The current review evaluates the use of treatment fidelity strategies in evidence-based parent training programs for treating externalizing disorders. We used a broad framework for evaluating treatment fidelity developed by the National Institutes of Health Treatment Fidelity Workgroup that includes the aspects of treatment design, treatment delivery, training providers, and assessment of participant receipt of treatment and enactment of treatment skills. Sixty-five articles reporting outcome trials of evidence-based parent training programs met inclusion criteria and were coded for treatment fidelity strategies. The mean adherence to fidelity strategies was .73, which was higher than two previous review studies employing this framework in the health literature. Strategies related to treatment design showed the highest mean adherence (.83), whereas training of providers and enactment of treatment skills had the lowest (.58). In light of an increasing emphasis on effectiveness and dissemination trials, the broader treatment fidelity framework as applied in this review focuses needed attention on areas often overlooked in fidelity practices, such as training providers and generalization of treatment skills. We discuss the strengths and limitations of fidelity practices in parent training studies, implications of these findings, and areas for future research.
Sled dogs commonly suffer from diarrhea. Although multiple etiologies exist there are limited field studies using synbiotics as a supplement to prevent or treat diarrhea. The objective of this study was to examine alterations in fecal quality, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and the fecal microbiome in two groups of training sled dogs fed a synbiotic or microcrystalline cellulose placebo. Twenty clinically healthy training sled dogs randomized into two cohorts (9 synbiotic-fed, 8 placebo-fed) for a 6 week prospective study were examined. Fecal pH and fecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were measured and tag-encoded FLX 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) and quantitative real-time PCR were performed at baseline (10 d prior to the study) and after 2 weeks of treatment with a total treatment time of 6 weeks. Fecal scores for all dogs were assessed at baseline and every day for 6 wk after initiation of treatment.
Many primary cancers including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are resistant to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-induced oncolysis due to overexpression of the antiapoptotic and antiautophagic members of the B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of CLL cell death induced as a consequence of VSV infection in the presence of BCL-2 inhibitors, obatoclax, and ABT-737 in primary ex vivo CLL patient samples. Microarray analysis of primary CD19? CD5? CLL cells treated with obatoclax and VSV revealed changes in expression of genes regulating apoptosis, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and cellular metabolism. A combined therapeutic effect was observed for VSV and BCL-2 inhibitors in cells from untreated patients and from patients unresponsive to standard of care therapy. In addition, combination treatment induced several markers of autophagy--LC3-II accumulation, p62 degradation, and staining of autophagic vacuoles. Inhibition of early stage autophagy using 3-methyladenine (3-MA) led to increased apoptosis in CLL samples. Mechanistically, a combination of BCL-2 inhibitors and VSV disrupted inhibitory interactions of Beclin-1 with BCL-2 and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1), thus biasing cells toward autophagy. We propose a mechanism in which changes in cellular metabolism, coupled with pharmacologic disruption of the BCL-2-Beclin-1 interactions, facilitate induction of apoptosis and autophagy to mediate the cytolytic effect of VSV.
Protein quantification in a complex protein mixture presents a daunting task in biochemical analysis. Antibody-based immunoassays are traditional methods for protein quantification. However, there are issues associated with accuracy and specificity in these assays, especially when the changes are small (e.g., <2-fold). With recent developments in mass spectrometry, monitoring a selected peptide, thus protein, in a complex biological sample has become possible. In this study, we demonstrate a simple mass spectrometry-based method for selective measurement of a moderately low abundant protein, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), in cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells. Selected-reaction-monitoring (SRM) technology was employed to specifically analyze the target peptides in a pair of human ovarian cancer cell lines: 2008/2008-C13*5.25 (cisplatin-sensitive/cisplatin-resistant, respectively). The observed 1.47-fold higher expression in the resistant cell line is consistent with findings by other approaches. This robust liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method provides a powerful tool for targeted proteomic verification and/or validation studies.
Clinical drug resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy is considered a major impediment in the treatment of human ovarian cancer. Multiple pathways associated with drug resistance have been suggested by many previous studies. Over expression of several key proteins involved in DNA repair, drug transport, redox regulation, and apoptosis has been recently reported by our group using a global quantitative proteomic profiling approach. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is one of these proteins consistently over-expressed in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells as compared to their sensitive counterparts, but its precise role in drug resistance is yet to be defined.
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