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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
CPAP versus oxygen in obstructive sleep apnea.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with hypertension, inflammation, and increased cardiovascular risk. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduces blood pressure, but adherence is often suboptimal, and the benefit beyond management of conventional risk factors is uncertain. Since intermittent hypoxemia may underlie cardiovascular sequelae of sleep apnea, we evaluated the effects of nocturnal supplemental oxygen and CPAP on markers of cardiovascular risk.
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Association between children's exposure to a violent event and objectively and subjectively measured sleep characteristics: a pilot longitudinal study.
J Sleep Res
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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Although sleep disturbances are commonly reported among children exposed to violence, objective evidence of such disturbances is rare. This longitudinal, home-based study assessed the effects of a known community- or family-violence incident on both actigraphy-derived and subjectively reported sleep outcomes of an ethnically mixed, urban sample of children aged 8-16 years. We hypothesized that increased event severity (child physical assault, witnessed homicide) would be associated with lower sleep duration and poorer sleep quality both at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Covariate-adjusted analyses based on a generalized estimating equations approach showed that children physically assaulted during the event showed lower sleep duration and sleep efficiency and greater wake after sleep onset than those not physically assaulted. Physically assaulted children were more likely to have a later bedtime than non-assaulted children, but this difference decreased at 3 months. Children witnessing a homicide showed greater wake after sleep onset at baseline and reported greater sleep problems than those witnessing a non-homicide event, but these differences decreased at 3 months. They were also somewhat more likely to have greater nightly variation in sleep duration. Collectively, results suggest that violence exposure influences children's sleep, but that specific dimensions of sleep may exhibit different susceptibility to different characteristics of violence, especially over time.
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Cycling memory CD4+ T cells in HIV disease have a diverse T cell receptor repertoire and a phenotype consistent with bystander activation.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The mechanisms of increased memory CD4+ T cell cycling in HIV disease are incompletely understood but have been linked to antigen stimulation, homeostatic signals, or exposure to microbial products and the inflammatory cytokines that they induce. We examined the phenotype and V? family distribution in cycling memory CD4+ T cells among 52 healthy and 59 HIV-positive (HIV+) donors. Cycling memory CD4+ T cells were proportionally more frequent in subjects with HIV infection than in controls, more often expressed CD38 and PD-1, and less frequently expressed OX40 and intracellular CD40L. OX40 expression on memory CD4+ T cells was induced in vitro by anti-CD3, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-7, or IL-15 but not by Toll-like receptor ligands. In HIV+ donors, memory CD4+ T cell cycling was directly related to plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, to plasma HIV RNA levels, and to memory CD8+ T cell cycling and was inversely related to peripheral blood CD4+ T cell counts but not to the levels of IL-2, IL-7, or IL-15, while in HIV-negative donors, memory CD4+ T cell cycling was related to IL-7 levels and negatively related to the plasma levels of LPS. In both controls and HIV+ donors, cycling memory CD4+ T cells had a broad distribution of V? families comparable to that of noncycling cells. Increased memory CD4+ T cell cycling in HIV disease is reflective of generalized immune activation and not driven primarily by cognate peptide stimulation or exposure to common gamma-chain cytokines. This cycling may be a consequence of exposure to microbial products, to plasma viremia, or, otherwise, to proinflammatory cytokines.
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Heart Rate Variability Is a Predictor of Mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Report from the CRIC Study.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Background/Aims: Low heart rate variability (HRV) is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in the general population. We aimed to determine the factors associated with HRV and evaluate the association between low HRV and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: A 10-second electrocardiogram was obtained at baseline in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. HRV was measured by the standard deviation of all R-R intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive differences between R-R intervals (RMSSD). Results: In 3,245 CRIC participants with available baseline SDNN and RMSSD, lower HRV was associated with older age, lack of exercise, heart failure, elevated phosphorus and hemoglobin A1c, and low estimated glomerular filtration rate. After a median follow-up of 4.2 years, in fully adjusted models, lower HRV was not associated with renal [SDNN: hazard rate, HR = 0.96 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.88-1.05); RMSSD: HR = 0.97 (95% CI 0.88-1.07)] or cardiovascular outcomes [SDNN: HR = 1.02 (95% CI 0.92-1.13); RMSSD: HR = 1.00 (95% CI 0.90-1.10)]. There was a nonlinear relationship between RMSSD and all-cause mortality with increased risk with both low and high RMSSD (p = 0.04). Conclusions: In a large cohort of patients with CKD, multiple risk factors for renal and cardiovascular diseases were associated with lower HRV. Lower HRV was not associated with increased risk for renal or cardiovascular outcomes, but both low and high RMSSD were associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality. In conclusion, HRV measured by RMSSD may be a novel and independent risk factor for mortality in CKD patients. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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A simple tool to predict end-stage renal disease within 1 year in elderly adults with advanced chronic kidney disease.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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To develop and validate a model to predict 1-year risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in elderly subjects with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD).
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Association between obstructive sleep apnea severity and endothelial dysfunction in an increased background of cardiovascular burden.
J Sleep Res
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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The objective of this study is to examine whether increasing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity is associated with worsening endothelial function. The design is a cross-sectional examination of the baseline assessment of a multi-centre randomized controlled clinical trial examining the effects of oxygen, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy or lifestyle modifications on cardiovascular biomarkers. Participants were recruited from cardiology clinics at four sites. Participants with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 15-50 and known cardio/cerebrovascular disease (CVD) or CVD risk factors were included. OSA severity indices [oxygen desaturation index (ODI), AHI and percentage of sleep time below 90% oxygen saturation (total sleep time <90)] and a measure of endothelium-mediated vasodilatation [Framingham reactive hyperaemia index (F-RHI) derived from peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT)] were assessed. The sample included 267 individuals with a mean AHI of 25.0 ± 8.5 SD and mean F-RHI 0.44 ± 0.38. In adjusted models, the slope of the relationship between ODI and F-RHI differed above and below an ODI of 24.6 (P = 0.04), such that above an ODI of 24.6 there was a marginally significant decline in the geometric mean of the PAT ratio by 3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0%, 5%; P = 0.05], while below this point, there was a marginally significant incline in the geometric mean of the PAT ratio by 13% (95% CI: 0%, 27%; P = 0.05) per 5-unit increase in ODI. A similar pattern was observed between AHI and F-RHI. No relation was noted with total sleep time <90 and F-RHI. There was evidence of a graded decline in endothelial function in association with higher levels of intermittent hypoxaemia.
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Effect of Nadir CD4+ T Cell Count on Clinical Measures of Periodontal Disease in HIV+ Adults before and during Immune Reconstitution on HAART.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The contribution of HIV-infection to periodontal disease (PD) is poorly understood.  We proposed that immunological markers would be associated with improved clinical measures of PD.
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Physical and mental impact of psoriasis severity as measured by the compact Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12) quality of life tool.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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The Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12) is used to assess the patients quality of life (QoL) using the physical component score (PCS) and the mental component score (MCS). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the SF-12 PCS and MCS are associated with psoriasis severity and to compare QoL between Murdough Family Center for Psoriasis (MFCP) patients and patients with other major chronic diseases included in the National Survey of Functional Health Status data. We used data from 429 adult patients enrolled in MFCP. Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) was used to assess psoriasis severity at the time of completion of the SF-12 questionnaire. Other variables included age, sex, body mass index, psoriatic arthritis, psychiatric disorders, and comorbidities. Linear regression models were used to estimate effect sizes ± 95% confidence intervals. For every 10-point increase in PASI, there was a 1.1 ± 1.3 unit decrease in MCS (P=0.100) and a 2.4 ± 1.3 unit decrease in PCS (P<0.001). Psoriasis severity was associated with PCS and MCS after adjusting for variables, although the strength of the relationship was attenuated in some models. Psoriasis severity is associated with decreased QoL. SF-12 may be a useful tool for assessing QoL among psoriasis patients.
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Signal peptide cleavage is essential for surface expression of a regulatory T cell surface protein, leucine rich repeat containing 32 (LRRC32).
BMC Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (T(regs)) have been implicated in certain cancers. Depletion of T(regs) has been shown to increase anti-tumor immunity. T(regs) also play a critical role in the suppression of autoimmune responses. The study of T(regs) has been hampered by a lack of adequate surface markers. Leucine Rich Repeat Containing 32 (LRRC32), also known as Glycoprotein A Repetitions Predominant (GARP), has been postulated as a novel surface marker of activated T(regs). However, there is limited information regarding the processing of LRRC32 or the regulatory phenotype and functional activity of T(regs) expressing LRRC32.
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A prospective cohort study of periodontal disease measures and cardiovascular disease markers in HIV-infected adults.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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The determinants of HIV-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) are not well understood. Periodontal disease (PD) has been linked to CVD but this connection has not been examined in HIV infection. We followed a cohort of HIV-infected adults to ascertain whether PD was associated with carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). We performed a longitudinal observational study of HIV-infected adults on HAART for <2 years with no known heart disease. PD was characterized clinically and microbiologically. Cardiovascular disease was assessed by IMT/FMD. Linear mixed models assessed cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between PD and FMD/IMT. Forty three HIV(+) adults completed a median of 24 (6-44) months on the study. Defining delta to be the change in a variable between baseline and a follow-up time, longitudinally, on average and after adjusting for change in time, CVD-specific and HIV-specific potential confounding covariates, a 1-log(10) increase in delta Porphyromonas gingivalis was associated with a 0.013 mm increase in delta IMT (95% CI: 0.0006-0.0262; p=0.04). After adjusting for the same potential confounding covariates, a 10% increase in delta gingival recession was associated with a 2.3% increase in delta FMD (95% CI: 0.4-4.2; p=0.03). In a cohort of HIV-infected adults, an increase in subgingival Porphyromonas gingivalis, a known periodontal pathogen, was significantly associated with longitudinal increases in IMT, while increased gingival recession, which herein may represent PD resolution, was significantly associated with longitudinal improvement in FMD. In the context of HIV infection, PD may contribute to CVD risk. Intervention studies treating PD may help clarify this association.
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Sleep duration and circulating adipokine levels.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Short sleep duration is associated with systemic inflammation and diabetes; however the mechanisms by which reduced sleep leads to these complications are unclear. One possibility is sleep may impact secretion of adipocyte derived hormones that regulate inflammation and insulin resistance. In this study we assessed the association between sleep duration and 3 adipokine levels.
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Patch testing in atopic dermatitis.
Dermatitis
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
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Because atopic dermatitis (AD) patients differ from non-AD patients in immunologic responses (they lack ?-defensins, are more likely to react to protein allergens, and are harder to experimentally sensitize to the nonprotein allergens), patch-test responses to commercially available patch test series may differ in AD patients.
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Nighttime hospital blood pressure--a predictor of death, ESRD, and decline in GFR.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2010
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Nighttime systolic blood pressure (BP) from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is more predictive than clinic BP for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and death even after controlling for clinic BP. However, ABPM is expensive and burdensome to obtain regularly. BPs obtained in the hospital may provide a window into nighttime BP. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all hypertensive patients admitted to the Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center (LSCDVAMC) in 2002 and 2003 with one or more BP recorded between midnight and 6 am on the day of or the day before discharge. The mean age of the study population (n = 1085) was 62 years and 96% were male. Twenty-two percent had coronary artery disease (CAD) and 34% had diabetes. The mean nighttime systolic BP was 132 mmHg and baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 83 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Over a median follow-up period of 4.3 years, 266 subjects died, 22 developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD), 99 had a 50% decline in GFR, and 136 developed myocardial infarction (MI). The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) associated with a 10 mmHg increase in nighttime systolic BP were 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.93-1.15) for death, 1.30 (0.94-1.80) for ESRD, 1.26 (1.08-1.47) for a 50% decline in GFR, 1.07 (0.92-1.23) for myocardial infarction, and 1.12 (1.03-1.23) for a composite of death, ESRD, or a 50% decline in GFR. In conclusion, nighttime systolic BP in hospitalized patients is an independent predictor of important clinical outcomes such as a composite of death, ESRD, or a 50% decline in GFR.
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Sleep-disordered breathing and prothrombotic biomarkers: cross-sectional results of the Cleveland Family Study.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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Individuals with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are at increased cardiovascular risk, possibly due to SDB-related stresses contributing to atherosclerosis.
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Differential expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma identified by gene expression profiling.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Gene expression profiling has been shown to provide prognostic information on patients with solitary sporadic renal cell carcinoma. To our knowledge there is no reliable way to differentiate synchronous renal metastasis from bilateral primary tumors in patients with bilateral renal cell carcinoma. We present data using a custom kidney cancer cDNA array that can predict the outcome in patients with unilateral and bilateral renal cell carcinoma.
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Relationship Between Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy Severity and Glaucoma and/or Ocular Hypertension.
Arch. Ophthalmol.
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OBJECTIVE To investigate whether Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) severity is associated with glaucoma and/or ocular hypertension (G/OHTN). METHODS A subset of eyes (n = 1610) from the FECD Genetics Multi-Center Study were examined to estimate the association between FECD severity (grades 0-6 based on guttae confluence) and G/OHTN. Logistic regression models that accounted for the correlation between eyes and adjusted for age, sex, central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, presence of diabetes, and time of day of the initial evaluation were fit. RESULTS A total of 107 eyes (6.6%) had G/OHTN based on the study definition. The prevalence of G/OHTN in the control group was 6.0%. The prevalence was lower in index cases with an FECD grade of 1 through 3 and family members with a grade of 0 or 1 through 3 (0.0% and 2.1%, respectively) but higher in index cases and family members with a grade of 4 through 6 (11.2% and 8.5%, respectively). Adjusting for covariates, eyes with a grade of 4 through 6 were more likely to have concurrent G/OHTN than eyes with no FECD (index cases vs controls: odds ratio [OR] = 2.10, P = .04; affected vs unaffected family members: OR = 7.06, P = .07). Age (OR = 1.06 per 1-year increase, P < .001) and intraocular pressure (OR = 1.15 per 1-mm Hg increase, P < .001) were also associated with an increased prevalence of G/OHTN. Sex, diabetes, time of day of evaluation, and central corneal thickness were not associated with the prevalence of G/OHTN (P ? .15). CONCLUSIONS Glaucoma and/or ocular hypertension occurs more often in eyes with severe FECD compared with unaffected eyes. Therefore, it may be beneficial to monitor for the development of glaucoma in these patients.
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Relationship of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy severity to central corneal thickness.
Arch. Ophthalmol.
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To define the relationship between Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) severity and central corneal thickness (CCT).
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Metabolic complications in elderly adults with chronic kidney disease.
J Am Geriatr Soc
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To determine whether elderly adults with a low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are at risk for anemia, hyperkalemia, acidosis, and hyperphosphatemia.
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Obstructive sleep apnea and diurnal nondipping hemodynamic indices in patients at increased cardiovascular risk.
J. Hypertens.
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We hypothesized increasing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity would be associated with nondipping blood pressure (BP) in increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.
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Short Inter-pregnancy Intervals, Parity, Excessive Pregnancy Weight Gain and Risk of Maternal Obesity.
Matern Child Health J
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To investigate the relationship among parity, length of the inter-pregnancy intervals and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the risk of obesity. Using a prospective cohort study of 3,422 non-obese, non-pregnant US women aged 14-22 years at baseline, adjusted Cox models were used to estimate the association among parity, inter-pregnancy intervals, and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the relative hazard rate (HR) of obesity. Compared to nulliparous women, primiparous women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had a HR of obesity of 1.79 (95 % CI 1.40, 2.29); no significant difference was seen between primiparous without excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and nulliparous women. Among women with the same pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the same number of inter-pregnancy intervals (12 and 18 months or ?18 months), the HR of obesity increased 2.43-fold (95 % CI 1.21, 4.89; p = 0.01) for every additional inter-pregnancy interval of <12 months; no significant association was seen for longer inter-pregnancy intervals. Among women with the same parity and inter-pregnancy interval pattern, women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had an HR of obesity 2.41 times higher (95 % CI 1.81, 3.21; p < 0.001) than women without. Primiparous and nulliparous women had similar obesity risk unless the primiparous women had excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy, then their risk of obesity was greater. Multiparous women with the same excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and at least one additional short inter-pregnancy interval had a significant risk of obesity after childbirth. Perinatal interventions that prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy or lengthen the inter-pregnancy interval are necessary for reducing maternal obesity.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.