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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
In vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging of breast carcinoma with folate receptor-targeted indocyanine green nanoprobes.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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As an optical-acoustic hybrid imaging technology, photoacoustic imaging uniquely combines the advantages of rich optical contrast with high ultrasonic resolution in depth, opening up many new possibilities not attainable with conventional pure optical imaging technologies. To perform photoacoustic molecular imaging, optically absorbing exogenous contrast agents are needed to enhance the signals from specifically targeted disease activity. In this work, we designed and developed folate receptor targeted, indocyanine green dye doped poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) lipid nanoparticles (FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs) for molecular photoacoustic imaging of tumor. The fabricated FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs exhibited good aqueous stability, a high folate-receptor targeting efficiency, and remarkable optical absorption in near-infrared wavelengths, providing excellent photoacoustic signals in vitro. Furthermore, after intravenous administration of FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, mice bearing MCF-7 breast carcinomas showed significantly enhanced photoacoustic signals in vivo in the tumor regions, compared with those using non-targeted ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs. Given the existing wide clinical use of ICG and PLGA, the developed FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, in conjunction with photoacoustic imaging technology, offer a great potential to be translated into the clinic for non-ionizing molecular imaging of breast cancer in vivo.
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Tuning aluminum spatial distribution in ZSM-5 membranes: a new strategy to fabricate high performance and stable zeolite membranes for dehydration of acetic acid.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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A novel ZSM-5 membrane with a low Si/Al ratio and homogeneous aluminum spatial distribution was achieved from an organic template-free inorganic gel in the presence of both OH(-) and F(-) ions and the obtained ZSM-5 membrane exhibited excellent selectivity and high flux and stability for dehydration of acetic acid in a wide AcOH content range.
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Protective effects of grape seed extract fractions with different degrees of polymerisation on blood glucose, lipids and hepatic oxidative stress in diabetic rats.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of grape seed procyanidin (GSPE) fractions with different degrees of polymerisation (DPs) on blood glucose, lipids and hepatic oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats received a daily oral supplement of GSPE with different DPs for 6 weeks. During this period, blood glucose, body weight and food intake were assessed weekly. At the end of the experiment, serum lipid and hepatic oxidative stress were assessed compared with those of rats that did not receive GSPE. GSPE significantly decreased blood glucose, serum lipids and hepatic oxidative stress. Moreover, these effects were significantly better in the groups administered the oligomeric rather than the polymeric forms. These results demonstrate that GSPE has a positive effect on diabetes in rats, and the oligomeric form of GSPE may be more protective than other forms.
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Effect of TiO2 microbead pore size on the performance of DSSCs with a cobalt based electrolyte.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Mesoporous TiO2 microbeads with well-defined intra-bead pore sizes (14 nm, 23 nm or 33 nm) were employed to investigate the effect of pore size on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells constructed with an organic dye (MK2) and a [Co(bpy)3](2+/3+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine)-based electrolyte. The TiCl4 post treatment and film thickness were optimized for the TiO2 electrodes made from beads with 33 nm intra-bead pores, and an overall energy conversion efficiency of 8.5% was achieved for a device with a 6.5 ?m thick TiO2 film treated with a 20 mM TiCl4 solution. Although beads with larger pores had a smaller specific surface area, devices derived from these beads produced better photovoltaic performance. This is attributed to the improved diffusion of cobalt species inside the working electrode, as evidenced by a higher electron lifetime and dye regeneration rate recorded on these solar cells.
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[Effects of cetylpyridinium chloride buccal tablets on halitosis induced by oral conditions].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To investigate the effect of cetylpyridinium chloride buccal tablets on halitosis induced by oral conditions.
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[Effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on bone metastasis of lung cancer cells in mice].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To investigate the effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) (PTH) on tumor growth in a mouse model of lung cancer with bone metastasis.
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[RGD peptide-modified chitosan as a gene carrier of implant surface].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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This study is conducted to explore new methods to perform surface biomodification of titanium implants and improve osteogenic efficiency.
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Prevalence and risk factors of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with overweight/obese in Guangdong province, China.
Prim Care Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with overweight or obese in Guangdong province in China.
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Preparation and antitumor effect of a toxin-linked conjugate targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and urokinase plasminogen activator.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The aberrant signaling activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a common characteristic of many tumors, including lung cancer. Accordingly, VEGFR and uPA have emerged as attractive targets for tumor. KDR (Flk-1/VEGFR-2), a member of the VEGFR family, has been recognized as an important target for antiangiogenesis in tumor. In this study, a recombinant immunotoxin was produced to specifically target KDR-expressing tumor vascular endothelial cells and uPA-expressing tumor cells and mediate antitumor angiogenesis and antitumor effect. Based on its potent inhibitory effect on protein synthesis, Luffin-beta (L?) ribosome-inactivating protein was selected as part of a recombinant fusion protein, a single-chain variable fragment against KDR (KDRscFv)-uPA cleavage site (uPAcs)-L?-KDEL (named as KPLK). The KDRscFv-uPAcs-L?-KDEL (KPLK) contained a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) against KDR, uPAcs, L?, and the retention signal for endoplasmic reticulum proteins KDEL (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu). The KPLK-expressing vector was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the KPLK protein was isolated with nickel affinity chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis test demonstrated KPLK was effectively expressed. Result of in vitro cell viability assay on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H460 cell line (uPA-positive cell) revealed that KPLK significantly inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and accumulated cells in S and G2/M phases, but the normal cell line (human submandibular gland cell) was unaffected. These effects were enhanced when uPA was added to digest KPLK to release L?. For in vivo assay of KPLK, subcutaneous xenograft tumor model of nude mice were established with H460 cells. Growth of solid tumors was significantly inhibited in animals treated with KPLK up to 21 days, tumor weights were decreased, and the expression of angiogenesis marker CD31 was downregulated; meanwhile, the apoptosis-related protein casspase-3 was upregulated. These results suggested that the recombinant KPLK may have therapeutic applications on tumors, especially uPA-overexpressing ones.
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Hierarchically porous titania networks with tunable anatase:rutile ratios and their enhanced photocatalytic activities.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Mixed-phase hierarchically porous titania networks (PTNs) with 3D interconnected porous frameworks and tunable rutile contents have been synthesized via a facile sol-gel templating and calcination process. The products were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen gas sorption analysis, and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by measuring the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue, a typical effluent from the textile industry, under UV light illumination. The hierarchically macro-/mesoporous titania structure formed after templating followed by calcination in air. The reduced interfaces between titania nanocrystals in these PTN materials can significantly decrease interface nucleation of the rutile phase and effectively retard the anatase to rutile phase transformation, therefore giving rise to porous titania photocatalysts featuring tunable rutile ratios (from 0 to 100 wt %), reduced crystal sizes, hierarchically porous structure, and relatively high specific surface areas (up to 71.0 m(2) g(-1)). The photocatalytic performance of the materials was correlated to the anatase:rutile ratio and specific surface area of the materials, with the mixed-phase (rutile content of 15.4%) nanocrystalline titania calcined at 600 °C for 6 h showing the highest photocatalytic activity. This study demonstrates that a substantial improvement in photocatalytic activity of the titania can be achieved by controlling morphology and carefully tuning phase composition via a feasible solid-state phase transformation at a relatively low temperature (600 °C). This concept for the rational design and development of high-performance photocatalysts using an industrially simple process would be capable of mass production.
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[Ultrasound-guided focused ultrasound ablation of intramural, submucosal and subserosal uterine fibroids: 12-month follow-up results].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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To evaluate the effect of ultrasound-guided focused ultrasound ablation (US-FUA) in the treatment of intramural, submucosal and subserosal uterine fibroids.
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Optimization of spectral printer modeling based on a modified cellular Yule-Nielsen spectral Neugebauer model.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The study presented here optimizes several steps in the spectral printer modeling workflow based on a cellular Yule-Nielsen spectral Neugebauer (CYNSN) model. First, a printer subdividing method was developed that reduces the number of sub-models while maintaining the maximum device gamut. Second, the forward spectral prediction accuracy of the CYNSN model for each subspace of the printer was improved using back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) estimated n values. Third, a sequential gamut judging method, which clearly reduced the complexity of the optimal sub-model and cell searching process during printer backward modeling, was proposed. After that, we further modified the use of the modeling color metric and comprehensively improved the spectral and perceptual accuracy of the spectral printer model. The experimental results show that the proposed optimization approaches provide obvious improvements in aspects of the modeling accuracy or efficiency for each of the corresponding steps, and an overall improvement of the optimized spectral printer modeling workflow was also demonstrated.
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[Effect of activating Toll-like receptor 4 on renin-angiotensin system in 3T3-L1 adipose cells].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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To investigate the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in the activation of rennin- angiotensin system (RAS) in adipose cells.
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Nuclear translocation of CBP/p300-interacting protein CITED1 induced by parathyroid hormone requires serine phosphorylation at position 79 in its 63-84 domain.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The transcriptional cofactor CITED1 inhibits osteoblastic differentiation and blunts the stimulation of osteoblastic differentiation by parathyroid hormone (PTH). In the MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell line, we found that CITED1 was located predominantly in the cytoplasm and that hPTH(1-34) increased translocation of CITED1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. This response to hPTH(1-34) was not observed when all 9 serine residues within the 63-84 domain of CITED1 were mutated to alanines (CITED1 9S>A) or when a single serine to alanine mutation was made at position 79 (CITED1 S(79)>A). CITED1 containing mutations of these 9 serines to glutamic acid (9S>E) retained the same nuclear translocation response to hPTH(1-34) as the wild type CITED1. ALP activity and formation of mineralized nodules were inhibited in cells transfected with pcDNA3-CFP-CITED1 or with pcDNA3-CFP-CITED1 9S>E with or without hPTH(1-34) treatment (all P<0.05); these changes were not observed using CITED1 9S>A. Cells exposed to intermittent treatment with hPTH(1-34) expressed more ALP2, Runx2 and osteocalcin than vehicle-treated cells. These effects of hPTH(1-34) were inhibited in cells transfected with pcDNA3-CFP-CITED1 or pcDNA3-CFP-CITED1 9S>E, but were slightly enhanced by the alanine mutants. PKC activator (TPA) increased nuclear translocation of CITED1, whereas a PKC inhibitor (Go6983) blunted the effect of hPTH(1-34) on the nuclear translocation of wildtype CITED1 but not of CITED1 S(79)>E. The data indicated that serine phosphorylation at position 79 in the 63-84 domain is associated with PKC activation, and is required for both CITED1 nuclear translocation induced by PTH and the negative effects of CITED1 on osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization.
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State feedback integral control for a rotary direct drive servo valve using a Lyapunov function approach.
ISA Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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This paper concerns a state feedback integral control using a Lyapunov function approach for a rotary direct drive servo valve (RDDV) while considering parameter uncertainties. Modeling of this RDDV servovalve reveals that its mechanical performance is deeply influenced by friction torques and flow torques; however, these torques are uncertain and mutable due to the nature of fluid flow. To eliminate load resistance and to achieve satisfactory position responses, this paper develops a state feedback control that integrates an integral action and a Lyapunov function. The integral action is introduced to address the nonzero steady-state error; in particular, the Lyapunov function is employed to improve control robustness by adjusting the varying parameters within their value ranges. This new controller also has the advantages of simple structure and ease of implementation. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed controller can achieve higher control accuracy and stronger robustness.
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[Bone metastasis of lung cancer in a mouse model with normal immune function].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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To establish a model bearing human lung cancer xenograft with bone metastasis in mice with normal immune function.
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[Prognostic significance of mutually exclusive expression of ERG and SPINK1 in endocrine-treated prostatic cancer].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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To study the expression and prognostic significance of ERG and SPINK1 expression in endocrine-treated prostatic cancer.
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Facile method to stain the bacterial cell surface for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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A method to fluorescently stain the surfaces of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cells compatible with super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is presented. This method utilizes a commercially-available fluorescent probe to label primary amines at the surface of the cell. We demonstrate efficient staining of two bacterial strains, the Gram-negative Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis 168. Using structured illumination microscopy and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, which require high quantum yield or specialized dyes, we show that this staining method may be used to resolve the bacterial cell surface with sub-diffraction-limited resolution. We further use this method to identify localization patterns of nanomaterials, specifically cadmium selenide quantum dots, following interaction with bacterial cells.
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Automatic Classification of Intracardiac Tumor and Thrombi in Echocardiography based on Sparse Representation.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Identification of intracardiac masses in echocardiograms is one important task in cardiac disease diagnosis. To improve diagnosis accuracy, a novel fully automatic classification method based on the sparse representation is proposed to distinguish intracardiac tumor and thrombi in echocardiography. Firstly, a region-of-interest is cropped to define the mass area. Then, a unique globally denoising method is employed to remove the speckle and preserve the anatomical structure. Subsequently, the contour of the mass and its connected atrial wall are described by the K-singular value decomposition and a modified active contour model. Finally, the motion, the boundary as well as the texture features are processed by a sparse representation classifier to distinguish two masses. 97 clinical echocardiogram sequences are collected to assess the effectiveness. Compared with other state-of-the-art classifiers, our proposed method demonstrates the best performance by achieving an accuracy of 96.91%, a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 93.02%. It explicates that our method is capable of classifying intracardiac tumor and thrombi in echocardiography, potentially to assist the cardiologists in the clinical practice.
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A comparison of nifedipine and tamsulosin as medical expulsive therapy for the management of lower ureteral stones without ESWL.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Administration of nifedipine or tamsulosin has been suggested to augment stone expulsion rates. We aimed to compare the stone expulsion rates and adverse effects associated with the use of nifedipine or tamsulosin as medical expulsive therapy (MET) for the management of lower ureteral stones (LUS) without extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) via a literature review and meta-analysis. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Google Scholar databases. Finally, a total of 7 RCTs with 3897 patients were included. Our meta-analysis showed that tamsulosin could significantly increase the stone expulsion rate relative to nifedipine in patients with LUS (random-effects model; risk ratio [RR] = 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75-0.88; P < 0.00001). The subgroup analysis indicated no statistically significant difference between the drugs with regard to minor or major adverse effects (fixed-effect model; RR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.91-1.54, P = 0.20; and RR = 1.63, 95% CI = 0.22-11.82, P = 0.63, respectively). This meta-analysis demonstrated that tamsulosin was more effective than nifedipine in patients with LUS, as evidenced by the higher stone expulsion rate. Tamsulosin treatment should therefore be considered for patients with LUS.
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[CT angiography features of the involved arterial branches of the spontaneous isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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To explore the CT angiography features of the involved arterial branches of the spontaneous isolated superior mesentery artery dissection(SISMAD).
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The clinical utility of circulating tumor cells in breast cancer patients: detection by a quantitative assay of h-MAM gene expression.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate tumor markers of molecular abnormalities that display tissue specificity, as to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in breast cancer patients. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to determine h-MAM, BCSG1, CK19, and c-erbB2 mRNA levels in peripheral blood (PB) of breast cancer patients. Results were compared with other epithelial cancers (lung or esophagus cancer), benign breast disease, and healthy individuals. We found that h-MAM mRNA was only detectable in the PB of patients with breast cancer (49 of 65, 75.4%), but not in patients with other epithelial cancers, benign breast disease, or healthy individuals. No significant differences in the expression level and positive detection rate of BCSG1, CK19, and c-erbB2 mRNA were observed between breast cancer and other epithelial cancers. Furthermore, the expression level and positive detection rate of h-MAM mRNA in PB were significantly correlated to the breast cancer pathologic stage (p=0.012 and p=0.015, respectively). Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or total tumor resection (after 7 days of treatment) resulted in a significant decrease in the expression level of h-MAM mRNA in PB compared to the levels prior to the treatment (p<0.001). Importantly, an increase in h-MAM mRNA expression was detected in patients immediately after surgery, as well as 3 days post-surgery. These results indicate that the quantitative analysis of h-MAM mRNA is a useful tool for detecting CTCs in breast cancer patients, and can have a potential diagnostic utility in early micrometastasis, clinical evaluation of cancer treatment efficacy, and post-treatment monitoring of breast cancer patients.
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GLP-1 ameliorates the proliferation activity of INS-1 cells inhibited by intermittent high glucose concentrations through the regulation of cyclins.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its analog exendin (EX)-4 have been considered to promote ?-cell growth and expansion. In the present, study we investigated the effect of GLP-1 on proliferative activity and cell cycle regulation in the pancreatic insulin-secreting ?-cell line, INS-1, treated with intermittent high glucose. INS-1 cells were treated with normal glucose (5.5 mmol/l), constant high glucose (30 mmol/l) and intermittent high glucose (rotation/24 h in 5.5 or 30 mmol/l) in the presence or absence of GLP-1 (100 nmol/l) for seven days. Proliferative activity, cell cycle and the expression of cyclin D1, p21, p27 and Skp2 were examined. INS-1 treated with intermittent high glucose and GLP-1 demonstrated a significant increase in proliferation activity (1.45±0.12; P<0.01) and decreased cell proportion in G0/G1 phase (49.73±4.04%, P<0.01) compared with those without GLP-1. Furthermore, the expression levels of cyclin D1 and Skp2 were increased, while the expression of p27 and p21 were significantly reduced. Similar results were identified in those treated with constant high glucose and GLP-1. These results suggest that GLP-1 may ease the G0/G1 cell cycle arrest of INS-1 cells induced by intermittent high glucose by upregulating the expression of cyclin D1 and Skp2, downregulating the expression of p21 and p27, and finally promoting the cell cycle progression and proliferation activity.
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[Correlation between adipocytokines levels and metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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To study the correlation between adipocytokines levels and metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
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A highly permeable and selective amino-functionalized MOF CAU-1 membrane for CO2-N2 separation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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A thin tubular CAU-1 membrane of 2-3 ?m exhibiting a high CO2 permeance of up to 1.34 × 10(-6) mol m(-2) s(-1) Pa(-1) and a CO2-N2 selectivity of 17.4-22.8 for CO2-N2 mixtures was achieved, demonstrating for the first time that amino-functionalized MOF membranes can provide high CO2-N2 selectivity and possess the potential for CO2 capture from flue gas.
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Betanin attenuates paraquat-induced liver toxicity through a mitochondrial pathway.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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We attempted to determine whether betanin (from natural pigments) that has anti-oxidant properties would be protective against paraquat-induced liver injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. Paraquat was injected intraperitoneally into rats to induce liver toxicity. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a paraquat group, and two groups that received betanin at doses of 25 and 100mg/kg/day three days before and two days after they were administered paraquat. We evaluated liver histopathology, serum liver enzymatic activities, oxidative stress, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A2 mRNA expression, and mitochondrial damage. The rats that were injected with paraquat incurred liver injury, evidenced by histological changes and elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels; paraquat also led to oxidative stress, an increase of cytochrome P450 3A2 mRNA expression, and mitochondrial damage, indicated by mitochondrial membrane swelling, reduced mitochondrial cytochrome C, and apoptosis-inducing factor protein levels. Pathological damage and all of the above mentioned markers were lesser in the animals treated with betanin than in those who received paraquat alone. Betanin had a protective effect against paraquat-induced liver damage in rats. The mechanism of the protection appears to be the inhibition of CYP 3A2 expression and protection of mitochondria.
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Structural characterization and DPPH· radical scavenging activity of a polysaccharide from Guara fruits.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The crude polysaccharides were extracted from fruits of Psidium guajava Linn. by hot water. After removal of proteins, isolation and purification by DEAE-52 Cellulose chromatography and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration, a polysaccharide (GP70-2) was obtained and structurally characterized. GP70-2 has a relative molecular weight of 74 kDa and was composed of D-galactose and L-arabinose in the ratio of 1:1, with a specific optical rotation of [a]D(25) = +101°. Structural characterization of this novel polysaccharide was carried out using infrared spectroscopy, methylation analyses, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, (1)H-(1)H-COSY, HMQC, and HMBC). Based on the above data, the following structure was assigned to the repeated core unit of GP70-2: [Formula: see text]. This polysaccharide showed a concentration dependent DPPH· radical scavenging activity.
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The cytotoxic role of intermittent high glucose on apoptosis and cell viability in pancreatic beta cells.
J Diabetes Res
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Glucose fluctuations are both strong predictor of diabetic complications and crucial factor for beta cell damages. Here we investigated the effect of intermittent high glucose (IHG) on both cell apoptosis and proliferation activity in INS-1 cells and the potential mechanisms.
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Cardiometabolic risk profiles associated with chronic complications in overweight and obese type 2 diabetes patients in South China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by altered cardiometabolic risk profiles, including abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. The association of altered cardiometabolic risk profiles with chronic complications of diabetes is not well investigated.
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Phototrophic biofilm assembly in microbial-mat-derived unicyanobacterial consortia: model systems for the study of autotroph-heterotroph interactions.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Microbial autotroph-heterotroph interactions influence biogeochemical cycles on a global scale, but the diversity and complexity of natural systems and their intractability to in situ manipulation make it challenging to elucidate the principles governing these interactions. The study of assembling phototrophic biofilm communities provides a robust means to identify such interactions and evaluate their contributions to the recruitment and maintenance of phylogenetic and functional diversity over time. To examine primary succession in phototrophic communities, we isolated two unicyanobacterial consortia from the microbial mat in Hot Lake, Washington, characterizing the membership and metabolic function of each consortium. We then analyzed the spatial structures and quantified the community compositions of their assembling biofilms. The consortia retained the same suite of heterotrophic species, identified as abundant members of the mat and assigned to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Autotroph growth rates dominated early in assembly, yielding to increasing heterotroph growth rates late in succession. The two consortia exhibited similar assembly patterns, with increasing relative abundances of members from Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria concurrent with decreasing relative abundances of those from Gammaproteobacteria. Despite these similarities at higher taxonomic levels, the relative abundances of individual heterotrophic species were substantially different in the developing consortial biofilms. This suggests that, although similar niches are created by the cyanobacterial metabolisms, the resulting webs of autotroph-heterotroph and heterotroph-heterotroph interactions are specific to each primary producer. The relative simplicity and tractability of the Hot Lake unicyanobacterial consortia make them useful model systems for deciphering interspecies interactions and assembly principles relevant to natural microbial communities.
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Broncho-Vaxom attenuates allergic airway inflammation by restoring GSK3?-related T regulatory cell insufficiency.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Oral administration of bacterial extracts (eg, Broncho-Vaxom (BV)) has been proposed to attenuate asthma through modulating Treg cells. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully characterized. This study sought to assess the effects of oral administration of BV on GSK-3? expression and Treg cells in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice models.
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Folate receptor-targeting gold nanoclusters as fluorescence enzyme mimetic nanoprobes for tumor molecular colocalization diagnosis.
Theranostics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nanoprobes with enzyme-like properties attracted a growing interest in early screening and diagnosis of cancer. To achieve high accuracy and specificity of tumor detection, the design and preparation of enzyme mimetic nanoprobes with high enzyme activity, tumor targeting and excellent luminescence property is highly desirable. Herein, we described a novel kind of fluorescence enzyme mimetic nanoprobe based on folate receptor-targeting Au nanoclusters. The nanoprobes exhibited excellent stability, low cytotoxicity, high fluorescence and enzyme activity. We demonstrated that the nanoprobes could be used for tumor tissues fluorescence/visualizing detection. For the same tumor tissue slice, the nanoprobes peroxidase staining and fluorescent staining were obtained simultaneously, and the results were mutually complementary. Therefore, the fluorescence enzyme mimetic nanoprobes could provide a molecular colocalization diagnosis strategy, efficiently avoid false-positive and false-negative results, and further improve the accuracy and specificity of cancer diagnoses. By examining different clinical samples, we demonstrated that the nanoprobes could distinguish efficiently cancerous cells from normal cells, and exhibit a clinical potential for cancer diagnosis.
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Enzyme-Directed Assembly of Nanoparticles in Tumors Monitored by in Vivo Whole Animal Imaging and ex Vivo Super-Resolution Fluorescence Imaging.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Matrix metalloproteinase enzymes, overexpressed in HT-1080 human fibrocarcinoma tumors, were used to guide the accumulation and retention of an enzyme-responsive nanoparticle in a xenograft mouse model. The nanoparticles were prepared as micelles from amphiphilic block copolymers bearing a simple hydrophobic block and a hydrophilic peptide brush. The polymers were end-labeled with Alexa Fluor 647 dyes leading to the formation of labeled micelles upon dialysis of the polymers from DMSO/DMF to aqueous buffer. This dye-labeling strategy allowed the presence of the retained material to be visualized via whole animal imaging in vivo and in ex vivo organ analysis following intratumoral injection into HT-1080 xenograft tumors. We propose that the material is retained by virtue of an enzyme-induced accumulation process whereby particles change morphology from 20 nm spherical micelles to micrometer-scale aggregates, kinetically trapping them within the tumor. This hypothesis is tested here via an unprecedented super-resolution fluorescence analysis of ex vivo tissue slices confirming a particle size increase occurs concomitantly with extended retention of responsive particles compared to unresponsive controls.
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Intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to airborne ZnO nanoparticles at the air-liquid interface.
Nanotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Abstract Airborne nanoparticles (NPs) that enter the respiratory tract are likely to reach the alveolar region. Accumulating observations support a role for zinc oxide (ZnO) NP dissolution in toxicity, but the majority of in-vitro studies were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in growth media, where large doses of dissolved ions are shed into the exposure solution. To determine the precise intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions (Zn(2+)) shed by airborne NPs in the cellular environment, we exposed alveolar epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Using a fluorescent indicator for Zn(2+), together with organelle-specific fluorescent proteins, we quantified Zn(2+) in single cells and organelles over time. We found that at the ALI, intracellular Zn(2+) values peaked 3?h post exposure and decayed to normal values by 12?h, while in submerged cultures, intracellular Zn(2+) values continued to increase over time. The lowest toxic NP dose at the ALI generated peak intracellular Zn(2+) values that were nearly three-folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of NPs in submerged cultures, and eight-folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of ZnSO4 or Zn(2+). At the ALI, the majority of intracellular Zn(2+) was found in endosomes and lysosomes as early as 1?h post exposure. In contrast, the majority of intracellular Zn(2+) following exposures to ZnSO4 was found in other larger vesicles, with less than 10% in endosomes and lysosomes. Together, our observations indicate that low but critical levels of intracellular Zn(2+) have to be reached, concentrated specifically in endosomes and lysosomes, for toxicity to occur, and point to the focal dissolution of the NPs in the cellular environment and the accumulation of the ions specifically in endosomes and lysosomes as the processes underlying the potent toxicity of airborne ZnO NPs.
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[Temporary ectopic implantation of amputated fingers and dorsalis pedis flaps for thumb reconstruction and skin defect repair of hands].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2013
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To investigate the feasibility of temporary ectopic implantation of amputated fingers and dorsalis pedis flaps for thumb reconstruction and skin defect repair of the hand.
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Proline induced disruption of the structure and dynamics of water.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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We use quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectroscopy to study the diffusive motion of water molecules at ambient temperature as a function of the solute molar fraction of the amino acid, proline. We validate molecular dynamics simulations against experimental quasielastic neutron scattering data and then use the simulations to reveal, and understand, a strong dependence of the translational self-diffusion coefficient of water on the distance to the amino acid molecule. An analysis based on the juxtaposition of water molecules in the simulation shows that the rigidity of proline imposes itself on the local water structure, which disrupts the hydrogen-bond network of water leading to an increase in the mean lifetime of hydrogen bonds. The net effect is some distortion of the proline molecule and a slowing down of the water mobility.
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[Effect of pretreatment with apoptotic donor spleen cells on spleen lymphocyte function of recipient rats after islet transplantation].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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To study the effect of pretreatment with apoptotic donor spleen cells on spleen lymphocyte function of recipient rats undergoing islet transplantation to explore new approaches to prolong islet graft survival.
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Mesoporous titanium zirconium oxide nanospheres with potential for drug delivery applications.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Mesoporous titanium zirconium (TiZr) oxide nanospheres with variable Ti to Zr ratios were synthesized using sol-gel chemistry followed by solvothermal treatment. These oxide nanospheres exhibited similar diameters (~360 nm), high surface areas (from 237 ± 2 to 419 ± 4 m(2) g(-1)), and uniform pore diameters (~3.7 nm). Three drugs, ibuprofen, dexamethasone, and erythromycin, were loaded into the TiZr oxide nanospheres. The TiZr oxide nanospheres exhibited a high loading capacity, up to 719 mg g(-1), and sustained release profiles in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.4. The mesoporous TiZr oxide nanospheres also exhibited hydrolytic stability, as evidenced by the retention of the integrity of the mesostructures after drug release in PBS for 21 days.
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Engineering of monodisperse mesoporous titania beads for photocatalytic applications.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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The properties of monodisperse mesoporous TiO2 beads were readily tuned by varying the temperature (500-800 °C) and time (2-24 h) of calcination for solvothermally treated hexadecylamine/TiO2 hybrid assemblies. The crystal properties (crystal phase, crystallite size, and crystallinity), surface and pore properties (surface hydroxyl groups, surface area, porosity, and pore size), and diameter of the beads were significantly altered with these changes in calcination conditions. These properties played an important role in determining the photocatalytic activity of the materials, which was assessed by monitoring the photodegradation of a methylene blue solution under ultraviolet light. The maximum activity was achieved with the materials that were calcined at 650 °C for 2-8 h with a bead diameter around 700 nm. High activity was attributed to the balance of high crystallinty of the anatase phase, high porosity and large surface area. The size of the beads made separation easy for the reuse of the material after reaction. The synthesis-properties-photocatalytic activity relationships of these monodisperse mesoporous TiO2 beads have been established.
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[Protective effects of pravastatin against P38MAPK signaling pathway-mediated inflammatory toxicity in islet microendothelial cells].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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To study the signaling pathways associated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in islet microendothelial cells (IMECs) and the mechanism of pravastatin intervention.
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[Establishment of HEK293 cell lines stably expressing human parathyroid hormone receptors].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To establish HEK293 cell lines with stable expression of human parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors.
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Detrimental Effects of Metronidazole on Selected Innate Immunological Indicators in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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The widely used antibiotic metronidazole (MTZ) was investigated for its toxic effects on the innate immunity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish were exposed to MTZ at nominal concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 mg L(-1) in water for 30 days, followed by a 5-days of cleanout period, after which certain innate immunity parameters were measured. The results showed that under the tested concentrations, MTZ-exposed fish exhibited decline in several humoral and cellular parameters, including complement activity, lysozyme activity, bactericidal activity, total serum protein levels, total WBC count, and the respiratory burst activity of kidney leukocytes. Except for total serum proteins, all of these parameters showed a significant difference in the 2.5 mg L(-1) MTZ group compared to control group (p < 0.05). The results clearly support the contention that MTZ suppresses the innate immunity of common carp.
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Betanin attenuates carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).
Fish Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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This study investigates the protective effect of betanin against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish were treated with 1, 2, and 4 % betanin in fodder throughout the experiment. After 20 days of treatment, the fish were intraperitoneally injected with 20 % (v/v in peanut oil) CCl4 at a volume of 0.5 mL/kg body weight. The fish were killed 3 days after CCl4 intoxication, and then, histological and biochemical assays were performed. Results showed that CCl4-induced liver CYP2E1 activity, oxidative stress, and injury, as indicated by the depleted glycogen storage, increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and liver histological damage. Compared with the CCl4 control group, the betanin-treated groups exhibited reduced CYP2E1 activity, decreased malondialdehyde level, increased liver antioxidative capacity (increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities), increased liver glycogen storage, and reduced serum AST/ALT activities, with significant differences in the 2 and 4 % groups (p < 0.05). Histological assay further confirmed the protective effect of betanin. In conclusion, betanin attenuates CCl4-induced liver damage in common carp. Moreover, the inhibition of CYP2E1 activity and oxidative stress may have significant roles in the protective effect of betanin.
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Lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in a murine intestinal endocrine cell line by modulation of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Numerous studies have focused on how to modulate the secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) due to its marked anti-diabetic function. However, few studies have investigated the apoptosis of enteroendocrine L cells, which secrete GLP-1. The aim of this study was to determine whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a gut bacterial product, is capable of inducing apoptosis in the intestinal endocrine cell line STC-1. We found that LPS is capable of reducing the viability of STC-1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry revealed a strong apoptosis-inducing ability for LPS in STC-1 cells. Furthermore, western blotting revealed that exposure to LPS significantly decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and increased the expression of Bax and caspase-3. In conclusion, LPS induced the apoptosis of STC-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, which may be responsible for the reduced secretion of GLP-1 in diabetes.
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Surface-metastable phase-initiated seeding and ostwald ripening: a facile fluorine-free process towards spherical fluffy core/shell, yolk/shell, and hollow anatase nanostructures.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Versatile synthetic method: Monodisperse anatase microspheres with various complex morphologies have been synthesized by using a versatile fluorine-free solvothermal process in the presence of ammonia. Unambiguous evidence related to surface seeding and a subsequent hollowing process revealed an Ostwald ripening evolution process.
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In situ live cell sensing of multiple nucleotides exploiting DNA/RNA aptamers and graphene oxide nanosheets.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Nucleotides, for example, adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine-5-triphosphate (GTP), are primary energy resources for numerous reactions in organisms including microtubule assembly, insulin secretion, ion channel regulation, and so on. In order to advance our understanding of the production and consumption of nucleoside triphosphates, a versatile sensing platform for simultaneous visualization of ATP, GTP, adenosine derivates, and guanosine derivates in living cells has been built up in the present work based on graphene oxide nanosheets (GO-nS) and DNA/RNA aptamers. Taking advantage of the robust fluorescence quenching ability, unique adsorption for single-strand DNA/RNA probes, and efficient intracellular transport capacity of GO-nS, selective and sensitive visualization of multiple nucleoside triphosphates in living cells is successfully realized with the designed aptamer/GO-nS sensing platform. Moreover, GO-nS displays good biocompatibility to living cells and high protecting ability for DNA/RNA probes from enzymatic cleavage. These results demonstrate that the aptamers/GO-nS-based sensing platform is capable of selective, simultaneous, and in situ detection of multiple nucleotides, which hold a great potential for analyzing other biomolecules in living cells.
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Combining Crowding Estimation in Objective and Decision Space With Multiple Selection and Search Strategies for Multi-Objective Evolutionary Optimization.
IEEE Trans Cybern
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Many multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) have been successful in approximating the Pareto Front. However, well-distributed solutions in the objective and decision spaces are still required in many real-life applications. In this paper, a novel MOEA is proposed to this problem. Distinct from other MOEAs, the proposed algorithm suggests a framework, which includes two crowding estimation methods, multiple selection methods for mating and search strategies for variation, to improve the MOEAs searching ability, and the diversity of its solutions. The algorithm emphasizes the importance of using the decision space and the objective space diversities. The objective space crowding and decision space crowding distances are designed using different ideas. To produce new individuals, three different types of mating selections and their respective search strategies are constructed for the main population and the two sparse populations, with the help of the two crowding measurements. Finally, based on the experimental tests on 17 unconstrained multi-objective optimization problems, the proposed algorithm is demonstrated to have better results compared to several state-of-the-art MOEAs. A detailed analysis on the effectiveness and robustness of the framework is also presented.
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Understanding super-resolution nanoscopy and its biological applications in cell imaging.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Optical microscopy has been an ideal tool for studying phenomena in live cells because visible light at reasonable intensity does not perturb much of the normal biological functions. However, optical resolution using visible light is significantly limited by the wavelength. Overcoming this diffraction-limit barrier will reveal biological mechanisms, cellular structures, and physiological processes at a nanometer scale, orders of magnitude lower than current optical microscopy. Although this appears to be a daunting task, recently developed photoswitchable probes enable reconstruction of individual images into a super-resolution image, thus the emergence of nanoscopy. Harnessing the resolution power of nanoscopy, we report here nano-resolution fluorescence imaging of microtubules and their network structures in biological cells. The super-resolution nanoscopy successfully resolved nanostructures of a microtubule network-a daunting task that cannot be completed using conventional wide-field microscopy.
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A comparison among four tract dilation methods of percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Urolithiasis
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Amplatz dilation (AD), metal telescopic dilation (MTD), balloon dilation (BD), and one-shot dilation (OSD) methods for tract dilation during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Relevant eligible studies were identified using three electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL). Database acquisition and quality evaluation were independently performed by two reviewers. Efficacy (stone-free rate, surgical duration, and tract dilatation fluoroscopy time) and safety (transfusion rate and hemoglobin decrease) were evaluated using Review Manager 5.2. Four randomized controlled trials and eight clinical controlled trials involving 6,820 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled result from a meta-analysis showed statistically significant differences in tract dilatation fluoroscopy time and hemoglobin decrease between the OSD and MTD groups, which showed comparable stone-free and transfusion rates. Significant differences in transfusion rate were found between the BD and MTD groups. Among patients without previous open renal surgery, those who underwent BD exhibited a lower blood transfusion rate and a shorter surgical duration compared with those who underwent AD. The OSD technique is safer and more efficient than the MTD technique for tract dilation during PCNL, particularly in patients with previous open renal surgery, resulting in a shorter tract dilatation fluoroscopy time and a lesser decrease in hemoglobin. The efficacy and safety of BD are better than AD in patients without previous open renal surgery. The OSD technique should be considered for most patients who undergo PCNL therapy.
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Effects of Pro12Ala polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?2 gene on metabolic syndrome risk: A meta-analysis.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Associations between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?2 (PPAR?2) gene polymorphism and metabolic syndrome risk remained controversial and ambiguous. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPAR?2 gene and metabolic syndrome susceptibility.
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Right ventricular regional systolic function and dyssynchrony in patients with pulmonary hypertension evaluated by three-dimensional echocardiography.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate right ventricular (RV) regional systolic function and dyssynchrony in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography.
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One-step synthesis of peptide-programmed QDs as ready-to-use nanoprobes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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We developed a facile one-step method to produce ready-to-use quantum dots based on a peptide sequence containing a hexahistidine(his6-tag), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and a functional group, which lead to stable and customized peptide-QDs conjugates that could serve as fluorescent nanoprobes for biological imaging and detection.
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Raman scattering at plasmonic junctions shorted by conductive molecular bridges.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Intensity spikes in Raman scattering, accompanied by switching between line spectra and band spectra, can be assigned to shorting the junction plasmon through molecular conductive bridges. This is demonstrated through Raman trajectories recorded at a plasmonic junction formed by a gold AFM tip in contact with a silver surface coated either with biphenyl-4,4-dithiol or biphenyl-4-thiol. The fluctuations are absent in the monothiol. In effect, the making and breaking of chemical bonds is tracked.
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[Role of TRB3 in the inhibitory effect of fenofibrate against high glucose-induced proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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To investigate the role of TRB3 in the inhibitory effect of fenofibrate against the proliferation of glomerular mesangial cell induced by high glucose.
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[Advanced oxidation protein products inhibit proliferation and differentiation of rat osteoblasts through oxidative stress].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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To investigate the effect of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) on proliferation, differentiation, and oxidative stress in rat osteoblasts.
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[Serine residues at position 63-84 are important for CITED1 nuclear translocation and osteoblast differentiation].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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To determine the role of serine residues at position 63-84 of CITED1 in the nuclear translocation of CITED1 and osteoblast differentiation.
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Type I collagen and polyvinyl alcohol blend fiber scaffold for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
Biomed Mater
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The aim of this study was to perform an evaluation of a braided fiber scaffold for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The scaffold was composed of 50% type I collagen (Col-I) and 50% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). First, the biocompatibility and in vitro weight loss of the scaffold were tested. Then, the scaffolds were used to reconstruct the ACL in China Bama mimi pigs. At 24 weeks post-operation, the mechanical properties and histology of the regenerated ACL were analyzed. The maximum load and tensile strength were 472.43± 15.2 N and 29.71± 0.96 MPa, respectively; both were ~75% of those of native ACL and ~90% of those of fiber scaffold. This indicated that the scaffold maintained a large portion of native ACLs mechanical properties, and tissue formation on the scaffold compensated most of the tensile strength loss caused by scaffold degradation. Histology and immunohistology analysis showed the morphology and major extracellular matrix components of the regenerated ligament resembled the native ACL. Thus, the Col-I/PVA blend fiber ACL scaffold showed good potential for clinical applications.
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The cytogenetic effects of acrylamide on Carassius auratus periperial blood cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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The cytogenetic effects of acrylamide on golden fish Carassius auratus peripheral blood cells were investigated in vivo. The fish were exposed to 5, 10, and 20mg/L acrylamide in water for 96h. Following exposure, peripheral blood samples were obtained to assay for nuclear anomalies and DNA damage. Acrylamide induced micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies including binuclei, nucleoplasm-bridged nuclei, and nuclear buds. The frequencies of these nuclear anomalies were significantly higher after treatment with 10 and 20mg/L acrylamide (p<0.05). DNA damage was assayed using the alkaline comet assay. Both olive tail moment and the percentage of tail DNA intensity significantly increased after treatment with 20mg/L acrylamide (p<0.05). In conclusion, acrylamide induces obvious genotoxicity in C. auratus peripheral blood cells.
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Spatial and temporal variation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering at Ag nanowires in aqueous solution.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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The spatial and temporal variation of local field enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) at Ag nanowires (NWs) in aqueous solution is presented for an improved understanding of the NW structure-SERS enhancement capability relationship. Crossed Ag NWs and Ag NW bundles are found to have SERS enhancement factors much higher than single Ag NWs because of the higher density of interstitials formed by strong surface plasmon coupling when the wires are close to each other. The role of the interstitials of Ag NWs is enhanced by using unpurified Ag NWs containing Ag nanoparticles or decorating the Ag NWs surface with gold nanoparticles using galvanic replacement reaction and electroless deposition methods. This leads to an improved SERS enhancement capability as compared to purified single Ag NWs. Raman imaging reveals a different temporal response of the SERS signal in aqueous solution in comparison to the photoluminescence background of Ag NWs in the absence of Raman-active molecules. Such a different temporal response can be potentially used to separate the SERS signal from the fluorescence background. The Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) method is used for the first time to calculate the local field intensity of two crossed and parallel Ag NWs. Heterogeneities in the SERS spatial distribution of the interstitials and their incident-light polarization dependence are illustrated by comparing the SEM image of a selected unpurified Ag NW bundle with its Raman image.
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Protein-assisted fabrication of nano-reduced graphene oxide for combined in vivo photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Theranostic agents are attracting a great deal of attention in personalized medicine. Here, we developed a protein-based, facile method for fabrication of nanosized, reduced graphene oxide (nano-rGO) with high stability and low cytotoxicity. We constructed highly integrated photoacoustic/ultrasonic dual-modality imaging and photothermal therapy platforms, and further demonstrated that the prepared nano-rGO can be used as ready-to-use theranostic agents for both photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy without further surface modification. Intravenous administration of nano-rGO in tumor-bearing mice showed rapid and significant photoacoustic signal enhancement in the tumor region, indicating its excellence for passive targeting and photoacoustic imaging. Meanwhile, using a continuous-wave near-infrared laser, cancer cells in vivo were efficiently ablated, due to the photothermal effect of nano-rGO. The results suggest that the nano-rGO with protein-assisted fabrication was well suited for photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy of tumor, which is promising for theranostic nanomedicine.
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Effect of advanced oxidation protein products on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) as a novel marker of oxidative stress, are involved in a variety of diseases, including osteoporosis. Although a number of studies have shown the possible functions of AOPPs in biological processes, little is known about the role of AOPPs in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of AOPPs on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs, isolated from bone marrow, were cultured in the absence or presence of AOPPs (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/ml). MTT assay was used to determine the proliferative ability of the cells. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, the mRNA expression of ALP and collagen I and bone nodule formation were detected to assess osteogenic differentiation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was analyzed with the probe 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). The expression of receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) at the mRNA and protein level was detected by real-time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Compared with the control group, AOPPs inhibited MSC proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, AOPPs induced a significant reduction in ALP activity, as well as a decrease in ALP and collagen I mRNA levels in the MSCs; bone nodule formation was also inhibited. Furthermore, AOPPs increased ROS generation in the MSCs, and upregulated the expression of RAGE at the mRNA and protein level. These results suggest that AOPPs inhibit the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, possibly through the AOPPs-RAGE-ROS pathway; this may be an important mechanism in the development of osteoporosis.
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An Aqueous Extract of Radix Astragali, Angelica sinensis, and Panax notoginseng Is Effective in Preventing Diabetic Retinopathy.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Diabetic retinopathy (DR), in which inflammation has been implicated playing important roles, is one of the most common diabetes complications. Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang (DBT), an aqueous extract of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelica sinensis, is a classical prescription in Traditional Chinese Medicine for treating inflammation and ischemic diseases. Here, we investigated the effects of a modified recipe of DBT, with addition of Panax notoginseng, in treating diabetic retinopathy. An aqueous extract of Radix Astragali, Radix Angelica sinensis, and Panax notoginseng (RRP) was given to Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and streptozotocin-induced Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Leukostasis, vascular leakage, and acellular capillaries in retinal vasculature of animals were determined. Expression of retinal inflammatory biomarkers was assessed. We found that RRP reduced leukostasis, acellular capillaries, and vascular leakage compared to diabetic control rats. We also found that RRP decreased the expression of inflammatory factors including IL-1 ? , IL-6, TNF- ? , NF- ? B, MCP-1, ICAM-1, or VCAM-1 in the retinas of GK rats and reversed high glucose-induced inhibition of endothelial cell migration and proliferation in vitro. We conclude that RRP has a potent effect in preventing the pathogenesis and/or progression of DR and thus may serve as a promising nontoxic therapeutic approach of DR.
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Potential of nanocrystalline cellulose-fibrin nanocomposites for artificial vascular graft applications.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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The potential of synthesizing new nanocomposites from nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) and fibrin for small-diameter replacement vascular graft (SDRVG) application was demonstrated. Periodate oxidation of NCC can augment reactive carbonyl groups on NCC and facilitate its cross-linking with fibrin. NCC-fibrin nanocomposites were synthesized, composed of homogeneously dispersed oxidized NCC (ONCC) in a fibrin matrix, with fibrin providing elasticity and ONCC providing strength. The maximum strength and elongation of the nanocomposites were determined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and compared with a native blood vessel. The manipulation of degree of oxidation of NCC and the NCC-to-fibrin ratio resulted in the variation of strength and elongation of the nanocomposites, indicating that the nanocomposites can be tailored to conform to the diverse mechanical properties of native blood vessels. A mechanistic understanding of the molecular interactions of ONCC and fibrin was illustrated. This study established fundamental information to utilizing NCC for SDRVG applications.
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Meta-analysis of acupuncture for relieving non-organic dyspeptic symptoms suggestive of diabetic gastroparesis.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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Acupuncture is widely used to treat diabetic patients with dyspeptic symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis in China. We conducted this systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture for diabetic gastroparesis (DGP).
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[Effects of signaling-selective parathyroid hormone peptide analog on fracture healing in orchiectomized mouse models].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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To assess the effect of intermittent subcutaneous injections of signal-selective parathyroid hormone (PTH) peptide analog on fracture healing in orchiectomized mouse models.
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Role of collector alternating charged patches on transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in a patchwise charged heterogeneous micromodel.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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The role of collector surface charge heterogeneity on transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst and carboxylate microsphere in 2-dimensional micromodels was studied. The cylindrical silica collectors within the micromodels were coated with 0, 10, 20, 50, and 100% Fe(2)O(3) patches. The experimental values of average removal efficiencies (?) of the Fe(2)O(3) patches and on the entire collectors were determined. In the presence of significant (>3500 kT) Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) energy barrier between the microspheres and the silica collectors at pH 5.8 and 8.1, ? determined for Fe(2)O(3) patches on the heterogeneous collectors were significantly less (p < 0.05, t test) than those obtained for collectors coated entirely with Fe(2)O(3). However, ? calculated for Fe(2)O(3) patches for microspheres at pH 4.4 and for oocysts at pH 5.8 and 8.1, where the DLVO energy barrier was relatively small (ca. 200-360 kT), were significantly greater (p < 0.05, t test) than those for the collectors coated entirely with Fe(2)O(3). The dependence of ? for Fe(2)O(3) patches on the DLVO energy barrier indicated the importance of periodic favorable and unfavorable electrostatic interactions between colloids and collectors with alternating Fe(2)O(3) and silica patches. Differences between experimentally determined overall ? for charged heterogeneous collectors and those predicted by a patchwise geochemical heterogeneous model were observed. These differences can be explained by the models lack of consideration for the spatial distribution of charge heterogeneity on the collector surface.
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids promote the expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by activating the JAK/STAT3 pathway.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert immunosuppressive effects that could prove beneficial in clinical therapies for certain autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. However, the mechanism of PUFA-mediated immunosuppression is far from understood. Here, we provide evidence that PUFAs enhance the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a negative immune regulator. PUFA-induced MDSCs have a more potent suppressive effect on T-cell responses than do control MDSCs. These observations were found both in cultured mouse bone marrow cells in vitro and in vivo in mice fed diets enriched in PUFAs. The enhanced suppressive activity of MDSCs by PUFAs administration was coupled with a dramatic induction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleo- tide phosphate oxidase subunit p47(phox) and was dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Mechanistic studies revealed that PUFAs mediate its effects through JAK-STAT3 signaling. Inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation by JAK inhibitor JSI-124 almost completely abrogated the effects of PUFAs on MDSCs. Moreover, the effects of PUFAs on MDSCs and the underlying mechanisms were confirmed in tumor-bearing mice. In summary, this study sheds new light on the immune modulatory role of PUFAs, and demonstrates that MDSCs expansion may mediate the effects of PUFAs on the immune system.
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Clinical significance and functional studies of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in chronic hepatitis C patients.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are known to accumulate under some pathologic conditions and suppress immune system in a variety of ways. This study aims to evaluate the significance of MDSCs in chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) patients.
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Detection of tyrosine?phosphorylated proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues using a combination of GST?Nck1?SH2 pull?down and two?dimensional electrophoresis.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins govern a host of cell functions, such as growth, division, adhesion and motility. We previously identified a group of Nck Src homology 2 (SH2) domain?binding proteins by combining the GST-Nck1-SH2 pull-down method with two-dimensional electrophoresis (2?DE) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues. In the present study, different methods and conditions for key procedures of GST-Nck1-SH2 pull-down and 2?DE were investigated and optimized. High-resolution results were obtained using the following conditions: a total amount of 100 µl GST-Nck1-SH2 fusion proteins/10 mg liver proteins to execute the pull-down procedure; 7 M urea and 2 M thiourea as lysis buffer; ultrafiltration depletion of interferential materials. Moreover, we performed a negative control experiment using GST-4T3 during the pull-down procedure, and further demonstrated that the proteins obtained using the aforementioned method interacted with Nck in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent manner. The optimized method offers a rapid, efficient alternative for the high?quantity screening of tyrosine-phosphorylated protein expression and solubility, which in turn facilitates future studies on tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins.
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