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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Analysis of PAEs in semen of infertile men.
Int J Occup Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Objectives: Phthalates are environmental chemicals with reproductive toxicity and estrogenic effects in animals. They are of increasing concern to human health. Aim: To determine whether phthalate levels in semen were associated with infertility. Methods: Using semen samples from 107 infertile and 94 fertile men, the presence and quantity of five phthalate esters were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using data collected from questionnaires and clinical examinations, the correlation between phthalate exposure and semen quality was analyzed. Results: The cumulative levels of the measured phthalate esters were significantly higher in the infertility group compared to the control group (P<0·05). Concentrations of the five phthalate esters in men varied by age with older men showing higher cumulative levels. Conclusions: The presence of phthalates may contribute to male infertility in our study population.
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Association of risk of gastric cancer and consumption of tobacco, alcohol and tea in the chinese population.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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This study aimed at summarizing epidemiological research findings on associations between tobacco, alcohol and tea consumption and risk of gastric cancer (GC) in the Chinese population. The review searched PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases and reference lists of review papers for all studies published in English or Chinese languages. Information extracted, via two independent researchers, from retrieved articles included first author, year of publication, study design, sample size, source of controls and adjusted odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each category. Statistical analyses used software STATA version 12.0. The systematic search found 89 articles containing 25,821 GC cases and 135,298 non-cases. The overall random effects in terms of pooled OR and 95%CI for tobacco, alcohol and tea consumption were 1.62 (95%CI: 1.50-1.74), 1.57 (95%CI: 1.41-1.76) and 0.67 (95%CI: 0.59-0.76) respectively; while the heterogeneity among included studies ranged from 80.1% to 87.5%. The majority of subgroup analyses revealed consistent results with the overall analyses. All three behavioral factors showed statistically significant dose-dependent effects on GC (P<0.05). The study revealed that tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking were associated with over 1/2 added risk of GC, while tea drinking conferred about 1/3 lower risk of GC in the Chinese population. However, these results should be interpreted with caution given the fact that most of the included studies were based on a retrospective design and heterogeneity among studies was relatively high.
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Designing a Cu(II)-ArCu(II)-ArCu(III)-Cu(I) Catalytic Cycle: Cu(II)-Catalyzed Oxidative Arene C-H Bond Azidation with Air as an Oxidant under Ambient Conditions.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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On the basis of our recent discovery of high valent organocopper compounds, we have designed and achieved efficient copper(II)-catalyzed oxidative arene C-H bond azidation under very mild aerobic conditions by using NaN3 as an azide source. In the presence of a Cu(II) catalyst, a number of azacalix[1]arene[3]pyridines underwent direct arene C-H bond cupration through an electrophilic aromatic metalation pathway to form an arylcopper(II) intermediate. Oxidized by a free copper(II) ion, the arylcopper(II) intermediate was transformed into an arylcopper(III) species that subsequently cross-coupled with azide to furnish the formation of aryl azide products with the release of a copper(I) ion. Under ambient catalytic reaction conditions, the copper(I) species generated was oxidized by air into copper(II), which entered into the next catalytic cycle. Application of the method was demonstrated by the synthesis of functional azacalix[1]arene[3]pyridines by means of simple and practical functional group transformations of azide. The showcase of the Cu(II)-ArCu(II)-ArCu(III)-Cu(I) catalytic cycle would provide a new strategy for the design of copper(II)-catalyzed aerobic oxidative arene C-H bond activation and transformations.
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Catalytic Asymmetric Difunctionalization of Stable Tertiary Enamides with Salicylaldehydes: Highly Efficient, Enantioselective, and Diastereoselective Synthesis of Diverse 4-Chromanol Derivatives.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Catalyzed by a chiral BINOL-Ti(OiPr)4 complex, various stable tertiary enamides reacted with salicylaldehydes to afford diverse cis,trans-configured 4-chromanols that contain three continuous stereogenic centers in good yields with excellent diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity. The reaction proceeded through the addition of enamide to aldehyde followed by the intramolecular interception of the resulting iminium by the hydroxy group. Oxidation of the resulting 4-chromanols yielded almost quantitatively chroman-4-one derivatives which underwent diastereospecific reduction with NaBH4 to produce cis,cis-configured 4-chromanols.
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Significance of eosinophil accumulation in the thrombus and decrease in peripheral blood in patients with acute coronary syndrome.
Coron. Artery Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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It is well known that the interaction between platelets (PLTs), endothelial cells, and leukocytes contributes to thrombosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of PLTs and eosinophils (EOS) in coronary arterial thrombi.
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Human connectome module pattern detection using a new multi-graph MinMax cut model.
Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Many recent scientific efforts have been devoted to constructing the human connectome using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data for understanding the large-scale brain networks that underlie higher-level cognition in human. However, suitable computational network analysis tools are still lacking in human connectome research. To address this problem, we propose a novel multi-graph min-max cut model to detect the consistent network modules from the brain connectivity networks of all studied subjects. A new multi-graph MinMax cut model is introduced to solve this challenging computational neuroscience problem and the efficient optimization algorithm is derived. In the identified connectome module patterns, each network module shows similar connectivity patterns in all subjects, which potentially associate to specific brain functions shared by all subjects. We validate our method by analyzing the weighted fiber connectivity networks. The promising empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.
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Selective sulfonylation and diazotization of indoles.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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A metal-free synthesis of bifunctionalized indole derivatives was developed through a novel TBHP/TBAI-mediated oxidative coupling of C2,C3-unsubstituted indoles with arylsulfonyl hydrazide. Under the same conditions C3-methyl substituted indoles underwent a diazotization process, affording 2-sulfonyldiazenyl-1H-indoles. The former reaction simultaneously established C-S and C-N bonds through selective sulfonylation and diazotization of the indole framework, enabling a mild and practical access to polyfunctionalized indoles with good to excellent yields.
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Effects of short photoperiod on energy intake, thermogenesis, and reproduction in desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii).
Integr Zool
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii) are the least known species in the genus Phodopus in ecology and physiology, and deserve scientific attention since they have the smallest body size but inhabit desert environments. Here, the responses in energy metabolism and reproductive function to short photoperiod in desert hamsters were investigated. Male and female desert hamsters were acclimated to either long (LD, 16L:8D) or short photoperiod (SD, 8L:16D) for 3 months, and then the females were transferred back to LD for further 5 months, while the males were sacrificed for measurements of serum leptin and molecular markers for thermogenesis at the end of SD acclimation. We found that like the other 2 species from the genus Phodopus, the desert hamsters under SD decreased body mass, increased adaptive thermogenesis as indicated by elevated mitochondrial protein content and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) content in brown adipose tissue, and suppressed reproduction compared to those under LD. But different from the other 2 species, desert hamsters did not show any differences in energy intake or serum leptin concentration between LD and SD. These data suggest that different species from the same genus respond in different ways to the environmental signals, and the desert adapted species are not as sensitive to change in photoperiod as the other two species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Regulated assemblies and anion responsive vesicles based on 1,3-alternate oxacalix[2]arene[2]triazene amphiphiles.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Regulated assemblies from vesicles to micelles based on 1,3-alternate oxacalix[2]arene[2]triazine amphiphilic molecules were reported. The vesicular entities were responsive to anions and followed the selectivity in the order NO3(-) > Cl(-) > Br(-) > ClO4(-), driven by cooperative anion-? interactions and hydrogen bonding.
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A Phosphine-Catalyzed Novel Asymmetric [3+2] Cycloaddition of C,N-Cyclic Azomethine Imines with ?-Substituted Allenoates.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Catalytic asymmetric [3+2] cycloadditions of C,N-cyclic azomethine imines with ?-substituted allenoates have been developed in the presence of (S)-Me-f-KetalPhos, affording functionalized tetrahydroquinoline frameworks in good yields with high diastereo- and good enantioselectivities under mild condition. The substrate scope has been also examined. This is the first time that ?-substituted allenoates have been applied as a ?,?-C?C bond participated C2 synthon in asymmetric synthesis.
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Annona squamosa Linn: cytotoxic activity found in leaf extract against human tumor cell lines.
Pak J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Cancer is a common cause of death in human populations. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy still remain the corner stone of treatment. However, herbal medicines are gaining popularity on account of their lesser harmful side effects on non-targeted human cells and biological environment. Annona squamosa Linn is a common delicious edible fruit and its leaf have been used for the treatment in various types of diseases. The objective of present study is to determine the anticancer potential of the organic and aqueous extracts of leaf of Annona squamosa L. MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7404, lung cancer line H460, human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1, prostatic cancer cell line DU145, breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, and colon cancer cell line HCT-116 Human primary embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 as control were used for the study. The crude extract (Zcd) and Ethyl acetate extract (ZE) were found significant anticancer activity only on human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and colon cancer cell line HCT-116.
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Impact of different surgical and postoperative adjuvant treatment modalities on survival of sinonasal malignant melanoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The role of postoperative adjuvant treatment for sinonasal malignant melanoma remains unclear. This study evaluates the impact of three different surgical and postoperative adjuvant treatment modalities: surgery alone(open and endoscopic approaches), surgery plus radiotherapy and surgery, radiotherapy plus chemotherapy on survival of patients with primary sinonasal malignant melanoma (SMM).
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Cold exposure inhibits hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression, serum leptin concentration, and delays reproductive development in male Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii).
Int J Biometeorol
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Cold commonly affects growth and reproductive development in small mammals. Here, we test the hypothesis that low ambient temperature will affect growth and puberty onset, associated with altered hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression and serum leptin concentration in wild rodents. Male Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) were exposed to cold (4?±?1 °C) and warm (23?±?1 °C) conditions from the birth and sacrificed on different developmental stages (day 26, day 40, day 60, and day 90, respectively). Brandt's voles increased the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue, mobilized body fat, decreased serum leptin levels, and delayed the reproductive development especially on day 40 in the cold condition. They increased food intake to compensate for the high energy demands in the cold. The hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression on day 26 was decreased, associated with lower wet testis mass and testis testosterone concentration on day 40, in the cold-exposed voles compared to that in the warm. Serum leptin was positively correlated with body fat, testis mass, and testosterone concentration. These data suggested that cold exposure inhibited hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression during the early stage of development, decreased serum leptin concentration, and delayed reproductive development in male Brandt's voles.
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Patterns and trends with cancer incidence and mortality rates reported by the China National Cancer Registry.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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National cancer registration reports provide a huge potential for identifying patterns and trends of important policy, research, prevention and treatment significance. As summary reports written on an annual basis, the China Cancer Registry Annual Reports (CCRARs) fall short from fully addressing their potential. This paper attempts to explore part of the patterns and trends hidden behind published CCRARs. It extracted data for cancer incidence rates (IRs) and mortality rates (MRs) for 2004, 2006 and 2009 from relevant CCRARs and portrayed 4 kinds of indicators in line graphs. The study showed that: a) all of the line graphs of age-specific IRs and MRs characterized typical "growth curves or histogram"; b) graphs of IRs and MRs for males and urban areas had higher peaks than that for females and rural regions; c) most of the line graphs of IR/MR ratios comprised a starting peak, a secondary peak and a decreasing tail and the secondary peaks for females and urban areas were higher than those for males and rural areas; d) most of the urban versus rural IR ratios valued above one, but most the urban versus rural MR ratios, below one; e) the accumulative IRs and MRs showed a stable increasing trend from 2004 to 2009 for urban areas, but mixed for rural regions.
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Prognostic significance and therapeutic implications of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? overexpression in human pancreatic carcinoma.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor which has been implicated in carcinogenesis and angiogenesis in a wide range of cancers, including pancreatic carcinoma (PC). We aimed to characterize the prognosis and potential therapeutic implications of PPAR? in PC. Real-time RT-PCR and western blotting were used to quantify PPAR? expression in immortalized pancreatic epithelial cells, PC cell lines and freshly isolated matched tumor and non-tumor tissues. PPAR? protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in archived tumor tissues from 101 PC patients. Furthermore, the effect of PPAR? on the cytotoxic action of gemcitabine (Gem) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in PC cell lines was investigated in vitro using RNA interference techniques. Both PPAR? protein and mRNA were expressed at markedly higher levels in all of the PC cell lines and freshly isolated PC tissues, compared to normal immortalized pancreatic epithelial cells and the matched adjacent non-tumor tissues. High levels of PPAR? expression correlated significantly with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging (P<0.001) and poor overall survival (P<0.001), especially in patients with advanced disease who received postoperative chemotherapy. While silencing of PPAR? significantly inhibit the cytotoxic effects of both gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil in PC cells in vitro. This study suggests that high levels of PPAR? expression are associated with poor overall survival in PC. Additionally, PPAR? promotes chemoresistance in PC cells, indicating that PPAR? may represent a novel therapeutic target for PC.
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Synthesis of Quaternary-Carbon-Containing and Functionalized Enantiopure Pentanecarboxylic Acids from Biocatalytic Desymmetrization of meso-Cyclopentane-1,3-Dicarboxamides.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Catalyzed by Rhodococcus erythropolis AJ270, a nitrile hydratase-amidase containing microbial whole-cell catalyst under mild conditions, enantioselective desymmetrizations of meso-cyclopentane-1,3-dicarbonitriles and cyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxamides were studied. Although the nitrile hydratase was found to exhibit high enzymatic activity, but low 1R enantioselectivity toward dinitriles, a number of 2,2-unsymmetrically substituted meso-cyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxamide substrates were converted by the 1S enantioselective amidase into quaternary carbon-bearing enantiopure (1S,2R,3R)-3-carbamoylcyclopentanecarboxylic acids in yields up to 94?%. The application of the method was demonstrated by convenient and practical transformations of the resulting (1S,2R,3R)-2-allyl-3-carbamoylcyclopentanecarboxylic acid derivatives into functionalized cyclopentane-fused ?-lactam and ?-lactone compounds.
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Extranodal sinonasal Rosai-Dorfman disease: a clinical study of 10 cases.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Sinonasal Rosai-Dorfman disease (S-RDD) is a rare form of RDD limited to the sinonasal cavity. Multipatient studies of Chinese S-RDD and documentation of its clinical spectrum are rare. This study aimed to identify the clinical profiles of Chinese S-RDD. Medical records of and tissue sections from 10 patients diagnosed with S-RDD between 2007 and 2014 were reviewed. Data on clinical presentations, endoscopy signs, imageological change, treatment and outcome were analyzed. The mean age of five male and five female patients at the first visit was 40.3 years and the mean follow-up period was 58.6 months. Based on the lesion sites, five cases were divided into an anterior sinonasal group, accompanied by symptoms of epistaxis, nasal obstruction and nasal dorsal deformity. Five other cases were divided into a posterior sinonasal group, accompanied by symptoms of hyposmia, epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Endoscopy signs and imageological changes in the anterior group showed diffuse infiltration of the RDD lesion under the septum mucosa, but in the posterior group the RDD lesions often showed as formations on polyps. At the end of follow-up, only one case spontaneously resolved without surgery; two cases in the anterior sinonasal group and three cases in the posterior sinonasal group recurred after endoscopic surgery, but surgery can result in short-term symptomatic control and restoration of function in all cases. S-RDD of the anterior and posterior sinonasal cavity may have different clinical characteristics; endoscopic surgery is effective for short-term symptomatic control and restoration of function for S-RDD.
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Effect of carbon nanotube modified cathode by electrophoretic deposition method on the performance of sediment microbial fuel cells.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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A multi-walled, carbon nanotube (MWNT)-modified graphite felt (GF) cathode was fabricated to improve the performance of sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFC). Three types of MWNT-modified GF cathodes were prepared by different electrophoretic deposition (EPD) times. Maximum power density of SMFC with MWNT-GF*** cathode at 60 min EPD was 215 ± 9.9 mW m(-2). This was 1.6 times that of SMFC with a bare GF cathode. Cyclic voltammetry and the amount of biomass showed that biomass density and electrochemical activity increased as the electrophoretic deposition time extended. Therefore the electrode possesses the highest catalytic behavior toward O2 reduction reaction. This simple process of carbon nanotube modification of a cathode by EPD can serve as an effective technique to improve the performance of SMFC.
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Association between pancreatitis and subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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This study aimed to summarize published epidemiological evidence for the relationship between pancreatitis and subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer (PC). We searched Medline and Embase for epidemiological studies published by February 5th, 2014 examining the risk of PC in pancreatitis patients using highly inclusive algorithms. Information about first author, year of publication, country of study, recruitment period, type of pancreatitis, study design, sample size, source of controls and attained age of subjects were extracted by two researchers and Stata 11.0 was used to perform the statistical analyses and examine publication bias. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with the random effects model. A total of 17 articles documenting 3 cohort and 14 case-control studies containing 14,667 PC cases and 17,587 pancreatitis cases were included in this study. The pooled OR between pancreatitis and PC risk was 7.05 (95%CI: 6.42-7.75). However, the pooled ORs of case-control and cohort studies were 4.62 (95%CI: 4.08-5.22) and 16.3 (95%CI: 14.3-18.6) respectively. The risk of PC was the highest in patients with chronic pancreatitis (pooled OR=10.35; 95%CI: 9.13-11.75), followed by unspecified type of pancreatitis (pooled OR=6.41; 95%CI: 4.93-8.34), both acute and chronic pancreatitis (pooled OR=6.13; 95%CI: 5.00-7.52), and acute pancreatitis (pooled OR=2.12; 95%CI: 1.59-2.83). The pooled OR of PC in pancreatitis cases diagnosed within 1 year was the highest (pooled OR=23.3; 95%CI: 14.0-38.9); and the risk in subjects diagnosed with pancreatitis for no less than 2, 5 and 10 years were 3.03 (95%CI: 2.41-3.81), 2.82 (95%CI: 2.12-3.76) and 2.25 (95%CI: 1.59-3.19) respectively. Pancreatitis, especially chronic pancreatitis, was associated with a significantly increased risk of PC; and the risk decreased with increasing duration since diagnosis of pancreatitis.
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Icotinib antagonizes ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance, but not the pemetrexed resistance mediated by thymidylate synthase and ABCG2.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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ABCG2 is a potential biomarker causing multidrug resistance (MDR) in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). We conducted this study to investigate whether Icotinib, a small-molecule inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase, could interact with ABCG2 transporter in NSCLC. Our results showed that Icotinib reversed ABCG2-mediated MDR by antagonizing the drug efflux function of ABCG2. Icotinib stimulated the ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner and inhibited the photolabeling of ABCG2 with [125I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin, demonstrating that it interacts at the drug-binding pocket. Homology modeling predicted the binding conformation of Icotinib at Asn629 centroid-based grid of ABCG2. However, Icotinib at reversal concentration did not affect the expression levels of AKT and ABCG2. Furthermore, a combination of Icotinib and topotecan exhibited significant synergistic anticancer activity against NCI-H460/MX20 tumor xenografts. However, the inhibition of transport activity of ABCG2 was insufficient to overcome pemetrexed resistance in NCI-H460/MX20 cells, which was due to the co-upregulated thymidylate synthase (TS) and ABCG2 expression. This is the first report to show that the up-regulation of TS in ABCG2-overexpressing cell line NCI-H460/MX20 may play a role of resistance to pemetrexate. Our findings suggested different possible strategies of overcoming the resistance of topotecan and pemetrexed in the NSCLC patients.
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Icotinib antagonizes ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance, but not the pemetrexed resistance mediated by thymidylate synthase and ABCG2.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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ABCG2 is a potential biomarker causing multidrug resistance (MDR) in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). We conducted this study to investigate whether Icotinib, a small-molecule inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase, could interact with ABCG2 transporter in NSCLC. Our results showed that Icotinib reversed ABCG2-mediated MDR by antagonizing the drug efflux function of ABCG2. Icotinib stimulated the ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner and inhibited the photolabeling of ABCG2 with [125I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin, demonstrating that it interacts at the drug-binding pocket. Homology modeling predicted the binding conformation of Icotinib at Asn629 centroid-based grid of ABCG2. However, Icotinib at reversal concentration did not affect the expression levels of AKT and ABCG2. Furthermore, a combination of Icotinib and topotecan exhibited significant synergistic anticancer activity against NCI-H460/MX20 tumor xenografts. However, the inhibition of transport activity of ABCG2 was insufficient to overcome pemetrexed resistance in NCI-H460/MX20 cells, which was due to the co-upregulated thymidylate synthase (TS) and ABCG2 expression. This is the first report to show that the up-regulation of TS in ABCG2-overexpressing cell line NCI-H460/MX20 may play a role of resistance to pemetrexate. Our findings suggested different possible strategies of overcoming the resistance of topotecan and pemetrexed in the NSCLC patients.
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Total delay for treatment among cancer patients: a theory-guided survey in China.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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This study aimed at exploring treatment delay (TD) among cancer patients in China with an attempt to develop a practical methodology facilitating frontline Chinese clinicians in promoting earlier cancer diagnosis and treatment.
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Association between gestational diabetes mellitus and subsequent risk of cancer: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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This study aimed at summarizing epidemiological evidence of the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and subsequent risk of cancer.
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Flt3/Flt3L Participates in the Process of Regulating Dendritic Cells and Regulatory T Cells in DSS-Induced Colitis.
Gastroenterol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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The immunoregulation between dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T cells (T-regs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Recent research showed that Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) and Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) were involved in the process of DCs regulating T-regs. The DSS-induced colitis model is widely used because of its simplicity and many similarities with human UC. In this study, we observe the disease activity index (DAI) and histological scoring, detect the amounts of DCs and T-regs and expression of Flt3/Flt3L, and investigate Flt3/Flt3L participating in the process of DCs regulating T-regs in DSS-induced colitis. Our findings suggest that the reduction of Flt3 and Flt3L expression may possibly induce colonic immunoregulatory imbalance between CD103(+)MHCII(+)DCs and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)T-regs in DSS-induced colitis. Flt3/Flt3L participates in the process of regulating DCS and T-regs in the pathogenesis of UC, at least, in the acute stage of this disease.
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Direct synthesis of high-valent aryl-Cu(II) and aryl-Cu(III) compounds: mechanistic insight into arene C-H bond metalation.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Copper and its salts are abundant, inexpensive, and eco-friendly and have been used as the surrogates of noble metals to effect arene C-H bond activation and transformations. Despite of the recent significant progress of the study, syntheses of high-valent arylcopper(II-III) compounds are still very rare and mechanisms of copper(II)-catalyzed reactions remain elusive. With the use of azacalix[1]arene[3]pyridines as a platform, a number of arylcopper(II) compounds were synthesized efficiently from the reaction of Cu(ClO4)2 under ambient conditions. The resulting aryl-Cu(II) compounds, which contain an unprecedented (substituted) phenyl-Cu(II) ?-bond, were stable under atmospheric conditions and can undergo facile oxidation reaction by free copper(II) ions or oxone to afford arylcopper(III) compounds in good yields. Both arylcopper(II) and arylcopper(III) compounds were characterized unambiguously by means of XRD, XPS, and NMR methods. Experimental evidence including reaction kinetics, LFER and KIE, and theoretical calculations indicated that the Cu(ClO4)2-mediated arene C-H bond activation proceeds plausibly through an electrophilic aromatic metalation pathway. The synthesis of high-valent arylcopper compounds and the reaction mechanism reported here highlight the diversity and richness of organocopper chemistry.
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[Midterm outcome of surgical therapy for congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries with morphologically involuted left ventricle].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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We followed up all the patients underwent pulmonary artery banding (PAB) with or without the second stage double switch (DS) operation to compare the midterm outcomes between the DS and the prolonged palliative PAB.
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Synthesis, structure, and fullerene-complexing property of azacalix[6]aromatics.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Synthesis, structure, and fullerene-binding property of azacalix[6]aromatics were systematically studied. By means of [3 + 3] and [2 + 2 + 2] fragment coupling protocols, a number of azacalix[6]aromatics containing different combinations of benzene, pyridine, and pyrimidine rings and various substituents on the bridging nitrogen atoms were synthesized conveniently in moderate to good yields. The resulting macrocycles adopt in the solid state symmetric and heavily distorted 1,3,5-alternate conformations depending on the aromatic building units, whereas, in solution, they exist as a mixture of conformers that undergo rapid interchanges relative to the NMR time scale. All macrocycles were able to form 1:1 complexes with C60 and C70 in toluene with the association constants up to 7.28 × 10(4) M(-1). In the crystalline state, azacalix[6]aromatics form complexes with C60 and C70 with 2:1, 1:1, and 1:2 stoichiometric ratios between host and guest. Azacalix[6]aromatics interact with fullerene by forming mainly the sandwich structure in which C60 or C70 is sandwiched by two macrocycles. X-ray molecular structures revealed that multiple ?-? and CH-? interactions between concave azacalix[6]aromatics and convex fullerenes C60 and C70 contribute a joint driving force to the formation of host-guest complexes.
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Testing homogeneity of stratum effects in stratified paired binary data.
J Biopharm Stat
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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For paired binary data, McNemar's test is widely used to test marginal homogeneity or symmetry for a 2 by 2 contingency table. In this article, we extend McNemar's test by considering a series of paired binary data in which the series is defined by a stratification factor. We provide a test for testing homogeneous stratum effects. For illustration, we apply our test to a cancer epidemiology study. Finally, we conduct simulations to show that our test preserves the nominal type I error level and evaluate the power of our test under various scenarios.
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AST1306, a potent EGFR inhibitor, antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2-mediated multidrug resistance.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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AST1306, an inhibitor of EGFR and ErbB2, is currently in phase I of clinical trials. We evaluated the effect of AST306 on the reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) induced by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. We found that AST1306 significantly sensitized the ABC subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2)-overexpressing cells to ABCG2 substrate chemotherapeutics. AST1306 significantly increased intracellular accumulation of [(3)H]-mitoxantrone in ABCG2-overexpressing cells by blocking ABCG2 efflux function. Moreover, AST1306 stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCG2. Homology modeling predicted the binding conformation of AST1306 to be within the transmembrane region of ABCG2. In conclusion, AST1306 could notably reverse ABCG2-mediated MDR.
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Biotransformations of racemic 2,3-allenenitriles in biphasic systems: synthesis and transformations of enantioenriched axially chiral 2,3-allenoic acids and their derivatives.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Catalyzed by Rhodococcus erythropolis AJ270 whole cells in an aqueous phosphate buffer-n-hexane biphasic system, racemic axially chiral 2,3-allenenitriles underwent hydrolysis to afford enantioenriched (aR)-2,3-allenamides and (aS)-2,3-allenoic acids with ee's up to >99.5%. Overall biotransformations proceeded through the nitrile hydratase-catalyzed efficient but nonselective hydration of nitriles followed by the amide hydrolysis catalyzed by the substrate-dependent enantioselective amidase. The application of the method has been demonstrated by the transformations of the resulting allene products into highly functionalized heterocyclic compounds with axial chirality of reactants being entirely transferred into or expressed as point chirality of products.
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Highly Efficient and Stereoselective Construction of Bispirooxindole Derivatives via a Three-Component 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reaction.
ChemistryOpen
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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A highly regio- and stereoselective synthesis of bispirooxindoles by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of in situ generated azomethine ylides from isatin and proline to different electron-deficient alkenes has been developed. The synthesis affords the desired bispiro scaffold compounds in excellent yields with high regioselectivity under mild conditions. The stereochemistry was determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis.
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Identification of microRNA-214 as a negative regulator of colorectal cancer liver metastasis by way of regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 expression.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The purpose of this study was to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the pathology of colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastasis and investigate their underlying mechanisms. A total of 39 miRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed between 16 primary CRC tissues with liver metastases and 16 CRC tissues without liver metastases from 32 patients by Affymetric miRNA microarrays. A panel of eight miRNAs were confirmed to be significantly and differentially expressed between CRC tissues with and without liver metastases through quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis in the 32 patients. In a validated cohort of 99 CRC patients (44 with and 55 without liver metastases), only miR-214 was validated to be significantly down-regulated in CRC with liver metastases, which was associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Ectopic expression of miR-214 suppressed proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro, tumor growth and liver metastasis in an in vivo xenograft mouse model, whereas miR-214 knockdown promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion in CRC cell lines. Further studies indicated that fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) was a potential target of miR-214. Restoring miR-214 expression in CRC cells decreased endogenous FGFR1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. FGFR1 knockdown mimicked the tumor suppressive effect of miR-214 on CRC cells, while reintroduction of FGFR1 abolished the tumor suppressive effect of miR-214 on CRC cells. Moreover, miR-214 expression levels were inversely correlated with FGFR1 in CRC patients.
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Diagnostic value of rectal bleeding in predicting colorectal cancer: a systematic review.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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This study aimed at summarizing published study findings on the diagnostic value of rectal bleeding (RB) and informing clinical practice, preventive interventions and future research areas. We searched Medline and Embase for studies published by September 13, 2013 examining the risk of colorectal cancer in patients with RB using highly inclusive algorithms. Data for sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and positive predictive value (PPV) of RB were extracted by two researchers and analyzed applying Meta-Disc (version 1.4) and Stata (version 11.0). Methodological quality of studies was assessed according to QUADAS. A total of 38 studies containing 5,626 colorectal cancer patients and 73,174 participants with RB were included. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.47 (95% CI: 0.45-0.48) and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.96-0.96) respectively. The overall PPVs ranged from 0.01 to 0.21 with a pooled value of 0.06 (95% CI: 0.05-0.08). Being over the age of 60 years, change in bowel habit, weight loss, anaemia, colorectal cancer among first-degree relatives and feeling of incomplete evacuation of rectum appeared to increase the predictive value of RB. Although RB greatly increases the probability of diagnosing colorectal cancer, it alone may not be sufficient for proposing further sophisticated investigations. However, given the high specificity, subjects without RB may be ruled out of further investigations. Future studies should focus on strategies using RB as an "alarm" symptom and finding additional indications to justify whether there is a need for further investigations.
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Food hoarding, but not food intake, is attenuated by acute diazepam treatment in female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).
Horm Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Effects of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on food hoarding are unknown in rodents, and the effects of energy balance and GABA have not been evaluated in females. To evaluate the role of food deprivation and GABA on food hoarding, female Mongolian gerbils were given i.p. injection of diazepam (1mg/kg and 3mg/kg, respectively), a GABAA receptor agonist. Among food-deprived females, there was a bimodal pattern in the frequency of gerbils with different levels of food hoarding. High food hoarding (HFH) and low food hoarding (LFH) gerbils were analyzed. Diazepam blocked food deprivation-induced food hoarding in HFH gerbils, but not in LFH gerbils. This blockade was associated with increased cellular activation in selected brain areas, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), caudate putamen (CP) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), which suggested that direct activation of GABA in the brain reward circuitry decreased food hoarding in HFH females. Moreover, diazepam increased Fos expression in field CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus, but had no significant effect on Fos expression in field CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, indicating that the hippocampus has area-specific effects on food hoarding in HFH gerbils. Diazepam did not alter food intake in both HFH and LFH gerbils. In addition, serum corticosterone concentrations were higher in the HFH than in the LFH ones. Together, these data indicated that food deprivation increased food hoarding in female gerbils, diazepam reduced food deprivation-induced food hoarding in HFH gerbils, and that GABA might influence food hoarding via classical reward circuitry via the mesolimbic dopamine system and specific hippocampal areas.
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Synthesis, resolution, structure, and racemization of inherently chiral 1,3-alternate azacalix[4]pyrimidines: quantification of conformation mobility.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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The synthesis, resolution, structure, and racemization of inherently chiral 1,3-alternate azacalix[4]pyrimidine macrocycles are reported. Site-selective halogenations of monohalo-substituted azacalix[4]pyrimidines with NBS, NCS, and NFSI produced a number of the lower-rim dihalogenated 1,3-alternate azacalix[4]pyrimidines. 1,3-Alternate azacalix[4]pyrimidines bearing two proximal substituents were AABB-type and ABCC-type inherently chiral macrocycles, and three pairs of conformationally stable P and M enantiomers with >99.5% ee were obtained from the resolution of racemic samples by chiral HPLC. Absolute configurations were determined by X-ray crystallography and were correlated with their CD spectra. The rate constants for racemization of macrocycles were measured, and enthalpies (?H(‡)) and entropies (?S(‡)) of activation were determined by the Eyring plot method. The present study revealed that a combination of two proximal substituents larger than the van der Waals radii r(w) = 1.75 Å (such as chlorine) and r(w) = 1.47 Å (such as fluorine) at the lower rim was the minimum steric requirement for the resolution and isolation of conformationally stable inherently chiral enantiomers of 1,3-alternate azacalix[4]pyrimidines at room temperature, while a combination of two substituents larger than the van der Waals radii r(w) = 1.75 Å (such as chlorine) and r(w) = 1.85 Å (such as bromine) gave rise to an immobilized 1,3-alternate conformation up to 180 °C.
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ARRY-334543 reverses multidrug resistance by antagonizing the activity of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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ARRY-334543 is a small molecule inhibitor of ErbB1 and ErbB2 tyrosine kinases. We conducted this study to determine whether ARRY-334543 can enhance the efficacy of conventional anticancer drugs through interaction with ABC transporters. Lung cancer cell line NCI-H460 and its ABCG2-overexpressing NCI-H460/MX20, as well as the ABCG2-, ABCB1-, and ABCC10-overexpressing transfected cell lines were used for the reversal study. Our results demonstrated that ARRY-334543 (1.0??M) significantly reversed ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) by directly inhibiting the drug efflux function of ABCG2, resulting in the elevated intracellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs in the ABCG2-overexpressing cell lines. In addition, in isolated membranes, ARRY-334543 stimulated ATPase activity and inhibited photolabeling of ABCG2 with [(125)I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin in a concentration-dependent manner indicating that this drug directly interacts at the drug-binding pocket of this transporter. ARRY-334543 (1.0??M) only slightly reversed ABCB1- and partially reversed ABCC10-mediated MDR suggesting that it exhibits high affinity toward ABCG2. Moreover, homology modeling predicted the binding conformation of ARRY-334543 at Arg482 centroid-based grid of ABCG2. However, ARRY-334543 at reversal concentrations did not affect the expression level of ABCG2, AKT and ERK1/2 and regulate the re-localization of ABCG2. We conclude that ARRY-334543 significantly reverses drug resistance mediated by ABCG2.
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Optical properties of Ag nanoparticle-polymer composite film based on two-dimensional Au nanoparticle array film.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The nanocomposite polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) films containing Ag nanoparticles and Rhodamine 6G are prepared on the two-dimensional distinctive continuous ultrathin gold nanofilms. We investigate the optical properties and the fluorescence properties of silver nanoparticles-PVP polymer composite films influenced by Ag nanoparticles and Au nanoparticles. Absorption spectral analysis suggests that the prominently light absorption in Ag nanowire/PVP and Ag nanowire/PVP/Au film arises from the localized surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanowire and Au nanofilm. The enhanced fluorescence is observed in the presence of Ag nanowire and Au nanofilm, which is attributed to the excitation of surface plasmon polariton resonance of Ag nanowire and Au nanofilm. The gold nanofilm is proven to be very effective fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors. The fabricated novel structure, gold ultrathin continuous nanofilm, possesses high surface plasmon resonance properties and prominent fluorescence enhancement effect. Therefore, the ultrathin continuous gold nanofilm is an active substrate on nanoparticle-enhanced fluorescence.
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Efficacy and safety of capecitabine as maintenance treatment after first-line chemotherapy using oxaliplatin and capecitabine in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma patients: a prospective observation.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The value of maintenance therapy after first-line chemotherapy has been verified in lung cancer and colorectal cancer, however, in gastric cancer, the role of maintenance therapy is still waiting for an answer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of capecitabine as maintenance treatment after first-line chemotherapy in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma patients in China. Specimens of patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma who were given 6 cycles of oxaliplatin and capecitabine (Xelox for short) as first-line chemotherapy, without disease progression and with grade 2 or higher neuropathy, were collected for analysis. Among them, 64 patients received capecitabine as maintenance (group A) and 222 patients without maintenance as group B. Survival analysis was performed with a Cox regression model. Grades 3-4 adverse events were uncommon; hematologic toxicity was infrequent (5%) and consistently mild in the phase of maintenance treatment. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.4 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.2-12.6 months] for group A patients, while it was 7.1 months (95% CI, 6.1-8.0 months) for patients in group B, P?
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Masitinib antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2-mediated multidrug resistance.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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In this in vitro study, we determined whether masitinib could reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in cells overexpressing the ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) transporter. Masitinib (1.25 and 2.5 µM) significantly decreases the resistance to mitoxantrone (MX), SN38 and doxorubicin in HEK293 and H460 cells overexpressing the ABCG2 transporter. In addition, masitinib (2.5 µM) significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of [(3)H]-MX, a substrate for ABCG2, by inhibiting the function of ABCG2 and significantly decreased the efflux of [(3)H]-MX. However, masitinib (2.5 µM) did not significantly alter the expression of the ABCG2 protein. In addition, a docking model suggested that masitinib binds within the transmembrane region of a homology-modeled human ABCG2 transporter. Overall, our in vitro findings suggest that masitinib reverses MDR to various anti-neoplastic drugs in HEK293 and H460 cells overexpressing ABCG2 by inhibiting their transport activity as opposed to altering their levels of expression.
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Lipidomics reveals mitochondrial membrane remodeling associated with acute thermoregulation in a rodent with a wide thermoneutral zone.
Lipids
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) have high physiological flexibility in response to acute temperature changes, and have the widest thermoneutral zone (TNZ, 26.5-38.9 °C) reported among small mammals. At the upper critical temperature (T(uc), 38.9 °C), body temperatures of gerbils were significantly increased (39-41 °C) while metabolic rates were maintained at the basal level. In contrast, below the lower critical temperature (T(lc), 26.5 °C), metabolism was elevated and body temperature stable. Rapid changes in mitochondrial membrane lipidome were hypothesized to play an important role during acute thermoregulation of gerbils. Taking advantage of a recent lipidomic technique, we examined changes in the membrane phospholipids environment and free fatty acids (FFA) production in mitochondria between 38 and 27 °C (in the TNZ), and between 27 and 16 °C (below the TNZ). At 38 °C, acute heat stress elicited distinct remodeling in mitochondrial membrane lipidome which related to a potential decrease in mitochondrial respiration and membrane fluidity compared to 27 °C. At 16 °C, a sharply decreased unsaturation index and increased chain lengths were detected in mitochondrial FFA production both in muscle and brown adipose tissue. Our results suggest that mitochondrial membrane lipid remodeling may stabilize membrane function and activity of respiration related membrane protein to maintain a stable metabolic rate at T(uc), and improve heat production by decomposing less fluid fatty acid conjugates of membrane lipids under acute cold exposure. These data therefore imply an important role of membrane remodeling during acute thermoregulation in a non-hibernating endotherm.
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Unexpected self-assembly of chiral triangles from 90° chiral di-Pt(II) acceptors.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Two unexpected chiral organometallic triangles rather than squares from newly designed 90° chiral di-Pt(II) acceptors were obtained through coordination-driven self-assembly. Their structures were well characterized by multinuclear NMR ((1)H and (31)P) and variable-temperature NMR experiments, ESI-TOF-MS, and elemental analysis. The PM6 semiempirical molecular simulation was employed for the interpretation of the formation and stability of such chiral triangles.
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Size-regulable vesicles based on anion-? interactions.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Taking tetraoxacalix[2]arene[2]triazine as a functionalization platform, a series of new amphiphilic molecules were synthesized in 18 to 53?% yields by using a fragment coupling protocol. These amphiphilic molecules self-assembled into stable vesicles in a mixture of THF and water, with the surface of the vesicles engineered by electron-deficient cavities. Various anions are able to selectively influence the size of self-assembled vesicles, following the order of F(-) < ClO4(-) < SCN(-) < BF4(-) < Br(-) < Cl(-) < NO3(-), as revealed by DLS measurements. Such a sequence was independent with the hydration cost and in agreement with the binding strength of anions with tetraoxacalix[2]arene[2]triazine host molecule, indicating that the anion-? interaction most probably competed over other possible weak interactions and accounted for this interesting selectivity. In addition, the chloride permeation process across the membrane of the vesicles was also preliminarily studied by means of fluorescent experiments. This study, in addition to providing the potentiality of heteracalixaromatics as new models to construct functional vesicles, opens a new avenue to study the anion-? interactions in aqueous and also potentially in living systems.
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Resveratrol and genistein inhibition of rat isolated gastrointestinal contractions and related mechanisms.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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To investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of resveratrol and genistein on contractile responses of rat gastrointestinal smooth muscle.
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Absolute Ethanol Embolization of Arteriovenous Malformations in the Periorbital Region.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) involving the periorbital region are technically challenging clinical entities to manage. The purpose of the present study was to present our initial experience of ethanol embolization in a series of 16 patients with auricular AVMs and assess the outcomes of this treatment.
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[A prospective multicenter clinical trial of medical and surgical treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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To demonstrate the clinical outcomes of maximal medical therapy(MMT) and functional endoscopic sinus surgery+ maximal medical therapy (FESS+MMT) for moderate to severe chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) in China, to provide clinical evidence for treatment recommendation.
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Antineoplastic activity of Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch bark extracts (in vitro).
Pak J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Cancer remains the major public health concern with a number of cancer patients relying on chemotherapy as a treatment option. Although, advances in biomedical research have led to increased anticancer agents in recent years, the treatment is not always effective due to resistance, toxicity or other factors. Phytochemicals and their active components isolated from plants have provided diversified effective drugs many of them are currently used against cancer and other diseases. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb) Planch (Ulmaceae) is a widely distributed plant in many parts of the world, also grown in gardens of Pakistan. It is an ornamental plant with certain medicinal characteristics due to many valuable and active phyto constituents in various parts of the plant. We looked at in vitro antineoplastic effects of four different extracts, in butanol (BMBU), hexane (BMHx), ethyl acetate (BMET) and chloroform (BMCHF), from bark of Holoptelea integrifolia on small cell lung cancer, breast, prostate, coloretal and hepatocellular cancer cell lines. Plant extracts BMHx and BMET showed significant cytotoxic effects on breast and prostate cancer cells. These preliminary studies are encouraging to proceed further this research in future, regarding the isolation of active phytoconstituents in these extracts as well as its mechanism in chemoprevention and combination anticancer therapy.
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[Test-retest reliability of Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire in nurses].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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To evaluate the test-retest reliability of Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire in nurses and to provide supplementary data for evaluating the reliability of the questionnaire in different occupational populations.
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Effects of reproduction on immuno-suppression and oxidative damage, and hence support or otherwise for their roles as mechanisms underpinning life history trade-offs, are tissue and assay dependent.
J. Exp. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Life history parameters appear to be traded off against each other, but the physiological mechanisms involved remain unclear. One hypothesis is that potentially energetically costly processes such as immune function and protection from oxidative stress may be compromised during reproductive attempts because of selective resource allocation. Lower temperatures also impose energy costs, and hence allocation decisions might be more pronounced when animals are forced to reproduce in the cold. Here, we experimentally tested whether reproduction at different ambient temperatures was associated with elevated oxidative stress and suppressed immune function in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Using a variety of different markers for both immune function and oxidative stress, we found that some measures of immune function (serum bactericidal capacity and size of the thymus) were significantly suppressed, while some measures of oxidative protection [serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity] were also reduced, and a marker of oxidative damage (protein carbonyls in serum) was increased in lactating compared with non-reproductive gerbils. These changes were in line with the selective resource allocation predictions. However, the phytohaemagglutinin response and serum total immunoglobulin (IgG) were not suppressed, and other markers of oxidative damage [malondialdehyde (MDA) (TBARS) and protein carbonyls in the liver] were actually lower in lactating compared with non-reproductive gerbils, consistent with increased levels of SOD activity and total antioxidant capacity in the liver. These latter changes were opposite of the expectations based on resource allocation. Furthermore, other measures of protection (GPx levels in the liver and protein thiols in both serum and liver) and damage [MDA (TBARS) in serum] were unrelated to reproductive status. Ambient temperature differences did not impact on these patterns. Collectively, our results indicated that the inferred effects of reproduction on immunosuppression and oxidative damage, and hence support or otherwise for particular physiological mechanisms that underpin life history trade-offs, are critically dependent on the exact markers and tissues used. This may be because during reproduction individuals selectively allocate protection to some key tissues, but sacrifice protection of others.
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Synthesis of electron-deficient oxacalix[2]arene[2]triazines and their isomeric analogs from a one-pot reaction of perfluorinated dihydroxybenzenes with dichlorotriazines.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Efficient synthesis of tetraoxacalix[2]perfluoroarene[2]triazines and their isomeric analogs from a one-pot macrocyclic condensation reaction of methoxy- and amino-substituted dichlorotriazines with tetrafluorobenzene-1,3-, -1,4-, and -1,2-diols was developed. X-ray analysis demonstrates that they adopt drastically different 1,3-alternate conformations in the crystalline state while in solution they undergo very fast conformational changes relative to the NMR time scale.
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Synthesis of Multifunctionalized 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydropyridines, 2,3-Dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones, and Pyridines from Tandem Reactions Initiated by [5+1] Cycloaddition of N-Formylmethyl-Substituted Enamides to Isocyanides: Mechanistic Insight and Synthetic Appl
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Tandem reactions for the efficient synthesis of multifunctionalized 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridines, 2,3-dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones, and pyridine derivatives have been developed and reaction mechanisms have been investigated. Synthetic cascades are initiated by the Zn(OTf)2 -mediated [5+1] cycloaddition of N-formylmethyl-substituted tertiary enamides to isocyanides, thus leading to the versatile heterocyclic enamino imine intermediates. Interception of the intermediates by diastereoselective reduction of imine functionality with Me4 NBH(OAc)3 afforded 1,6-disubstituted trans-3-hydroxy-4-arylamino- or -alkylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridines, whereas acylation of the imino group followed by acidic hydrolysis produced 1,6-disubstituted 3-acyloxy-2,3-dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones. Aerobic oxidation led to the aromatization followed by intermolecular acyl-group transfer from the pyridinium nitrogen to the 3-hydroxy moiety, thereby yielding substituted 3-acyloxy-4-aminopyridines. Synthetic potentials of the resulting products have been demonstrated by expedient and highly stereoselective synthesis of cis,cis-4,5-dihydroxy-2-phenylpiperidine and trans,trans-4-amino-5-hydroxy-2-phenylpiperidine compounds, which are important in medicinal chemistry, through simple and practical reduction reactions.
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HER2-positive patients receiving trastuzumab treatment have a comparable prognosis with HER2-negative advanced gastric cancer patients: A prospective cohort observation.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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The monoclonal antibody trastuzumab has brought survival benefit to patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) that have human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) over expression or amplification. This study was designed to compare the clinical outcomes of HER2-negative and HER2-positive AGC patients with or without trastuzumab treatment. There were three groups of patients enrolled for analysis. Group A was 51 HER2-positive AGC patients treated with trastuzumab and chemotherapy; group B was a matched control group of 47 HER2-positive patients who received chemotherapy only; group C was a matched group of 251 HER2-negative patients who received chemotherapy. All the patients were enrolled at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center or Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University between January 2010 and December 2012. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used for survival analysis. The median duration of follow-up was 13.5 months (range 5-18.6 months). The median OS of these three groups of patients was 14.8 months, 11.3 months and 14.4 months respectively (p < 0.001). The survival difference between group A and B was significant, p < 0.001. Similarly, there was significant difference between group B and C, p < 0.001. Moreover the survival between group A and C was comparable, p = 0.281. The median progression-free survival for these three groups was 7.4, 6.0 and 7.2 months. Multivariate analysis confirmed that trastuzumab treatment was an independent prognostic factor in group A and B patients (p = 0.017). HER2 positive was an independent adverse prognostic factor in group B and C patients (p = 0.013).
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Abnormal expression of paxillin correlates with tumor progression and poor survival in patients with gastric cancer.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Paxillin (PXN) has been found to be aberrantly regulated in various malignancies and involved in tumor growth and invasion. The clinicopathological and prognostic significance of PXN in gastric cancer is still unclear.
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Cu(OTf)2-catalyzed selective arene C-H bond hydroxylation and nitration with KNO2 as an ambident O- and N-nucleophile via a Cu(II)-Cu(III)-Cu(I) mechanism.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Cu(OTf)2-catalyzed selective arene C-H bond hydroxylation and nitration reactions of azacalix[1]arene[3]pyridines were achieved using KNO2 as an ambident O- and N-nucleophile under very mild aerobic conditions to yield functionalized azacalixaromatics. The reaction, which selectivity between hydroxylation and nitration was modulated by the reaction medium employed, proceeded through a Cu(II)-Cu(III)-Cu(I) mechanism.
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2-(1-Methyl-2-oxoindolin-3-yl-idene)malono-nitrile.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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The title mol-ecule, C12H7N3O, is almost planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.026?Å. No directional interactions could be detected in the crystal.
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5-Methyl-N-(1,3-thia-zol-2-yl)isoxazole-4-carboxamide.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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In the title compound, C8H7N3O2S, the dihedral angle between the thia-zol and isoxazole rings is 34.08?(13)°. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are linked by pairs of N-H?N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers, and C-H?O inter-actions, resulting in chains along the b-axis direction.
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Effects of meteorological elements on admission rates of cerebral infarction patients with hypertensive nephropathy from nine hospitals in Changchun city, Jilin Province.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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It is well recognized that meteorological factors have important infuences on the onset and development of many kinds of diseases. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the meteorological elements on admission rates of cerebral infarction patients with hypertensive nephropathy at Changchun city, Jilin Province, northeast China.
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Fast onset of action of sublingual immunotherapy in house dust mite-induced allergic rhinitis: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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To investigate how quickly an allergic rhinitis (AR) patients symptoms will improve with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT).
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Stimuli-responsive supramolecular gels through hierarchical self-assembly of discrete rhomboidal metallacycles.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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A new class of supramolecular organometallic gels with a discrete rhomboidal metallacycle as the main skeleton was fabricated through hierarchical self-assembly (see figure). More importantly, by taking advantage of the dynamic nature of metal-ligand bonds, the stimuli-responsive gel-sol transition of the obtained gels was realized by disassembly and reassembly of the rhomboidal scaffold as controlled by bromide anions.
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Left main coronary artery spasm in a hyperthyroid patient with suspected acute coronary syndrome.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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The left main coronary artery (LMCA) vasospasm is rare. We report a suspected acute coronary syndrome patient with hyperthyroidism who had LMCA vasospasm. Coronary angiogram showed 60% stenosis at LMCA. After administering nitroglycerin, re-angiography showed no significant stenosis. Then we evaluated LMCA lesion using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) showing no significant stenosis. We considered that it was a LMCA vasospasm and may be assosiated with hyperthyroid state. After anti-thyroid and anti-spasm treatment, chest pain subsided. In conclusion, hyperthyroidism induced coronary hypersensitivity may contribute to LMCA vasospasm as seen in this case. IVUS may be useful to identify coronary vasospasm.
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Synthesis of substituted pyridines from cascade [1 + 5] cycloaddition of isonitriles to N-formylmethyl-substituted enamides, aerobic oxidative aromatization, and acyl transfer reaction.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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A novel strategy for de novo synthesis of pyridines featuring an unprecedented ?-addition of aldehyde and enamide to isonitrile as a key step is described. Under mild conditions, a cascade reaction involving Zn(OTf)2-promoted [1 + 5] cycloaddition of isonitrile with N-formylmethyl-substituted enamide, facile aerobic oxidative aromatization and intermolecular acyl transfer from the pyridinium nitrogen to the 5-hydroxy oxygen, and finally acylation of the 4-amino group by an external acyl chloride efficiently afforded 2-substituted 4-acylamino-5-acyloxypyridines in good to excellent yields.
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L1cam promotes tumor progression and metastasis and is an independent unfavorable prognostic factor in gastric cancer.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Previous reports have demonstrated that L1cam is aberrantly expressed in various tumors. The potential role of L1cam in the progression and metastasis of gastric cancer is still not clear and needs exploring.
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CDC20 overexpression predicts a poor prognosis for patients with colorectal cancer.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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The cell division cycle 20 homolog (CDC20) is an essential cofactor of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C). CDC20 overexpression has been detected in many types of human cancers; however, its clinical role in colorectal cancer remains unknown.
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Endoglin (CD105) expression on microvessel endothelial cells in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: tissue microarray analysis and association with prognostic significance.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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The purpose of this study was to examine endoglin (CD105) expression on microvessel endothelial cells (ECs) in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) and its relationship with recurrence.
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Effects of estrogen and phytoestrogens on endometrial leakage in ovariectomized rats and the related mechanisms.
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Phytoestrogens, a group of plant-derived non-steroidal compounds that can behave as estrogens by binding to estrogen receptors, have drawn great attention for their potentially beneficial effects on human health. However, there are few studies investigating the potential side effects of phytoestrogens on the reproductive system. The present study was to elucidate the effects of 17?-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and phytoestrogens genistein (Gen), resveratrol (Res), and phloretin (Phl) on eosinophilic infiltration of the ovariectomized rat uterus and endometrial vascular permeability, and to analyze the underlying mechanisms. The ovariectomized rats received daily subcutaneous injections of E2, E2+P4, P4, Gen, Res, Phl, or an equivalent volume of vehicle for 21 days, and sham-operated animals (Sham rats) were used as the controls. Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed a marked increase in uterine eosinophilic infiltrations in ovariectomized rats treated with E2, E2+P4 or P4, which was associated with increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) proteins as determined by immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis. However, all three phytoestrogens had no markedly effect on the uterine eosinophilic infiltration and the expressions of VEGF, NF-?B, and TNF-? in the uterus of ovariectomized rats. Our data demonstrate that E2 alone or in combination with P4 increases uterine eosinophilic infiltration which is related with vascular hyperpermeability caused by VEGF, NF-?B and TNF-?, whereas phytoestrogens Gen, Res, and Phl, have no such an effect.
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Clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic analysis of Lauren classification in gastric adenocarcinoma in China.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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According to the Lauren classification, gastric adenocarcinomas are divided into diffuse and intestinal types. The causative attribution explaining the dismal prognosis of diffuse-type remains unknown.
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Adjuvant chemotherapy for elderly patients with gastric cancer after D2 gastrectomy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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A phase III clinical trial has already shown the survival benefits of postoperative chemotherapy in gastric cancer. However, there are limited published data concerning the elderly. This study aims to investigate the use of adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer after D2 gastrectomy among the elderly and identify its impact on survival.
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Phase I/II study of albumin-bound nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine administered to Chinese patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and identify the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended dose of nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine as a first-line treatment in Chinese patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA).
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Anion-? interactions: generality, binding strength, and structure.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Anion-? interactions have been systematically studied using tetraoxacalix[2]arene[2]triazine 1, an electron-deficient and cavity self-tunable macrocyclic host, as an electron-neutral molecular probe. As revealed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), fluorescence titration and X-ray crystallography, tetraoxacalix[2]arene[2]triazine has been found to form 1:1 complexes with four typical polyatomic anions of different geometries and shapes in the gaseous phase, in solution, and in the solid state. The association constants for the formation of anion-? complexes in acetonitrile are in the range of 239 to 16950 M(-1), following the order of 1·NO(3)(-) > 1·BF(4)(-) > 1·PF(6)(-) > 1·SCN(-). X-ray molecular structures of the complexes showed that two opposing triazine rings of tetraoxacalix[2]arene[2]triazine act as a pair of tweezers to interact with the included anions through cooperative anion-? and lone-pair electron-? interactions. The generality of anion-? interactions and diverse anion-? interaction motifs can provide a new dimension in the study of molecular recognition and self-assembly. Moreover, this study potentiates the effect of anion-? interactions in chemical and biological systems, especially those involving anion and electron-deficient aromatic species.
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[Sexual reproductive allocation of Sargassum thunbergii at Taiping Cape of Yellow Sea].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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This paper studied the dynamics of reproductive allocation (RA) of Sargassum thunbergii during its sexual reproductive season and the related environmental factors at the Taiping Cape of Yellow Sea. The sexual reproduction of S. thunbergii initiated in early June, peaked in mid July when the sea water temperature was about 22 degrees C (the mean proportion of biomass allocated to reproductive organs on July 19 was 76.7%), and ended in late August. The RA had a significant linear correlation with the average length of thallus branches (r = 0.855, P < 0.01). The thalli with a length less than 10 cm showed a lower RA in the whole sexual reproductive season, while the thalli longer than 10 cm had a RA up to averagely 70.0% at the peak maturing stage. UNIANOVA analysis showed that both tidal level and wave strength had significant effects on the RA of S. thunbergii (tidal level: F = 175.62, P < 0.01; wave strength: F = 95.35, P < 0.01), and there was a significant interaction between tidal level and wave strength (F = 9.14, P < 0.05). The sizes of the effects were in the order of tidal level > wave strength > tidal level x wave strength.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.