Hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to be a serious worldwide health problem despite the use of protective HBV vaccines and therapeutic regimens against chronic HBV infection. Chronic HBV patients cannot induce sufficient immune responses against the virus. HBV and its antigens are believed to suppress immune responses during chronic infection. Hence, studying the role of HBV in immune suppression is very important for the development of alternative therapeutic strategies for HBV infections. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) on the generation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and the stimulation of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). In the presence of HBeAg, the ratio of BMDCs was decreased, but the ratio of CD11b(+)Ly6G(+) immature myeloid cells was increased. The expression of 47 proteins was also changed during HBeAg treatment; however, CpG-induced MHC-II expression on pDCs was not affected. Our results indicate that HBeAg may have a negative effect on the generation of DCs from bone morrow precursors.
In the present study, spleen and lymph nodes of mice were cryopreserved as a whole tissue and after thawing, membrane integrity of mononuclear cells was determined by trypan blue exclusion and PI staining. T and B lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells have been isolated from both cryopreserved tissue and analyzed by Flow cytometry. BALB/c mice were immunized with Hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg) and spleen and lymph nodes of mice were cryopreserved for 3 to 10 months. The cells obtained from both tissue were applied to hybridoma technology to understand if the cells keep their viability and functionality. The cells were isolated and fused with F0 mouse myeloma cells and several antibody producing hybrid cells were developed. Results have shown that cryopreserved spleen and lymph nodes of mice can be efficiently used in hybridoma technology for the successful generation of monoclonal antibody producing hybrid cells.
B-cells can contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases not only through auto-antibody secretion but also via cytokine production. Therapeutic depletion of B-cells influences the functions and maintenance of various T-cell subsets. The mechanisms governing the functional heterogeneity of B-cell subsets as cytokine-producing cells are poorly understood. B-cells can differentiate into two functionally polarized effectors, one (B-effector-1-cells) producing a Th-1-like cytokine pattern and the other (Be2) producing a Th-2-like pattern. IL-12 and IFN-? play a key role in Be1 polarization, but the initial trigger of Be1 commitment is unclear. Type-I-interferons are produced early in the immune response and prime several processes involved in innate and adaptive responses. Here, we report that IFN-? triggers a signaling cascade in resting human naive B-cells, involving STAT4 and T-bet, two key IFN-? gene imprinting factors. IFN-? primed naive B-cells for IFN-? production and increased IFN-? gene responsiveness to IL-12. IFN-? continues this polarization by re-inducing T-bet and up-regulating IL-12R?2 expression. IFN-? and IFN-? therefore pave the way for the action of IL-12. These results point to a coordinated action of IFN-?, IFN-? and IL-12 in Be1 polarization of naive B-cells, and may provide new insights into the mechanisms by which type-I-interferons favor autoimmunity.
Human peripheral blood natural killer progenitors represent a flexible, heterogeneous population whose phenotype and function are controlled by their membrane-bound IL-15. Indeed, reciprocal membrane-bond IL-15 trans-presentation commits these cells into NK differentiation, while membrane-bound IL-15 stimulation with its soluble ligand (sIL-15R?) triggers a reverse signal (pERK1/2 and pFAK) that modifies the developmental program of at least two subsets of PB-NKPs. This treatment generates: i) the expansion of an immature NK subset growing in suspension; ii) the appearance of an unprecedented adherent non-proliferative subset with a dendritic morphology co-expressing marker, cytokines and functions typical of myeloid dendritic cells (CD1a(+)/BDCA1(+)/IL-12(+)) and NK cells (CD3-/NKp46(+)/ CD56(+)/IFN?(+)). The generation of these putative NK/DCs is associated to the rapid inhibition of negative regulators of myelopoiesis (the transcription factors STAT6 and GATA-3) followed by the transient upregulation of inducers of myeloid development, such as the transcription factors (PU.1, GATA-1) and the anti-apoptotic molecule (MCL-1).
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