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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
First population-level effectiveness evaluation of a national programme to prevent HIV transmission from mother to child, South Africa.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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There is a paucity of data on the national population-level effectiveness of preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programmes in high-HIV-prevalence, resource-limited settings. We assessed national PMTCT impact in South Africa (SA), 2010.
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Whistleblowing: An integrative literature review of data-based studies involving nurses.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Abstract Aim To summarise and critique the research literature about whistleblowing and nurses. Background Whistleblowing is identified as a crucial issue in maintenance of healthcare standards and nurses are frequently involved in whistleblowing events. Despite the importance of this issue, to our knowledge an evaluation of this body of the data-based literature has not been undertaken. Method An integrative literature review approach was used to summarise and critique the research literature. A comprehensive search of five databases including Medline, CINAHL, PubMed and Health Science: Nursing/Academic Edition, and Google, were searched using terms including: 'whistleblow*', 'nurs*'. In addition, relevant journals were examined, as well as reference lists of retrieved papers. Papers published during the years 2007-2013 were selected for inclusion. Findings Fifteen papers were identified, capturing data from nurses in seven countries. The findings in this review demonstrate a growing body of research for the nursing profession at large to engage and respond appropriately to issues involving suboptimal patient care or organisational wrongdoing. Conclusions Nursing plays a key role in maintaining practice standards and in reporting care that is unacceptable although the repercussions to nurses who raise concerns are insupportable. Overall, whistleblowing and how it influences the individual, their family, work colleagues, nursing practice and policy overall, requires further national and international research attention.
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Analysis of the social network development of a virtual community for Australian intensive care professionals.
Comput Inform Nurs
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Social media platforms can create virtual communities, enabling healthcare professionals to network with a broad range of colleagues and facilitate knowledge exchange. In 2003, an Australian state health department established an intensive care mailing list to address the professional isolation experienced by senior intensive care nurses. This article describes the social network created within this virtual community by examining how the membership profile evolved from 2003 to 2009. A retrospective descriptive design was used. The data source was a deidentified member database. Since 2003, 1340 healthcare professionals subscribed to the virtual community with 78% of these (n = 1042) still members at the end of 2009. The membership profile has evolved from a single-state nurse-specific network to an Australia-wide multidisciplinary and multiorganizational intensive care network. The uptake and retention of membership by intensive care clinicians indicated that they appeared to value involvement in this virtual community. For healthcare organizations, a virtual community may be a communications option for minimizing professional and organizational barriers and promoting knowledge flow. Further research is, however, required to demonstrate a link between these broader social networks, enabling the exchange of knowledge and improved patient outcomes.
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Social networking for nurse education: Possibilities, perils and pitfalls.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Abstract In this paper, we consider the potential and implications of using social networking sites such as Facebook® in nurse education. The concept of social networking and the use of Facebook will be explored, as will the theoretical constructs specific to the use of online technology and Web 2.0 tools. Theories around Communities of Inquiry (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000), Communities of Practice (Wenger, 1998), Activity Theory (Daniels, Cole, & Wertsch, 2007) and Actor-Network theory (Latour, 1997) will be briefly explored, as will the work of Vygotsky (1978), as applies to the social aspects of learning. Boundary issues, such as if and how faculty and students should or could be connected via social networking sites will also be explored.
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Mentoring: Some cautionary notes for the nursing profession.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Abstract Mentoring has been embraced in nursing as a way of socialising new nurses into the profession, growing and developing nursing talent, and more recently as a way to retain experienced nurses with the current nursing shortage. Much of the extant literature focusses on the benefits of mentoring, differences between formal and informal mentoring, the elements of a successful mentoring relationship, and the characteristics of 'good' mentors and protégées. Until recently the research on mentoring has almost exclusively focussed on the positive aspects of mentoring for the protégées, organisations and to a lesser extent, mentors. While viewed by many as a beneficial and enriching developmental experience, it is equally important to recognise that there can be a darker side to the mentoring experience for the mentor and protégée. This paper will explore the negative aspects associated with mentoring and mentoring relationships and provide some cautionary notes for nursing.
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Misunderstood as mothers: women's stories of being hospitalized for illness in the postpartum period.
J Adv Nurs
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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This paper aims to explore women's experiences with healthcare providers to ascertain ways health care may be improved for women disrupted in their mothering.
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Child Support Grant access and receipt among 12-week-old infants in an urban township setting in South Africa.
Glob Health Action
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Cash transfers (CTs) are increasingly used as a strategy to alleviate poverty and improve child health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The Child Support Grant (CSG) is the largest CT programme in South Africa, and on the continent, targeting poor children from birth until the age of 18 with a monthly sum of R300 (USD30). Evidence on the CSG shows that early receipt of the grant is associated with improved child health outcomes. Since its implementation, one of the major concerns about the grant has been take-up rates, particularly for younger children. This paper reports results on take-up rates for 12-week-old infants residing in an urban township in South Africa.
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The construction and legitimation of workplace bullying in the public sector: insight into power dynamics and organisational failures in health and social care.
Nurs Inq
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Health-care and public sector institutions are high-risk settings for workplace bullying. Despite growing acknowledgement of the scale and consequence of this pervasive problem, there has been little critical examination of the institutional power dynamics that enable bullying. In the aftermath of large-scale failures in care standards in public sector healthcare institutions, which were characterised by managerial bullying, attention to the nexus between bullying, power and institutional failures is warranted. In this study, employing Foucault's framework of power, we illuminate bullying as a feature of structures of power and knowledge in public sector institutions. Our analysis draws upon the experiences of a large sample (n = 3345) of workers in Australian public sector agencies - the type with which most nurses in the public setting will be familiar. In foregrounding these power dynamics, we provide further insight into how cultures that are antithetical to institutional missions can arise and seek to broaden the debate on the dynamics of care failures within public sector institutions. Understanding the practices of power in public sector institutions, particularly in the context of ongoing reform, has important implications for nursing.
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Virtual worlds: a new frontier for nurse education?
Collegian
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Virtual worlds have the potential to offer nursing students social networking and, learning, opportunities through the use of collaborative and immersive learning. If nursing educators, are to stay, abreast of contemporary learning opportunities an exploration of the potential benefits of, virtual, worlds and their possibilities is needed. Literature was sourced that explored virtual worlds, and their, use in education, but nursing education specifically. It is clear that immersive learning has, positive, benefits for nursing, however the best way to approach virtual reality in nursing education, has yet to, be ascertained.
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Australian health professions student use of social media.
Collegian
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Increased bandwidth, broadband network availability and improved functionality have enhanced the accessibility and attractiveness of social media. The use of the Internet by higher education students has markedly increased. Social media are already used widely across the health sector but little is currently known of the use of social media by health profession students in Australia. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to explore health profession students' use of social media and their media preferences for sourcing information. An electronic survey was made available to health profession students at ten participating universities across most Australian states and territories. Respondents were 637 first year students and 451 final year students. The results for first and final year health profession students indicate that online media is the preferred source of information with only 20% of students nominating traditional peer-reviewed journals as a preferred information source. In addition, the results indicate that Facebook usage was high among all students while use of other types of social media such as Twitter remains comparatively low. As health profession students engage regularly with social media, and this use is likely to grow rather than diminish, educational institutions are challenged to consider the use of social media as a validated platform for learning and teaching.
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Troubling fragments and small stories: an analysis of public commentary on nursing through a web blog.
Collegian
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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In recent years the media in the United Kingdom has engaged in intense debate on standards of nursing care in the National Health Service (NHS). Much of the public engagement with this debate has been carried out through social media, including blogs and micro blogs. In this manuscript we analyse a single episode of public commentary appearing on a web blog about standards of nursing in the NHS. The blog entries featured brief stories and fragments of stories about care experiences, and perceptions of nursing care. Content analysis of the published narratives identified a troubling undercurrent of indifference experienced by patients, clients and their families. These stories represent a counter narrative to contemporary grand narratives of nursing, and as such, they sit on the outer edges of contemporary professional discourse. Increasing use of social media such as web blogs provides patients and carers with a public forum for comment that makes failures (or perceived failures) more visible to more people. Web blogs provide an important new mechanism through which patients and carers can have a voice about their own experiences of nursing care, and wider health care.
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"Holes in my memories": a qualitative study of men affected by father absence.
Issues Ment Health Nurs
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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This qualitative study explored adult men's experiences of father absence. Interviews with 21 men between the ages of 24 and 70 explored narratives of father absence and how the men perceived this influenced their life trajectory. Thematic analysis revealed that these men experienced a range of difficulties and challenges, including episodes of sadness and depression associated with loss and grief for the paternal relationship, self-esteem issues, feelings of anger and rejection, and difficulty forming trusting relationships particularly with other men. This study contributes to understanding mental health issues that can be associated with paternal absence for men.
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Severe events in the first 6 months of life in a cohort of HIV-unexposed infants from South Africa: effects of low birthweight and breastfeeding status.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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To report on risk factors for severe events (hospitalisation or infant death) within the first half of infancy amongst HIV-unexposed infants in South Africa.
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Small group learning: graduate health students' views of challenges and benefits.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Abstract Background: For health care professionals, particularly nurses, the need to work productively and efficiently in small groups is a crucial skill required to meet the challenges of the contemporary health-care environment. Small group work is an educational technique that is used extensively in nurse education. The advantage of group work includes facilitation of deep, active and collaborative learning. However, small group work can be problematic and present challenges for students. Many of the challenges occur because group work necessitates the coming together of collections of individuals, each with their own personalities and sets of experiences. Aim: This study aimed to identify challenges and benefits associated with small group work and to explore options for retaining the positive aspects of group work while reducing or eliminating the aspects the students experienced as negative. Method: Online survey; thematic analysis. Results: Over all, students experienced a range of challenges that necessitated the development of problem-solving strategies. However, they were able to elucidate some enjoyable and positive aspects of group work. Implications for teaching and learning are drawn from this study. Conclusion: The ability to work effectively in small groups and teams is essential for all health care workers in the contemporary health environment. Findings of this study highlight the need for educators to explore novel and effective ways in which to engage nurses in group work.
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Growth effects of exclusive breastfeeding promotion by peer counsellors in sub-Saharan Africa: the cluster-randomised PROMISE EBF trial.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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In this multi-country cluster-randomized behavioural intervention trial promoting exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Africa, we compared growth of infants up to 6 months of age living in communities where peer counsellors promoted EBF with growth in those infants living in control communities.
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Conducting qualitative research in the context of pre-existing peer and collegial relationships.
Nurse Res
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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To highlight issues and challenges faced in recruitment and interviewing during a study that sought to explore the transition of nurses into academic life and the associated ethical implications.
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Determining the frequency, kinds and cues of violence displayed by patients in an acute older person ward environment: findings from an observational study.
Int J Older People Nurs
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Workplace violence is one of the most complex and significant occupational hazards experienced by nurses in healthcare settings. Verbal abuse and physical violence are particularly prevalent in older person assessment wards, owing to the prevalence of illnesses involving cognitive dysfunction; the high frequency and nature of contact with staff; and the frustration caused by high levels of disability.
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Unravelling the complexities of nursing students' feedback on the clinical learning environment: A mixed methods approach.
Nurse Educ Today
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Clinical placement is an essential part of nursing education, and students' experiences on clinical placement can affect the quality of their learning. Understanding nursing students' positive and negative perceptions of clinical placement experience is therefore important.
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A burden of knowledge: A qualitative study of experiences of neonatal intensive care nurses' concerns when keeping information from parents.
J Child Health Care
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Improved life-sustaining technology in the neonatal intensive care has resulted in an increased probability of survival for extremely premature babies. In the neonatal intensive care, the condition of a baby can deteriorate rapidly. Nurses and parents are together for long periods at the bedside and so form close and trusting relationships. Neonatal nurses as the constant caregivers may be presented with contradictory demands in attempting to meet the baby's needs and being a patient and family advocate. This article aims to explore the issues arising for neonatal nurses when holding information about changes to a condition of a baby that they are unable to share with parents. Data were collected via interviews with 24 neonatal nurses in New South Wales, Australia. A qualitative approach was used to analyse the data. The theme 'keeping secrets' was identified and comprised of three sub-themes 'coping with potentially catastrophic news', 'fear of inadvertent disclosure' and 'a burden that could damage trust'. Keeping secrets and withholding information creates internal conflict in the nurses as they balance the principle of confidentiality with the parent's right to know information. The neonatal nurses experienced guilt and shame when they were felt forced by circumstances to keep secrets or withhold information from the parents of extremely premature babies.
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Cues that predict violence in the hospital setting: findings from an observational study.
Collegian
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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The prevalence of violent acts in the health care environment has been the cause of increasing concern. Several cues associated with violence towards nurses in the acute care setting have been identified qualitatively. However, larger scale observational studies to determine the potential of these cues to predict physical violence, are lacking in the acute health setting.
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Identifying factors associated with the uptake of prevention of mother to child HIV transmission programme in Tigray region, Ethiopia: a multilevel modeling approach.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) remains a challenge in low and middle-income countries. Determinants of utilization occur--and often interact--at both individual and community levels, but most studies do not address how determinants interact across levels. Multilevel models allow for the importance of both groups and individuals in understanding health outcomes and provide one way to link the traditionally distinct ecological- and individual-level studies. This study examined individual and community level determinants of mother and child receiving PMTCT services in Tigray region, Ethiopia.
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Looking like a proper baby: nurses' experiences of caring for extremely premature infants.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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To explore the ways in which neonatal nurses draw meaning and deal with the challenges associated with caring for extremely premature babies.
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Social networking for nurse education: Possibilities, perils and pitfalls.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Abstract In this paper, we consider the potential and implications of using social networking sites such as Facebook® in nurse education. The concept of social networking and the use of Facebook will be explored, as will the theoretical constructs specific to the use of online technology and web 2.0 tools. Theories around Communities of Inquiry (Garrison, Anderson & Archer 2000), Communities of Practice (Wenger 1998), Activity Theory (Daniels, Cole & Wertsch 2007) and Actor Network Theory (Latour 1997) will be briefly explored, as will the work of Vygotsky (1978), as applies to the social aspects of learning. Boundary issues, such as if and how faculty and students should or could be connected via social networking sites will also be explored.
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Deriving consensus on the characteristics of advanced practice nursing: meta-summary of more than 2 decades of research.
Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Over recent decades, there has been considerable research and debate about essential features of advanced nursing practice and differences among various categories of advanced practice nurses.
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Suicide of a close family member through the eyes of a child: A narrative case study report.
J Child Health Care
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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A narrative case study approach was used to collect a storied account from Joseph about his recollections and experience of the completed suicide of a family member with whom he lived with at 13 years of age. Data are presented longitudinally to capture Joseph's perceptions and recollections of events leading up to, surrounding and following the suicide. Findings reveal that, as a child Joseph felt strong responsibility to keep his uncle safe and maintain his uncle's life; and perceived a lack of support for himself and his family throughout the events. Today as a young man, Joseph remains profoundly affected by this suicide and the events surrounding it, and experiences flashbacks and intrusive thoughts, though his distress remains largely invisible to others. It is important that the acute and longer term needs of children affected by suicidality and suicide are recognised. We argue that increased awareness on the part of health professionals about the ongoing grief and distress surrounding suicide survivorship can create opportunities for opportunistic assessment and review of child survivor welfare.
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Goodstart: a cluster randomised effectiveness trial of an integrated, community-based package for maternal and newborn care, with prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in a South African township.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Progress towards MDG4 for child survival in South Africa requires effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV including increasing exclusive breastfeeding, as well as a new focus on reducing neonatal deaths. This necessitates increased focus on the pregnancy and early post-natal periods, developing and scaling up appropriate models of community-based care, especially to reach the peri-urban poor.
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Rating and ranking the role of bibliometrics and webometrics in nursing and midwifery.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bibliometrics are an essential aspect of measuring academic and organizational performance. Aim. This review seeks to describe methods for measuring bibliometrics, identify the strengths and limitations of methodologies, outline strategies for interpretation, summarise evaluation of nursing and midwifery performance, identify implications for metric of evaluation, and specify the implications for nursing and midwifery and implications of social networking for bibliometrics and measures of individual performance.
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Costs of promoting exclusive breastfeeding at community level in three sites in South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Community-based peer support has been shown to be effective in improving exclusive breastfeeding rates in a variety of settings.
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Mentoring: Some cautionary notes for the nursing profession.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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Abstract Mentoring has been embraced in nursing as a way of socialising new nurses into the profession, growing and developing nursing talent, and more recently as a way to retain experienced nurses with the current nursing shortage. Much of the extant literature focusses on the benefits of mentoring, differences between formal and informal mentoring, the elements of a successful mentoring relationship, and the characteristics of good mentors and protégées. Until recently the research on mentoring has almost exclusively focused on the positive aspects of mentoring for the protégées, organisations and to a lesser extent, mentors. While viewed by many as a beneficial and enriching developmental experience, it is equally important to recognise that there can be a darker side to the mentoring experience for the mentor and protégée. This paper will explore the negative aspects associated with mentoring and mentoring relationships and provide some cautionary notes for nursing.
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Promoting integrity in the workplace: A priority for all academic health professionals.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Abstract The performance-driven culture of universities challenges faculty to meet workplace expectations. In this paper, we draw on the literature to identify key aspects of, and requirements for, promoting integrity in the academic workplace. Integrity is a crucial personal characteristic that can exert a powerful influence in any setting. Any threat to integrity in the workplace can result in a toxic and corrupt environment that may be deleterious to faculty and students. Such an environment can act to prevent faculty from speaking up about ethical issues or workplace concerns, which can result in failure to identify areas for improvement, continuation of suboptimal practices, and problematic professional relationships. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to present an overview of the concept of integrity in the academic workforce and to discuss some of the issues and dimensions, in the hope of creating greater awareness. This is essential if health professional faculties are to recruit and retain staff and create optimal working environments conducive to facilitating high quality outcomes.
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Using appreciative inquiry to bring neonatal nurses and parents together to enhance family-centred care: A collaborative workshop.
J Child Health Care
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Family-centred care (FCC) has been well recognised, accepted and reported in the literature as an optimised way of caring for hospitalised children. While neonatal units strive to adopt this philosophy, published research suggests there are difficulties implementing FCC principles in daily practice. Appreciative inquiry (AI) is a philosophy and methodology that offers a unique, strength-based approach to promoting organisational learning and positive organisational change. As a participatory approach, AI facilitates change from the ground up and lends itself to building effective partnerships or collaborations. This article reports the findings of a one-day workshop using an AI methodology to bring neonatal nurses and parents together to enhance the FCC within a neonatal intensive care unit in Sydney, Australia. Participants (n = 15) developed collaborative insights of optimal FCC that can be built upon to support neonates and their families in the future. Shared visions were formed, strategies identified and a development plan made for ongoing collaborations and partnerships. AI provides a flexible framework that enables the mandatory collaboration needed to develop action plans that can form the catalyst for organizational change in health-care research and practice.
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Journey to become a nurse leader mentor: past, present and future influences.
Nurs Inq
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2013
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Mentorship, often viewed as a central capacity of leadership, is acknowledged as influential in growing nurse leaders. Mentoring relationships are perceived as empowering connections offering a dynamic guided experience to promote growth and development in personal and professional life. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach informed by Heidegger and Gadamer was used to explore understandings and experiences of mentorship for nurse leadership by 13 Australian nurse leaders. We found that learning and transformation associated with becoming a nurse leader mentor was experienced as an enduring evolutionary process. Participants life journeys provided experiences that developed their understandings and established their personal identity as a leader and mentor. We considered the journey motif in terms of its inextricable connection with lived time and used Heideggers ecstasies of temporality as a lens to understand how the temporal dimensions of past, present and future influenced and shaped the development of nurse leader mentors. We found that our temporal existence influences interpretation of ourselves and the world. Individuals can benefit from multiple separate mentoring interludes, with different mentors, over a lifetime. For some nurses, becoming a leader and mentor is a lifelong transformative process that grows from diverse experience and influential role modelling rather than formal instruction.
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HIV Infection, Viral Load, Low Birth Weight, and Nevirapine Are Independent Influences on Growth Velocity in HIV-Exposed South African Infants.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Data from a prospective multisite cohort study were used to examine the effect of HIV exposure, untreated HIV infection, and single-dose nevirapine on infant growth velocity. The 2009 WHO growth velocity standards constitute a new tool for this type of investigation and are in need of functional validation. In period 1 (3-24 wk), 65 HIV-infected, 502 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU), and 216 HIV-unexposed infants were included. In period 2 (25-36 wk), 31 infants moved from the HEU group to the HIV-infected group. We compared weight velocity Z-scores (WVZ) and length velocity Z-scores (LVZ) by HIV group and assessed their independent influences. In period 1, mean WVZ (95% CI) was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in infected [-0.87 (-1.77, 0.04)] than HEU [0.81 (0.67, 0.94)] and unexposed [0.55 (0.33, 0.78)] infants. LVZ showed similar associations. In both periods, sick infants and those exposed to higher maternal viral loads had lower WVZ. Higher mean LVZ was associated with low birth weight. Infants that had received nevirapine had higher LVZ. In conclusion, HIV infection and not exposure was associated with low WVZ and LVZ in period 1. Eliminating infant HIV infection is a critical component in averting HIV-related poor growth patterns in infants in the first 6 mo of life.
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Personal resilience in nurses and midwives: effects of a work-based educational intervention.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Nurses and midwives commonly face a variety of challenges and difficulties in their everyday work. Stress, pressure, fatigue and anxiety are acknowledged sources of workplace adversity, which causes decreased perceptions of health and wellbeing. This study reports the effects of a work-based, educational intervention to promote personal resilience in a group of 14 nurses and midwives working in a busy clinical environment. The intervention encouraged participants to focus on the key characteristics of a resilient person and the elements that assisted them in their maintenance of personal resilience. The intervention also explored potential strategies for the future. Opportunities were provided for experiential learning, creative self-expression and exposure to new ideas. Primary effects of the intervention were found to benefit the participants in personal and professional areas; by enhanced confidence, self-awareness, assertiveness and self-care. This intervention had implications for the education and practice of nurses and midwives in terms of building and maintaining their personal resilience, especially those exposed to workplace adversity.
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A good day in nursing: views of recent Singaporean graduates.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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This paper arises from the analysis of data from a large Singapore-based survey and a complementary qualitative series of 17 individual interviews. Some results from both arms of the research have been previously analysed and are reported elsewhere. Answers to a series of questions within the questionnaire and the structured interviews have been drawn together under the umbrella of investigating of recent Singaporean graduates views about the characteristics of a good nurse, a good day at work, and how they uphold ethical standards. Overall five themes emerged, these are: caring for others; respectful interpersonal interaction; rational clinical decision-making; the harsh reality of the workplace; and personal qualities (not easily influenced by formal education). Interviewees believed that potential nursing students should be made aware of the harsh realities they will face on graduation, which may seem counter-intuitive. However, graduates recalled their own struggles and perseverance and toughness to simply survive the early months as a key component of transition shock, indicating that an earlier awareness may be beneficial.
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Using appreciative inquiry to transform health care.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Amid tremendous changes in contemporary health care stimulated by shifts in social, economic and political environments, health care managers are challenged to provide new structures and processes to continually improve health service delivery. The general public and the media are becoming less tolerant of poor levels of health care, and health care professionals need to be involved and supported to bring about positive change in health care. Appreciative inquiry (AI) is a philosophy and method for promoting transformational change, shifting from a traditional problem-based orientation to a more strength-based approach to change, that focuses on affirmation, appreciation and positive dialog. This paper discusses how an innovative participatory approach such as AI may be used to promote workforce engagement and organizational learning, and facilitate positive organizational change in a health care context.
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I thought I was just going to teach: stories of new nurse academics on transitioning from sessional teaching to continuing academic positions.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Currently many nursing faculties and schools employ high numbers of sessional teachers to meet the demands of teaching. Sessional teachers are a source for future continuing academic staff; however, there is little exploration on the experiences of sessional teachers as they transition into the full-time nurse academic role. A qualitative study of 14 registered nurse participants used a story-telling approach to explore the experiences of sessional teachers as they transitioned into full-time and continuing academic roles. Findings revealed that participants had only a very limited understanding of the requirements of the academic role when appointed to it. Thematic analysis revealed two major themes. These were: Uncertainty: Dealing with role expectation and Mitigating lack of confidence. The implications of this paper contributes to and enhances knowledge of the transition experiences of sessional teachers and provides new evidence to suggest that adequate support processes are essential for sessional staff transitioning into permanent, full-time academic positions.
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Supporting parents and parenting: An overview of data-based papers recently published in Contemporary Nurse.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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Abstract Nurses have a crucial role in play in supporting parents and in delivering and referring parents to family-support services. In this editorial, we reflect on papers recently published in Contemporary Nurse. We sought to consider data-based papers on parenting published between 2008 and 2012 and elucidate the role/s and potential roles of nurses in enhancing and supporting parenting. Parenting is recognised as a crucial variable for achieving positive outcomes for children (Dawson et al 2012). Poor, inconsistent or abusive parenting is linked to poor outcomes (Griffin et al. 2000, Holt et al.2008, Patterson et al.1989), while consistent and effective parenting is associated with enhanced child outcomes (Lamb 2012, Landry et al.2001). In addition to being important to outcomes for children, perceived parenting quality is also important to parents themselves. Disrupted relationships between parents and their children have been identified as distressing and potentially damaging to both parties (Jackson 2000; East 2006, 2007; Power 2012).
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The challenges of being an insider in storytelling research.
Nurse Res
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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To describe the challenges related to being an insider researcher in a study that uses a feminist-informed storytelling research design and to discuss practical strategies to manage these challenges.
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Electronic portfolios in nursing education: A review of the literature.
Nurse Educ Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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As health professionals, nurses are responsible for staying abreast of current professional knowledge and managing their own career, professional growth and development, and ideally, practices to support these activities should start during their student years. Interest in electronic or eportfolios is gathering momentum as educationalists explore their potential as a strategy for fostering lifelong learning and enhancing on-going personal and professional development. In this paper, we present an overview of e-portfolios and their application to nurse education, highlighting potential benefits and considerations of useage. We argue that the e-portfolio can represent an authentic means of assessing cognitive, reflective and affective skills. Furthermore, the e-portfolio provides a means through which nurses can record and provide evidence of skills, achievements, experience, professional development and on-going learning, not only for themselves, but for the information and scrutiny of registration boards, employers, managers and peers.
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Community-based interventions to promote management for older people: an integrative review.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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To review community programmes promoting self-care or self-management for older people with chronic disease in Thailand.
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Effect of home based HIV counselling and testing intervention in rural South Africa: cluster randomised trial.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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To assess the effect of home based HIV counselling and testing on the prevalence of HIV testing and reported behavioural changes in a rural subdistrict of South Africa.
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Marginalised mothers: lesbian women negotiating heteronormative healthcare services.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Lesbian mothers share mainstream existence with other mothers by virtue of their motherhood, but remain marginalised by their non-heterosexual identity. This paper will draw on the qualitative findings of a recent Australian study that examined the experiences of lesbian mothers. Using a story-sharing method, data were collected using three methods; a demographic data sheet, in-depth semi-structured interviews and journaling. The findings demonstrated that participants experienced various forms of homophobia when interfacing with healthcare services and providers and included exclusion, heterosexual assumption, inappropriate questioning and refusal of services. Strategies used to avoid homophobia included screening and crusading.
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Caring for vulnerable children: challenges of mothering in the Australian foster care system.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Foster carers have a significant responsibility in caring for vulnerable children. In order to support and facilitate foster carers it is important to understand how they perceive and fulfil this responsibility. A qualitative story-telling study, informed by feminist perspectives, was used to conduct in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 20 women providing long-term foster care in Australia. Thematic analysis revealed these women characterised themselves as mothers, rather than paid carers, to the long-term foster children in their care. Using this maternal self-perception as the starting point, this paper reveals some of the challenges and difficulties participants encountered when mothering within the confines of the child protection system. Implications for nursing practice are discussed. These implications focus on ways that nurses can effectively support foster carers, thus optimising the health and well-being of the vulnerable children in their care.
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The primary health care service experiences and needs of homeless youth: a narrative synthesis of current evidence.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Homeless youth are a growing, vulnerable population with specific primary health care (PHC) requirements. There are no systematic reviews of evidence to guide the delivery of PHC interventions to best address the needs of homeless youth in Australia. We present a narrative synthesis of peer reviewed research designed to determine: (1) the PHC services homeless youth access; (2) experiences of services, reported outcomes and barriers to use; and, (3) the PHC service needs of homeless youth. Findings show that homeless youth access a variety of services and delivery approaches. Increased PHC use is associated with youth who recognise they need help. Street-based clinic linked services and therapy and case management alongside improved housing can positively impact upon mental health and substance use outcomes. Barriers to service use include knowledge; provider attitudes, financial constraints and inappropriate environments. Findings support targetted, co-ordinated networks of PHC and housing services with nurses working alongside community workers.
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Quality of home-based rapid HIV testing by community lay counsellors in a rural district of South Africa.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Introduction: Lack of universal, annual testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in health facilities suggests that expansion of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) to non-clinical settings is critical to the achievement of national goals for prevention, care and treatment. Consideration should be given to the ability of lay counsellors to perform home-based HTC in community settings. Methods: We implemented a community cluster randomized controlled trial of home-based HTC in Sisonke District, South Africa. Trained lay counsellors conducted door-to-door HIV testing using the same rapid tests used by the local health department at the time of the study (SD Bioline and Sensa). To monitor testing quality and counsellor skill, additional dry blood spots were taken and sent for laboratory-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the laboratory result as the gold standard. Results and discussion: From 3986 samples, the counsellor and laboratory results matched in all but 23 cases. In 18 cases, the counsellor judged the result as indeterminate, whereas the laboratory judged 10 positive, eight negative and three indeterminate, indicating that the counsellor may have erred on the side of caution. Sensitivity was 98.0% (95% CI: 96.3-98.9%), and specificity 99.6% (95% CI: 99.4-99.7%), for the lay counsellor field-based rapid tests. Both measures are high, and the lower confidence bound for specificity meets the international standard for assessing HIV rapid tests. Conclusions: These findings indicate that adequately trained lay counsellors are capable of safely conducting high-quality rapid HIV tests and interpreting the results as per the kit guidelines. These findings are important given the likely expansion of community and home-based testing models and the shortage of clinically trained professional staff.
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Recent graduate nurse views of nursing, work and leadership.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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To assess recent nurse graduates of a large university and seeks their views of university preparation, requisite nursing skills and qualities, workplace transition, supports received, nurse leadership and role models, and career development and retention.
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Hostile clinician behaviours in the nursing work environment and implications for patient care: a mixed-methods systematic review.
BMC Nurs
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Although there is a sizeable body of evidence regarding the nature of hostile behaviours among clinicians in the nursing workplace, what is less clear is the nature of the relationship between these behaviours and patient care. To inform the development of appropriate intervention strategies we examine the level of evidence detailing the relationships between hostile clinician behaviours and patient care.
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Events prior to completed suicide: perspectives of family survivors.
Issues Ment Health Nurs
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Relatively little is known about the experiences of those bereaved by suicide, particularly in the weeks leading to the death of a loved one. This study used a qualitative methodology to explore the perspectives of close survivors of a completed suicide. Ten people who were bereaved by suicide participated in face-to-face interviews that were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed. Analysis revealed the following three themes: He Tried to Hang Himself: Purposeful indications of the intent to end life; They Still Ignored It: Disappointment with health services; and Nobody Talked to Me: Exclusion of family members from treatment information. Prior to the suicide of their loved one, participants had identified that the loved one was at risk and perceived they were unable to acquire appropriate assistance from services. Rather, services were perceived by participants as unsupportive and inadequate. Health and social service professionals could benefit from further specialised education concerning suicide and its sequelae to ensure more effective and sensitive care delivery to suicide survivors.
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Nursing on television: student perceptions of televisions role in public image, recruitment and education.
J Adv Nurs
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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To explore nursing students perceptions of how their profession is portrayed on medical television programmes.
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Practicing nurses perspectives of clinical scholarship: a qualitative study.
BMC Nurs
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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There is a scarcity of research published on clinical scholarship. Much of the conceptualisation has been conducted in the academy. Nurse academics espouse that the practice of nursing must be built within a framework of clinical scholarship. A key concept of clinical scholarship emerging from discussions in the literature is that it is an essential component of enabling evidence-based nursing and the development of best practice standards to provide for the needs of patients/clients. However, there is no comprehensive definition of clinical scholarship from the practicing nurses. The aim of this study was to contribute to this definitional discussion on the nature of clinical scholarship in nursing.
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Testing Together Challenges the Relationship: Consequences of HIV Testing as a Couple in a High HIV Prevalence Setting in Rural South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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We conducted qualitative individual and combined interviews with couples to explore their experiences since the time of taking an HIV test and receiving the test result together, as part of a home-based HIV counselling and testing intervention.
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Marking out the clinical expert/clinical leader /clinical scholar: perspectives from nurses in the clinical arena.
BMC Nurs
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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BACKGROUND: Clinical scholarship has been conceptualised and theorised in the nursing literature for over 30 years but no research has captured nurses clinicians views on how it differs or is the same as clinical expertise and clinical leadership. The aim of this study was to determine clinical nurses understanding of the differences and similarities between the clinical expert, clinical leader and clinical scholar. METHODS: A descriptive interpretative qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with 18 practising nurses from Australia, Canada and England. The audio-taped interviews were transcribed and the text coded for emerging themes. The themes were sorted into categories of clinical expert, clinical leader and clinical scholarship as described by the participants. These themes were then compared and contrasted and the essential elements that characterise the nursing roles of the clinical expert, clinical leader and clinical scholar were identified. RESULTS: Clinical experts were seen as linking knowledge to practice with some displaying clinical leadership and scholarship. Clinical leadership is seen as a positional construct with a management emphasis. For the clinical scholar they linked theory and practice and encouraged research and dissemination of knowledge. CONCLUSION: There are distinct markers for the roles of clinical expert, clinical leader and clinical scholar. Nurses working in one or more of these roles need to work together to improve patient care. An ideal nurse may be a blending of all three constructs. As nursing is a practice discipline its scholarship should be predominantly based on clinical scholarship. Nurses need to be encouraged to go beyond their roles as clinical leaders and experts to use their position to challenge and change through the propagation of knowledge to their community.
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Views and experiences of mental health nurses working with undergraduate assistants in nursing in an acute mental health setting.
Int J Ment Health Nurs
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2011
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Undergraduate nurses are employed as assistants in nursing (AIN) in inpatient mental health settings; however, there is a paucity of published research exploring registered nurses (RN) views about the AIN role in these settings. This qualitative study documents the views and experiences of RN working with undergraduate AIN. Fifty structured face-to-face interviews were analysed, and the results are discussed in three sections. The first section outlines RN perceptions of qualities and skills required of AIN in mental health, and the responses primarily focus on communication skills, initiative, and willingness to learn. The second section targets factors in the workplace that might enhance the interest of AIN in a mental health nursing career; the responses emphasize their need to work with experienced staff. The last section outlines RN expectations of AIN, most of which are met and involve physical observations and technical tasks; less fulfilled activities primarily cluster around interactions with patients. Findings highlight the advantages and disadvantages of drawing on undergraduate nursing students as AIN in mental health settings. Communication skills, personal initiative, safety training to prevent violence, and education to increase knowledge and awareness about mental illness, diagnosis, and mental status-related skills were all important concerns articulated by RN.
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Separation, failure and temporary relinquishment: womens experiences of early mothering in the context of emergency hysterectomy.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2011
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To describe the experiences of women who have had an emergency hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage and the impact on their early mothering experiences.
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Suffering and smiling: West African immigrant womens experience of intimate partner violence.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2011
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This study reports the intimate partner violence experiences of West African women living in Australia.
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Management and leadership in nursing: an Australian educational perspective.
J Nurs Manag
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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In this article, we present an Australian perspective on issues influencing management and leadership education in nursing.
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Interviewing people about potentially sensitive topics.
Nurse Res
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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This paper explores the challenges of interviewing people about sensitive topics. It uses existing literature and the first authors experience of interviewing women traumatised by having an emergency hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage. It also highlights the strategies that can assist interviews.
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Demystifying PhDs: a review of doctorate programs designed to fulfil the needs of the next generation of nursing professionals.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2011
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Commonly, the expression PhD evokes a level of trepidation amongst potential candidates from both the clinical and academic spheres. In contemporary settings, a Doctor of Philosophy is highly regarded and increasingly necessary for a successful academic nursing career. The aim of this paper is to explore the options for doctoral education for nurses, and consider the role of the doctorate in career planning for nursing, and in the attainment of career goals. Here we discuss some key issues and practicalities including career planning, selecting a doctoral program, choosing a university, supervision, committees and panels, achieving a work-life balance and dealing with conflict. The PhD process should be an enriching and satisfying experience which may lead to enhanced professional and personal growth; however, there are potential pitfalls that nurses should be aware of before embarking on doctoral training. Future studies are needed to assess the impact of the different doctorates offered to see if, in fact, they are advancing nursing practice and research endeavours.
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The stigma of being a long-term foster carer.
J Fam Nurs
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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Stigma is a powerful social phenomenon with insidious health implications. Understanding stigma as it applies to various populations is imperative for nurses as it enables nurses to enhance individual patient care and nurses are well positioned to influence both social and health care policies which may exacerbate the experience of stigma. This article is a report of a study to explore the experiences of women who provide long-term foster care. Interviews were conducted with 20 women who provided long-term foster care in Australia. Data were coded according to the components of stigma described by Link and Phelan (2001). Findings reveal participants rejected the label of foster carer to avoid the negative stereotype. When unable to conceal their foster carer label, participants experienced social isolation and status loss. Moreover, participants felt marginalized and disempowered within the governing systems.
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Pathways of care-seeking during fatal infant illnesses in under-resourced South African settings.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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The purpose of this study was to examine care-seeking during fatal infant illnesses in under-resourced South African settings to inform potential strategies for reducing infant mortality. We interviewed 22 caregivers of deceased infants in a rural community and 28 in an urban township. We also interviewed seven local leaders and 12 health providers to ascertain opinions about factors contributing to infant death. Despite the availability of free public health services in these settings, many caregivers utilized multiple sources of care including allopathic, indigenous and home treatments. Urban caregivers reported up to eight points of care while rural caregivers reported up to four points of care. The specific pathways taken and combinations of care varied, but many caregivers used other types of care shortly after presenting at public services, indicating dissatisfaction with the care they received. Many infants died despite caregivers considerable efforts, pointing to critical deficiencies in the system of care serving these families. Initiatives that aim to improve assessment, management and referral practices by both allopathic and traditional providers (for example, through training and improved collaboration), and caregiver recognition of infant danger signs may reduce the high rate of infant death in these settings.
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Surviving the adversity of childlessness: fostering resilience in couples.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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In contemporary Western society, infertility has the capacity to impact greatly on couples, emotionally and socially. In the face of such infertility, couples are able to seek assisted reproductive technologies to assist in the pursuit of biological parenthood. These technologies are not infallible though, and the likelihood of success remains small. Therefore it is inevitable that some couples will remain childless, and this has been associated with grief and adversity. Findings present the narratives of participant couples through and beyond the many adversities encountered due to remaining childless despite infertility treatment. Regardless of theories that seek to pathologise couples experiencing this type of adversity, participant couples demonstrated resilience in redirecting their energies into areas of their lives where they could achieve positive outcomes. This research highlights the importance of caring for couples rather than individuals undergoing infertility treatment. It provides support for approaches that foster couples relationships with the aim of promoting individuals resilience.
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Social support for mothers in illness: a multifaceted phenomenon.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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Many women privilege the mothering role over other areas of their lives, and for ill women, it can be difficult to relinquish maternal responsibility. Not being able to mother in their usual way can have consequences for womens wellbeing and view of themselves as good mothers.
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Influences on healthcare-seeking during final illnesses of infants in under-resourced South African settings.
J Health Popul Nutr
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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To examine how health caregivers in under-resourced South African settings select from among the healthcare alternatives available to them during the final illness of their infants. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 39 caregivers of deceased infants in a rural community and an urban township. Nineteen local health providers and community leaders were also interviewed to ascertain opinions about local healthcare and other factors impacting healthcare-seeking choices. The framework analysis method guided qualitative analysis of data. Limited autonomy of caregivers in decision-making, lack of awareness of infant danger-signs, and identification of an externalizing cause of illness were important influences on healthcare-seeking during illnesses of infants in these settings. Health system factors relating to the performance of health workers and the accessibility and availability of services also influenced healthcare-seeking decisions. Although South African public-health services are free, the findings showed that poor families faced other financial constraints that impacted their access to healthcare. Often there was not one factor but a combination of factors occurring either concurrently or sequentially that determined whether, when, and from where outside healthcare was sought during final illnesses of infants. In addition to reducing health system barriers to healthcare, initiatives to improve timely and appropriate healthcare-seeking for sick infants must take into consideration ways to mitigate contextual problems, such as limited autonomy of caregivers in decision-making, and reconcile local explanatory models of childhood illnesses that may not encourage healthcare-seeking at allopathic services.
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Trends in publication of research papers by Australian-based nurse authors.
Collegian
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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Analysis of Australian nursing research output is becoming more important as academic institutions move into implementing quality programs of research output. Notable in determining research quality is the publication of research papers in journals with a high ranking within the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) or Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA). This paper reports an analysis of Australian nurse researcher output in journals highly ranked by the ISI and ERA. Research abstracts were analysed for topic, sources of data, location of research and methodological paradigm. A total of 530 articles from five Australian and from five USA and UK journals were analysed. There was an increase in output from the period of prior analyses in 2000. Practice issues are the most common topic followed closely by nurse education. While most studies used nurses as sources of data there were more studies in which consumers of nursing care were the point of inquiry. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were utilised. Given the importance of rationalising nursing practice and adding new knowledge to evidence based care, it is imperative for the nursing profession to disseminate research findings. Failure to do this may result in poor return in investment outcomes for the future of nursing in Australia and internationally.
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Nurses involved in whistleblowing incidents: sequelae for their families.
Collegian
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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Nurses involved in whistleblowing often face economic and emotional retaliation, victimization and abuse. Yet for many nurses, one major part of their whistleblowing experience is the negative impact it has on their families. This paper reports findings from a qualitative study pertaining to the effects of whistleblowing on family life from the perspective of the nurses. Using a narrative inquiry approach, fourteen nurses were interviewed who were directly involved in whistleblowing complaints. Data analysis drew out three themes: strained relationships with family members, dislocation of family life, and exposing family to public scrutiny. The harm caused to the nurses involved in a whistleblowing event is not restricted to one party but to all those involved, as the harrowing experience and its consequences are echoed in the family life as well. It is important for organizations to seek strategies that will minimize the harmful effects on nurses families during whistleblowing events.
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Leadership and mental health nursing.
Issues Ment Health Nurs
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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This discussion paper argues for the critical importance of successful leadership for effective mental health nursing, observing that nursing leadership has long been regarded problematically by the profession. Using empirical and theoretical evidence we debate what leadership styles and strategies are most likely to result in effective, recovery-orientated mental health nursing. Models of transformational and distributed leadership are found to be highly congruent with mental health nursing values, yet the literature suggests it is a type of leadership more often desired than experienced. We note how the scholarly literature tends to ignore the "elephant in the room" that is organizational power, and we question whether transformational leadership pursued within a specific clinical context can influence beyond those confines. Nevertheless it is within these contexts that consumers experience nursing, effective or otherwise, thus we should advocate what is known about effective leadership wherever it is required.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.