Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by a chronic neutrophilic inflammatory response resulting in airway remodeling and progressive loss of lung function. Doxycycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that inhibits matrix metalloproteinase 9, a protease known to be associated with the severity of lung disease in CF. The pharmacokinetics of doxycycline was investigated during the course of a clinical trial to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety in adults with CF. Plasma samples were obtained from 14 patients following a single intravenous dose and after 2 and 4 weeks of oral administration of doses ranging from 40 to 200 mg daily. The data were analyzed using noncompartmental and compartmental pharmacokinetics. The maximum concentration of drug in serum (C(max)) and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC(0-?)) values ranged from 1.0 to 3.16 mg/liter and 15.2 to 47.8 mg/liter × h, respectively, following single intravenous doses of 40 to 200 mg. C(max) and time to maximum concentration of drug in serum (T(max)) values following multiple-dose oral administration ranged from 1.15 to 3.04 mg/liter and 1.50 to 2.33 h, respectively, on day 14 and 1.48 to 3.57 mg/liter and 1.00 to 2.17 on day 28. Predose sputum/plasma concentration ratios on days 14 and 28 ranged from 0.33 to 1.1 (mean, 0.71 ± 0.33), indicating moderate pulmonary penetration. A 2-compartment model best described the combined intravenous and oral data. Absorption was slow and delayed (absorption rate constant [K(a)], 0.414 h(-1); lag time, 0.484 h) but complete (bioavailability [F], 1.16). The distribution and elimination half-lives were 0.557 and 18.1 h, respectively. Based on these data, the plasma concentrations at the highest dose, 200 mg/day, are in the range reported to produce anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and should be evaluated in clinical trials.
Genetic association studies investigating the role of vitamin D in colon cancer have primarily focused on the vitamin D receptor (VDR), with limited data available for other genes in the vitamin D pathway, including vitamin D activating enzyme 1-alpha hydroxylase (CYP27B1) and vitamin D deactivating enzyme 24-alpha hydroxylase (CYP24A1). We evaluated whether 12 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in CYP24A1, identified by resequencing the gene in 32 Caucasian samples, and 1 SNP in CYP27B1 were associated with colon cancer risk. In addition, we evaluated whether these two genes modify associations between colon cancer on the one hand and total vitamin D intake and UV-weighted sun exposure on the other, as well as other variants in VDR. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between polymorphisms and haplotypes in CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 in a multicenter population-based case-control study of 1,600 cases and 1,949 controls. The CYP24A1 polymorphism IVS4-66T > G showed a statistically significant association with risk of colon cancer overall, particularly for proximal colon cancer. When stratified by anatomic site, we also found statistically significant associations for three CYP24A1 polymorphisms with risk of distal colon cancer (IVS4 + 1653C > T: OR for CT/TT versus CC, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.96; IVS9 + 198T > C: OR for CC versus TT, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.03-1.73; and within whites only: +4125bp 3 of STPC > G: OR for GG versus CC, 1.44; 95% CI, 1-2.05). In addition, a possible interaction between CYP27B1 and UV-weighted sun exposure with proximal colon cancer was observed. As this is the first study to evaluate these genes in relation to colon cancer, additional studies are needed to confirm these results.
Accurate assessment of renal function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is vital for determining the appropriate dose of medications and for early detection of renal disease. Cystatin C (CysC) is a new marker of GFR with reportedly improved accuracy and precision compared to methods incorporating serum creatinine. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictive performance of cystatin C in estimating GFR in adult patients with CF.
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