cell types, associated with tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. The significance of the EGFR as a cancer therapeutic target is underscored by the clinical development of several different classes of EGFR antagonists, including monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Extensive preclinical studies have demonstrated the anti-tumor effects of mAb806 against tumor xenografts overexpressing EGFR. EGF stimulation of A431 cells induces rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular signalling proteins which regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. Detailed understanding of the intracellular signalling pathways and components modulated by mAbs (such as mAb806) to EGFR, and other growth factor receptors, remain limited. The use of fluorescence 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE), coupled with sensitive MS-based protein profiling in A431 tumor (epidermoid carcinoma) xenografts, in combination with mAb806, revealed proteins modulating endocytosis, cell architecture, apoptosis, cell signalling pathways and cell cycle regulation, including Dynamin-1-like protein, cofilin-1 protein, and 14-3-3 protein zeta/delta. Further, we report various proteins, including Interferon-induced protein 53 (IFI53), and Oncogene EMS1 (EMS1) which have roles in the tumor microenvironment, regulating cancer cell invasiveness, angiogenesis and formation of metastases. These findings contribute to understanding the underlying biological processes associated with mAb806 therapy of EGFR-positive tumors, and identifying further potential protein markers that may contribute in assessment of the treatment response.
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Sulindac modulates secreted protein expression from LIM1215 colon carcinoma cells prior to apoptosis.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality in Western populations. Growing evidence from human and rodent studies indicate that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause regression of existing colon tumors and act as effective chemopreventive agents in sporadic colon tumor formation. Although much is known about the action of the NSAID sulindac, especially its role in inducing apoptosis, mechanisms underlying these effects is poorly understood. In previous secretome-based proteomic studies using 2D-DIGE/MS and cytokine arrays we identified over 150 proteins released from the CRC cell line LIM1215 whose expression levels were dysregulated by treatment with 1mM sulindac over 16h; many of these proteins are implicated in molecular and cellular functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, angiogenesis and apoptosis (Ji et al., Proteomics Clin. Appl. 2009, 3, 433-451). We have extended these studies and describe here an improved protein/peptide separation strategy that facilitated the identification of 987 proteins and peptides released from LIM1215 cells following 1mM sulindac treatment for 8h preceding the onset of apoptosis. This peptidome separation strategy involved fractional centrifugal ultrafiltration of concentrated cell culture media (CM) using nominal molecular weight membrane filters (NMWL 30K, 3K and 1K). Proteins isolated in the >30K and 3-30K fractions were electrophoretically separated by SDS-PAGE and endogenous peptides in the 1-3K membrane filter were fractioned by RP-HPLC; isolated proteins and peptides were identified by nanoLC-MS-MS. Collectively, our data show that LIM1215 cells treated with 1mM sulindac for 8h secrete decreased levels of proteins associated with extracellular matrix remodeling (e.g., collagens, perlecan, syndecans, filamins, dyneins, metalloproteinases and endopeptidases), cell adhesion (e.g., cadherins, integrins, laminins) and mucosal maintenance (e.g., glycoprotein 340 and mucins 5AC, 6, and 13). A salient finding of this study was the increased proteolysis of cell surface proteins following treatment with sulindac for 8h (40% higher than from untreated LIM1215 cells); several of these endogenous peptides contained C-terminal amino acids from transmembrane domains indicative of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). Taken together these results indicate that during the early-stage onset of sulindac-induced apoptosis (evidenced by increased annexin V binding, dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and cleavage of caspase-3), 1mM sulindac treatment of LIM1215 cells results in decreased expression of secreted proteins implicated in ECM remodeling, mucosal maintenance and cell-cell-adhesion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: An Updated Secretome.
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Oncogenic H-ras reprograms Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell-derived exosomal proteins following epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved morphogenic process defined by the loss of epithelial characteristics and the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype. EMT is associated with increased aggressiveness, invasiveness, and metastatic potential in carcinoma cells. To assess the contribution of extracellular vesicles following EMT, we conducted a proteomic analysis of exosomes released from Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and MDCK cells transformed with oncogenic H-Ras (21D1 cells). Exosomes are 40-100 nm membranous vesicles originating from the inward budding of late endosomes and multivesicular bodies and are released from cells on fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Exosomes from MDCK cells (MDCK-Exos) and 21D1 cells (21D1-Exos) were purified from cell culture media using density gradient centrifugation (OptiPrep™), and protein content identified by GeLC-MS/MS proteomic profiling. Both MDCK- and 21D1-Exos populations were morphologically similar by cryo-electron microscopy and contained stereotypical exosome marker proteins such as TSG101, Alix, and CD63. In this study we show that the expression levels of typical EMT hallmark proteins seen in whole cells correlate with those observed in MDCK- and 21D1-Exos, i.e. reduction of characteristic inhibitor of angiogenesis, thrombospondin-1, and epithelial markers E-cadherin, and EpCAM, with a concomitant up-regulation of mesenchymal makers such as vimentin. Further, we reveal that 21D1-Exos are enriched with several proteases (e.g. MMP-1, -14, -19, ADAM-10, and ADAMTS1), and integrins (e.g. ITGB1, ITGA3, and ITGA6) that have been recently implicated in regulating the tumor microenvironment to promote metastatic progression. A salient finding of this study was the unique presence of key transcriptional regulators (e.g. the master transcriptional regulator YBX1) and core splicing complex components (e.g. SF3B1, SF3B3, and SFRS1) in mesenchymal 21D1-Exos. Taken together, our findings reveal that exosomes from Ras-transformed MDCK cells are reprogrammed with factors which may be capable of inducing EMT in recipient cells.
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Detection of cadherin-17 in human colon cancer LIM1215 cell secretome and tumour xenograft-derived interstitial fluid and plasma.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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Colorectal cancer (CRC), one of the most prevalent cancers in the western world, is treatable if detected early. However, 70% of CRC is detected at an advanced stage. This is largely due to the inadequacy of current faecal occult blood screening testing and costs involved in conducting population-based colonoscopy, the gold standard for CRC detection. Another biomarker for CRC, carcinoembryonic antigen, while useful for monitoring CRC recurrence, is ineffective, lacking the specificity required early detection of CRC. For these reasons there is a need for more effective blood-based markers for early CRC detection. In this study we targeted glycoproteins secreted from the human colon carcinoma cell line LIM1215 as a source of potential CRC biomarkers. Secreted candidate glycoproteins were confirmed by MS and validated by Western blot analysis of tissue/tumour interstitial fluid (Tif) from LIM1215 xenograft tumours grown in immunocompromised mice. Overall, 39 glycoproteins were identified in LIM1215 culture media (CCM) and 5 glycoproteins in LIM1215 tumour xenograft Tif; of these, cadherin-17 (CDH17), galectin-3 binding protein (LGALS3BP), and tyrosine-protein kinase-like 7 (PTK7) were identified in both CM and glycosylation motifs. Swiss-Prot was used to annotate Tif. Many of the glycoproteins identified in this study (e.g., AREG, DSG2, EFNA1, EFNA3, EFNA4, EPHB4, ST14, and TIMP1) have been reported to be implicated in CRC biology. Interestingly, the cadherin-17 ectodomain, but not full length cadherin-17, was identified in CM, Tif and plasma derived from mice bearing the LIM1215 xenograft tumour. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the cadherin-17 ectodomain in plasma. In this study, we report for the first time that the presence of full-length cadherin-17 in exosomes released into the CM. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: An Updated Secretome.
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Proteome profiling of exosomes derived from human primary and metastatic colorectal cancer cells reveal differential expression of key metastatic factors and signal transduction components.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Exosomes are small extracellular 40-100 nm diameter membrane vesicles of late endosomal origin that can mediate intercellular transfer of RNAs and proteins to assist premetastatic niche formation. Using primary (SW480) and metastatic (SW620) human isogenic colorectal cancer cell lines we compared exosome protein profiles to yield valuable insights into metastatic factors and signaling molecules fundamental to tumor progression. Exosomes purified using OptiPrep™ density gradient fractionation were 40-100 nm in diameter, were of a buoyant density ~1.09 g/mL, and displayed stereotypic exosomal markers TSG101, Alix, and CD63. A major finding was the selective enrichment of metastatic factors (MET, S100A8, S100A9, TNC), signal transduction molecules (EFNB2, JAG1, SRC, TNIK), and lipid raft and lipid raft-associated components (CAV1, FLOT1, FLOT2, PROM1) in exosomes derived from metastatic SW620 cells. Additionally, using cryo-electron microscopy, ultrastructural components in exosomes were identified. A key finding of this study was the detection and colocalization of protein complexes EPCAM-CLDN7 and TNIK-RAP2A in colorectal cancer cell exosomes. The selective enrichment of metastatic factors and signaling pathway components in metastatic colon cancer cell-derived exosomes contributes to our understanding of the cross-talk between tumor and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment.
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Colon tumour secretopeptidome: insights into endogenous proteolytic cleavage events in the colon tumour microenvironment.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The secretopeptidome comprises endogenous peptides derived from proteins secreted into the tumour microenvironment through classical and non-classical secretion. This study characterised the low-Mr (<3kDa) component of the human colon tumour (LIM1215, LIM1863) secretopeptidome, as a first step towards gaining insights into extracellular proteolytic cleavage events in the tumour microenvironment. Based on two biological replicates, this secretopeptidome isolation strategy utilised differential centrifugal ultrafiltration in combination with analytical RP-HPLC and nanoLC-MS/MS. Secreted peptides were identified using a combination of Mascot and post-processing analyses including MSPro re-scoring, extended feature sets and Percolator, resulting in 474 protein identifications from 1228 peptides (?1% q-value, ?5% PEP) - a 36% increase in peptide identifications when compared with conventional Mascot (homology ionscore thresholding). In both colon tumour models, 122 identified peptides were derived from 41 cell surface protein ectodomains, 23 peptides (12 proteins) from regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP), and 12 peptides (9 proteins) generated from intracellular domain proteolysis. Further analyses using the protease/substrate database MEROPS, (http://merops.sanger.ac.uk/), revealed 335 (71%) proteins classified as originating from classical/non-classical secretion, or the cell membrane. Of these, peptides were identified from 42 substrates in MEROPS with defined protease cleavage sites, while peptides generated from a further 205 substrates were fragmented by hitherto unknown proteases. A salient finding was the identification of peptides from 88 classical/non-classical secreted substrates in MEROPS, implicated in tumour progression and angiogenesis (FGFBP1, PLXDC2), cell-cell recognition and signalling (DDR1, GPA33), and tumour invasiveness and metastasis (MACC1, SMAGP); the nature of the proteases responsible for these proteolytic events is unknown. To confirm reproducibility of peptide fragment abundance in this study, we report the identification of a specific cleaved peptide fragment in the secretopeptidome from the colon-specific GPA33 antigen in 4/14 human CRC models. This improved secretopeptidome isolation and characterisation strategy has extended our understanding of endogenous peptides generated through proteolysis of classical/non-classical secreted proteins, extracellular proteolytic processing of cell surface membrane proteins, and peptides generated through RIP. The novel peptide cleavage site information in this study provides a useful first step in detailing proteolytic cleavage associated with tumourigenesis and the extracellular environment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: An Updated Secretome.
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Preparation of platelet concentrates.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Platelets are specialized blood cells that play central roles in physiologic and pathologic processes of hemostasis, wound healing, host defense, thrombosis, inflammation, and tumor metastasis. Activation of platelets is crucial for platelet function that includes a complex interplay of adhesion, signaling molecules, and release of bioactive factors. Transfusion of platelet concentrates is an important treatment component for thrombocytopenia and bleeding. Recent progress in high-throughput mRNA and protein profiling techniques has advanced the understanding of platelet biological functions toward identifying novel platelet-expressed and secreted proteins, analyzing functional changes between normal and pathologic states, and determining the effects of processing and storage on platelet concentrates for transfusion. It is important to understand the different standard methods of platelet preparation and how they differ from the perspective for use as research samples in clinical chemistry. Two simple methods are described here for the preparation of research-scale platelet samples from whole blood, and detailed notes are provided about the methods used for the preparation of platelet concentrates for transfusion.
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A protocol for the preparation of cryoprecipitate and cryodepleted plasma.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Cryoprecipitate is a concentrate of high-molecular-weight plasma proteins that precipitate when frozen plasma is slowly thawed at 1-6°C. The concentrate contains factor VIII (antihemophilic factor), von Willebrand factor (vWF), fibrinogen, factor XIII, fibronectin, and small amounts of other plasma proteins. Clinical-grade preparations of cryoprecipitate are mainly used to treat fibrinogen deficiency caused by acute bleeding or functional abnormalities of the fibrinogen protein. In the past, cryoprecipitate was used to treat von Willebrand disease and hemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency), but the availability of more highly purified coagulation factor concentrates or recombinant protein preparations has superseded the use of cryoprecipitate for these coagulopathies. Cryodepleted plasma ("cryosupernatant") is the plasma supernatant that remains following removal of the cryoprecipitate from frozen-thawed plasma. It contains all the other plasma proteins and clotting factors present in plasma that remain soluble during cold-temperature thawing of the plasma.
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Low-molecular weight plasma proteome analysis using centrifugal ultrafiltration.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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The low-molecular weight fraction (LMF) of the human plasma proteome is an invaluable source of biological information, especially in the context of identifying plasma-based biomarkers of disease. This protocol outlines a standardized procedure for the rapid/reproducible LMF profiling of human plasma samples using centrifugal ultrafiltration fractionation, followed by 1D-SDS-PAGE separation and nano-LC-MS/MS. Ultrafiltration is a convective process that uses anisotropic semipermeable membranes to separate macromolecular species on the basis of size. We have optimized centrifugal ultrafiltration for plasma fractionation with respect to buffer and solvent composition, centrifugal force, duration and temperature to facilitate >95% recovery, and enrichment of low-M (r) components from human plasma. Using this protocol, >260 unique peptides can be identified from a single plasma profiling experiment using 100 ?L of plasma (Greening and Simpson, J Proteomics 73:637-648, 2010). The efficacy of this method is demonstrated by the identification, for the first time, of several plasma proteins (e.g., protein KIAA0649 (Q9Y4D3), rheumatoid factor D5, serine protease inhibitor A3, and transmembrane adapter protein PAG) previously not reported in extant high-confidence Human Proteome Organization Plasma Proteome Project datasets.
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Triton X-114 phase separation in the isolation and purification of mouse liver microsomal membrane proteins.
Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
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Integral membrane proteins (IMPs) mediate several cellular functions including cell adhesion, ion and nutrient transport, and cell signalling. IMPs are typically hard to isolate and purify due to their hydrophobic nature and low cellular abundance, however, microsomes are small lipid vesicles rich in IMPs, which form spontaneously when cells are mechanically disrupted. In this study, we have employed mouse liver microsomes as a model for optimising a method for IMP isolation and characterisation. Microsomes were collected by differential centrifugation, purified with sodium carbonate, and subjected to GeLC-MS/MS analysis. A total of 1124 proteins were identified in the microsome fraction, with 47% (524/1124) predicted by TMHMM to contain at least one transmembrane domain (TMD). The ability of phase partitioning using the detergent Triton X-114 (TX-114) to further enrich for membrane proteins was evaluated. Microsomes were subjected to successive rounds of solubility-based phase separation, with proteins partitioning into the aqueous phase, detergent phase, or TX-114-insoluble pellet fraction. GeLC-MS/MS analysis of the three TX-114 fractions identified 1212 proteins, of which 146 were not detected in the un-fractionated microsome sample. Conspicuously, IMPs partitioned to the detergent phase, with 56% (435/770) of proteins identified in that fraction containing at least one TMD. GO Slim characterisation of the microsome proteome revealed enrichment of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, endosome, and cytoplasm. Further, enzymes including monooxygenases were well represented with 35 cytochrome P450 identifications (CYPs 1A2, 2A5, 2A12, 2B10, 2C29, 2C37, 2C39, 2C44, 2C50, 2C54. 2C67, 2C68, 2C70, 2D10, 2D11, 2D22, 2D26, 2D9, 2E1, 2F2, 2J5, 2U1, 3A11, 3A13, 3A25, 4A10, 4A12A, 4A12B, 4F13, 4F14, 4F15, 4V3, 51,7B1, and 8B1). Evaluation of biological processes showed enrichment of proteins involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation, as well as steroid synthesis. In addition, transport proteins including 24 members of the Rab family of GTPases were identified. Comparison of this dataset with the current mouse liver microsome proteome contributes an additional 648 protein identifications, of which 50% (326/648) contain at least one TMD.
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A centrifugal ultrafiltration strategy for isolating the low-molecular weight (
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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The low-molecular weight fraction (LMF) of the human plasma proteome is an invaluable source of biological information, especially in the context of identifying plasma-based biomarkers of disease. In this study, a separation and enrichment strategy based on centrifugal ultrafiltration was developed for the LMF (i.e., 50K, and recovery and enrichment of low-M(r) components from human plasma. This filter membrane device was further optimized with respect to plasma buffer composition, centrifugal force, duration and temperature. Optimal ultrafiltration conditions were obtained using 100 microL of normal plasma in 10% acetonitrile, and a centrifugation force of 4000x g for 35 min at 20 degrees C. In this LMF, 44 proteins (from 266 unique peptides) were identified using a combination of 1D-SDS-PAGE / nano-LC-MS/MS and a stringent level of identification (FDR <1%). We report the identification of several proteins (e.g., protein KIAA0649 (Q9Y4D3), rheumatoid factor D5, serine protease inhibitor A3, and transmembrane adapter protein PAG) previously not reported in extant high-confidence Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) Plasma Proteome Project datasets. When compared with the low-M(r) human plasma/serum proteome datasets of Zhou et al. (Electrophoresis, 2004. 25, 1289-98), Gundry et al. (Proteomics Clin. Appl., 2007. 1, 73-88) and Villanueva et al. (Anal Chem, 2004. 76, 1560-70), 64% of our identifications (28 proteins) were novel; these include cofilin-1, PPIase A, and the SH3 domain-binding glutamic acid-rich-like protein 3. In addition to intact proteins, many peptide fragments from high-abundance proteins (e.g., fibrinogen, clusterin, Factor XIIIa, transferrin, kinogen-1, and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor), presumably derived by ex vivo proteolysis, were observed.
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International blood collection and storage: clinical use of blood products.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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Human blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from an individual into the circulatory system of another. From the theory of circulation of blood to the early practice of blood transfusion, transfusion medicine has been an important concept for many centuries. The practicality of transfusion, however, only became a possibility during and shortly after the Second World War. Today, blood and its derivatives play a critical role in worldwide health care systems, with blood components having direct clinical indications. Over the past several years worldwide organizations including the World Health Organization (WHO) have made a number of substantial improvements to the regulation of the worlds blood supply. This continuous supply plays a critical role throughout health care systems worldwide, with procedures for blood collection, processing, and storage now complex, standardised processes. As the areas of clinical validation of different disease states from blood-derived sources (i.e., disease biomarkers) move towards validation stages, the importance of controlled- and standardised-protocols is imperative.
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Enrichment of human platelet membranes for proteomic analysis.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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Platelets (thrombocytes) are the smallest human blood cells and are pivotal in processes of hemostasis and thrombosis. Central to their function, the activation of platelets includes a complex interplay of adhesion and signalling molecules mediated via the plasma and inner membrane. Because platelets are enucleated, the analysis of the proteome is the best way to approach their biology. Here, we employ mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics to characterise membrane proteins derived from non-stimulated human platelets. This protocol details the extraction and purification of platelet membrane proteins from whole blood using SDS-PAGE in conjunction with LC-MS/MS. This method allowed the identification, and characterization of 207 platelet membrane proteins (PMP) from approximately 9.95 x 10(9) platelets (16).
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Secretome-based proteomics reveals sulindac-modulated proteins released from colon cancer cells.
Proteomics Clin Appl
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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Although experiments in rodents and human population-based studies have demonstrated the efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as sulindac in colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention, a detailed knowledge of the underlying mechanism of action of this drug is limited. To better understand the chemopreventitive effects of sulindac, especially early sulindac-induced apoptotic events, we used the CRC cell line LIM1215 as an experimental model, focusing on proteins secreted into the LIM1215 culture medium - i.e., the secretome. This subproteome comprises both soluble-secreted proteins and exosomes (30-100?nm diameter membrane vesicles released by several cell types). Selected secretome proteins whose expression levels were dysregulated by 1?mM sulindac treatment over 16?h were analyzed using 2-D DIGE, cytokine array, Western blotting, and MS. Overall, 150 secreted proteins were identified, many of which are implicated in molecular and cellular functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and apoptosis. Our secretome-based proteomic studies have identified several secreted modulators of sulindac-induced apoptosis action (e.g., Mac-2 binding protein, Alix, 14-3-3 isoforms, profilin-1, calumenin/Cab45 precursors, and the angiogenic/tumor growth factors interleukin 8 (IL-8) and growth related oncogene (GRO-?)) that are likely to improve our understanding of the chemopreventitive action of this NSAID in CRC.
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Two distinct populations of exosomes are released from LIM1863 colon carcinoma cell-derived organoids.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
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Exosomes are naturally occurring biological nanomembranous vesicles (?40 to 100 nm) of endocytic origin that are released from diverse cell types into the extracellular space. They have pleiotropic functions such as antigen presentation and intercellular transfer of protein cargo, mRNA, microRNA, lipids, and oncogenic potential. Here we describe the isolation, via sequential immunocapture using anti-A33- and anti-EpCAM-coupled magnetic beads, of two distinct populations of exosomes released from organoids derived from human colon carcinoma cell line LIM1863. The exosome populations (A33-Exos and EpCAM-Exos) could not be distinguished via electron microscopy and contained stereotypical exosome markers such as TSG101, Alix, and HSP70. The salient finding of this study, revealed via gel-based LC-MS/MS, was the exclusive identification in EpCAM-Exos of the classical apical trafficking molecules CD63 (LAMP3), mucin 13 and the apical intestinal enzyme sucrase isomaltase and increased expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV and the apically restricted pentaspan membrane glycoprotein prominin 1. In contrast, the A33-Exos preparation was enriched with basolateral trafficking molecules such as early endosome antigen 1, the Golgi membrane protein ADP-ribosylation factor, and clathrin. Our observations are consistent with EpCAM- and A33-Exos being released from the apical and basolateral surfaces, respectively, and the EpCAM-Exos proteome profile with widely published stereotypical exosomes. A proteome analysis of LIM1863-derived shed microvesicles (sMVs) was also performed in order to clearly distinguish A33- and EpCAM-Exos from sMVs. Intriguingly, several members of the MHC class I family of antigen presentation molecules were exclusively observed in A33-Exos, whereas neither MHC class I nor MHC class II molecules were observed via MS in EpCAM-Exos. Additionally, we report for the first time in any extracellular vesicle study the colocalization of EpCAM, claudin-7, and CD44 in EpCAM-Exos. Given that these molecules are known to complex together to promote tumor progression, further characterization of exosome subpopulations will enable a deeper understanding of their possible role in regulation of the tumor microenvironment.
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Comparison of ultracentrifugation, density gradient separation, and immunoaffinity capture methods for isolating human colon cancer cell line LIM1863-derived exosomes.
Methods
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Exosomes are 40-100nm extracellular vesicles that are released from a multitude of cell types, and perform diverse cellular functions including intercellular communication, antigen presentation, and transfer of oncogenic proteins as well as mRNA and miRNA. Exosomes have been purified from biological fluids and in vitro cell cultures using a variety of strategies and techniques. However, all preparations invariably contain varying proportions of other membranous vesicles that co-purify with exosomes such as shed microvesicles and apoptotic blebs. Using the colorectal cancer cell line LIM1863 as a cell model, in this study we performed a comprehensive evaluation of current methods used for exosome isolation including ultracentrifugation (UC-Exos), OptiPrep™ density-based separation (DG-Exos), and immunoaffinity capture using anti-EpCAM coated magnetic beads (IAC-Exos). Notably, all isolations contained 40-100nm vesicles, and were positive for exosome markers (Alix, TSG101, HSP70) based on electron microscopy and Western blotting. We employed a proteomic approach to profile the protein composition of exosomes, and label-free spectral counting to evaluate the effectiveness of each method. Based on the number of MS/MS spectra identified for exosome markers and proteins associated with their biogenesis, trafficking, and release, we found IAC-Exos to be the most effective method to isolate exosomes. For example, Alix, TSG101, CD9 and CD81 were significantly higher (at least 2-fold) in IAC-Exos, compared to UG-Exos and DG-Exos. Application of immunoaffinity capture has enabled the identification of proteins including the ESCRT-III component VPS32C/CHMP4C, and the SNARE synaptobrevin 2 (VAMP2) in exosomes for the first time. Additionally, several cancer-related proteins were identified in IAC-Exos including various ephrins (EFNB1, EFNB2) and Eph receptors (EPHA2-8, EPHB1-4), and components involved in Wnt (CTNNB1, TNIK) and Ras (CRK, GRB2) signalling.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.