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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
EGFR Activation and Signaling in Cancer Cells Are Enhanced by the Membrane-Bound Metalloprotease MT4-MMP.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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MT4-MMP (MMP-17) is a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored matrix metalloprotease expressed on the surface of cancer cells that promotes tumor growth and metastasis. In this report, we identify MT4-MMP as an important driver of cancer cell proliferation through CDK4 activation and retinoblastoma protein inactivation. We also determine a functional link between MT4-MMP and the growth factor receptor EGFR. Mechanistic experiments revealed direct association of MT4-MMP and its positive effects on EGFR phosphorylation in response to TGF? and EGF in cancer cells. Notably, the effects of MT4-MMP on proliferation and EGFR activation did not rely on metalloprotease activity. Clinically, MT4-MMP and EGFR expressions were correlated in human triple-negative breast cancer specimens. Altogether, our results identify MT4-MMP as a positive modifier of EGFR outside-in signaling that acts to cooperatively drive cancer cell proliferation. Cancer Res; 74(23); 1-13. ©2014 AACR.
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PEGylation of antibody fragments greatly increases their local residence time following delivery to the respiratory tract.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Inhalation aerosols offer a targeted therapy for respiratory diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled biopharmaceuticals is limited by the rapid clearance of macromolecules in the lungs. The aim of this research was to study the effects of the PEGylation of antibody fragments on their local residence time after administration to the respiratory tract. We demonstrate that the conjugation of a two-armed 40-kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain to anti-interleukin-17A (IL-17A) F(ab')2 and anti-IL-13 Fab' greatly prolonged the presence of these fragments within the lungs of mice. The content of PEGylated antibody fragments within the lungs plateaued up to 4h post-delivery, whereas the clearance of unconjugated proteins started immediately after administration. Forty-eight hours post-delivery, F(ab')2 and Fab' contents in the lungs had decreased to 10 and 14% of the dose initially deposited, respectively. However, this value was 40% for both PEG40-F(ab')2 and PEG40-Fab'. The prolonged pulmonary residency of the anti-IL-17A PEG40-F(ab')2 translated into an improved efficacy in reducing lung inflammation in a murine model of house dust mite-induced lung inflammation. We demonstrate that PEGylated proteins were principally retained within the lung lumen rather than the nasal cavities or lung parenchyma. In addition, we report that PEG increased pulmonary retention of antibody fragments through mucoadhesion and escape from alveolar macrophages rather than increased hydrodynamic size or improved enzymatic stability. The PEGylation of proteins might find broad application in the local delivery of therapeutic proteins to diseased airways.
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Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells drive lymphangiogenesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It is now well accepted that multipotent Bone-Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BM-MSC) contribute to cancer progression through several mechanisms including angiogenesis. However, their involvement during the lymphangiogenic process is poorly described. Using BM-MSC isolated from mice of two different backgrounds, we demonstrate a paracrine lymphangiogenic action of BM-MSC both in vivo and in vitro. Co-injection of BM-MSC and tumor cells in mice increased the in vivo tumor growth and intratumoral lymphatic vessel density. In addition, BM-MSC or their conditioned medium stimulated the recruitment of lymphatic vessels in vivo in an ear sponge assay, and ex vivo in the lymphatic ring assay (LRA). In vitro, MSC conditioned medium also increased the proliferation rate and the migration of both primary lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) and an immortalized lymphatic endothelial cell line. Mechanistically, these pro-lymphangiogenic effects relied on the secretion of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)-A by BM-MSC that activates VEGF Receptor (VEGFR)-2 pathway on LEC. Indeed, the trapping of VEGF-A in MSC conditioned medium by soluble VEGF Receptors (sVEGFR)-1, -2 or the inhibition of VEGFR-2 activity by a specific inhibitor (ZM 323881) both decreased LEC proliferation, migration and the phosphorylation of their main downstream target ERK1/2. This study provides direct unprecedented evidence for a paracrine lymphangiogenic action of BM-MSC via the production of VEGF-A which acts on LEC VEGFR-2.
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Sunitinib inhibits inflammatory corneal lymphangiogenesis.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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To evaluate the antilymphangiogenic potential of multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in corneal neovascularization (NV).
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Mithramycin exerts an anti-myeloma effect and displays anti-angiogenic effects through up-regulation of anti-angiogenic factors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Mithramycin (MTM), a cytotoxic compound, is currently being investigated for its anti-angiogenic activity that seems to be mediated through an inhibition of the transcription factor SP1. In this study we evaluated its anti-myeloma effects in the syngenic 5TGM1 model in vitro as well as in vivo. In vitro, MTM inhibited DNA synthesis of 5TGM1 cells with an IC50 of 400 nM and induced an arrest in cell cycle progression at the G1/S transition point. Western-blot revealed an up-regulation of p53, p21 and p27 and an inhibition of c-Myc, while SP1 remained unaffected. In rat aortic ring assays, a strong anti-angiogenic effect was seen, which could be explained by a decrease of VEGF production and an up-regulation of anti-angiogenic proteins such as IP10 after MTM treatment. The administration of MTM to mice injected with 5TGM1 decreased 5TGM1 cell invasion into bone marrow and myeloma neovascularisation. These data suggest that MTM displays anti-myeloma and anti-angiogenic effects that are not mediated by an inhibition of SP1 but rather through c-Myc inhibition and p53 activation.
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Sirtuin 1 promotes Th2 responses and airway allergy by repressing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? activity in dendritic cells.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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Sirtuins are a unique class of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that regulate diverse biological functions such as aging, metabolism, and stress resistance. Recently, it has been shown that sirtuins may have anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting proinflammatory transcription factors such as NF-?B. In contrast, we report in this study that pharmacological inhibition of sirtuins dampens adaptive Th2 responses and subsequent allergic inflammation by interfering with lung dendritic cell (DC) function in a mouse model of airway allergy. Using genetic engineering, we demonstrate that sirtuin 1 represses the activity of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? in DCs, thereby favoring their maturation toward a pro-Th2 phenotype. This study reveals a previously unappreciated function of sirtuin 1 in the regulation of DC function and Th2 responses, thus shedding new light on our current knowledge on the regulation of inflammatory processes by sirtuins.
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Potential therapeutic target discovery by 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis in mouse models of asthma.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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As asthma physiopathology is complex and not fully understood to date; it is expected that new key mediators are still to be unveiled in this disease. The main objective of this study was to discover potential new target proteins with a molecular weight >20 kDa by using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) on lung parenchyma extracts from control or allergen-exposed mice (ovalbumin). Two different mouse models leading to the development of acute airway inflammation (5 days allergen exposure) and airway remodeling (10 weeks allergen exposure) were used. This experimental setting allowed the discrimination of 33 protein spots in the acute inflammation model and 31 spots in the remodeling model displaying a differential expression. Several proteins were then identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Among those differentially expressed proteins, PDIA6, GRP78, Annexin A6, hnRPA3, and Enolase display an increased expression in lung parenchyma from mice exposed to allergen for 5 days. Conversely, Apolipoprotein A1 was shown to be decreased after allergen exposure in the same model. Analysis on lung parenchyma of mice exposed to allergens for 10 weeks showed decreased calreticulin levels. Changes in the levels of those different mediators were confirmed by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Interestingly, alveolar macrophages isolated from lungs in the acute inflammation model displayed enhanced levels of GRP78. Moreover, intratracheal instillation of anti-GRP78 siRNA in allergen-exposed animals led to a decrease in eosinophilic inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This study unveils new mediators of potential importance that are up- and down-regulated in asthma. Among up-regulated mediators, GRP-78 appears as a potential new therapeutic target worthy of further investigations.
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Biological aspects of angiogenesis in multiple myeloma.
Int. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2011
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Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the aberrant expansion of malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow (BM). One of the hallmarks of this disease is the close interaction between myeloma cells and neighboring cells within the BM. Angiogenesis, through the activation of endothelial cells, plays an essential role in MM biology. In the current review, we describe the angiogenesis process in MM by identifying the interacting cells, the pro- and anti-angiogenic cytokines modulated, and the extracellular matrix degrading proteases liable to participate in the pathophysiology. Finally, we highlight the impact of hypoxia (through hypoxia-inducible factor-1) and constitutive activation of nuclear factor-?B in this tumor-induced neo-vascularization.
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Inflammatory signatures for eosinophilic vs. neutrophilic allergic pulmonary inflammation reveal critical regulatory checkpoints.
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Contrary to the T-helper (Th)-2 bias and eosinophil-dominated bronchial inflammation encountered in most asthmatic subjects, other patients may exhibit neutrophil-predominant asthma subphenotypes, along with Th-1 and Th-17 cells. However, the etiology of many neutrophil-dominated asthma subphenotypes remains ill-understood, in part due to a lack of appropriate experimental models. To better understand the distinct immune-pathological features of eosinophilic vs. neutrophilic asthma types, we developed an ovalbumin (OVA)-based mouse model of neutrophil-dominated allergic pulmonary inflammation. Consequently, we probed for particular inflammatory signatures and checkpoints underlying the immune pathology in this new model, as well as in a conventional, eosinophil-dominated asthma model. Briefly, mice were OVA sensitized using either aluminum hydroxide (alum) or complete Freunds adjuvants, followed by OVA aerosol challenge. T-cell, granulocyte, and inflammatory mediator profiles were determined, along with alveolar macrophage genomewide transcriptome profiling. In contrast to the Th-2-dominated phenotype provoked by alum, OVA/ complete Freunds adjuvants adjuvant-based sensitization, followed by allergen challenge, elicited a pulmonary inflammation that was poorly controlled by dexamethasone, and in which Th-1 and Th-17 cells additionally participated. Analysis of the overall pulmonary and alveolar macrophage inflammatory mediator profiles revealed remarkable similarities between both models. Nevertheless, we observed pronounced differences in the IL-12/IFN-? axis and its control by IL-18 and IL-18 binding protein, but also in macrophage arachidonic acid metabolism and expression of T-cell instructive ligands. These differential signatures, superimposed onto a generic inflammatory signature, denote distinctive inflammatory checkpoints potentially involved in orchestrating neutrophil-dominated asthma.
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MicroRNAs profiling in murine models of acute and chronic asthma: a relationship with mRNAs targets.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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miRNAs are now recognized as key regulator elements in gene expression. Although they have been associated with a number of human diseases, their implication in acute and chronic asthma and their association with lung remodelling have never been thoroughly investigated.
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ADAM-8, a metalloproteinase, drives acute allergen-induced airway inflammation.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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Asthma is a complex disease linked to various pathophysiological events including the activity of proteinases. The multifunctional A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) displaying the ability to cleave membrane-bound mediators or cytokines appear to be key mediators in various inflammatory processes. In the present study, we investigated ADAM-8 expression and production in a mouse model of allergen-induced airway inflammation. In allergen-exposed animals, increased expression of ADAM-8 was found in the lung parenchyma and in DC purified from the lungs. The potential role of ADAM-8 in the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation was further investigated by the use of an anti-ADAM-8 antibody and ADAM-8 knockout animals. We observed a decrease in allergen-induced acute inflammation both in BALF and the peribronchial area in anti-ADAM-8 antibody-treated mice and in ADAM-8-deficient mice (ADAM-8(-/-) ) after allergen exposure. ADAM-8 depletion led to a significant decrease of the CD11c(+) lung DC. We also report lower levels of CCL11 and CCL22 production in antibody-treated mice and ADAM-8- deficient mice that might be explained by decreased eosinophilic inflammation and lower numbers of DC, respectively. In conclusion, ADAM-8 appears to favour allergen-induced acute airway inflammation by promoting DC recruitment and CCL11 and CCL22 production.
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Interferon response factor 3 is essential for house dust mite-induced airway allergy.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are critically involved in the pathophysiology of airway allergy, yet most of the signaling pathways downstream of PRRs implicated in allergic airway sensitization remain unknown.
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Mouse models to unravel the role of inhaled pollutants on allergic sensitization and airway inflammation.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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Air pollutant exposure has been linked to a rise in wheezing illnesses. Clinical data highlight that exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke (MS) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as well as exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) could promote allergic sensitization or aggravate symptoms of asthma, suggesting a role for these inhaled pollutants in the pathogenesis of asthma. Mouse models are a valuable tool to study the potential effects of these pollutants in the pathogenesis of asthma, with the opportunity to investigate their impact during processes leading to sensitization, acute inflammation and chronic disease. Mice allow us to perform mechanistic studies and to evaluate the importance of specific cell types in asthma pathogenesis. In this review, the major clinical effects of tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust exposure regarding to asthma development and progression are described. Clinical data are compared with findings from murine models of asthma and inhalable pollutant exposure. Moreover, the potential mechanisms by which both pollutants could aggravate asthma are discussed.
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Matrix metalloproteinase-19 deficiency promotes tenascin-C accumulation and allergen-induced airway inflammation.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2009
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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) recently appeared as key regulators of inflammation, allowing the recruitment and clearance of inflammatory cells and modifying the biological activity of many peptide mediators by cleavage. MMP-19 is newly described, and it preferentially cleaves matrix proteins such as collagens and tenascin-C. The role of MMP-19 in asthma has not been described to date. The present study sought to assess the expression of MMP-19 in a murine asthma model, and to address the biological effects of MMP-19 deficiency in mice. Allergen-exposed, wild-type mice displayed increased expression of MMP-19 mRNA and an increased number of MMP-19-positive cells in the lungs, as detected by immunohistochemistry. After an allergen challenge of MMP-19 knockout (MMP-19(-/-)) mice, exacerbated eosinophilic inflammation was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial tissue, along with increased airway responsiveness to methacholine. A shift toward increased T helper-2 lymphocyte (Th2)-driven inflammation in MMP-19(-/-) mice was demonstrated by (1) increased numbers of cells expressing the IL-33 receptor T(1)/ST(2) in lung parenchyma, (2) increased IgG(1) levels in serum, and (3) higher levels of IL-13 and eotaxin-1 in lung extracts. Tenascin-C was found to accumulate in peribronchial areas of MMP-19(-/-) after allergen challenges, as assessed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses. We conclude that MMP-19 is a new mediator in asthma, preventing tenascin-C accumulation and directly or indirectly controlling Th2-driven airway eosinophilia and airway hyperreactivity. Our data suggest that MMP-19 may act on Th2 inflammation homeostasis by preventing the accumulation of tenascin protein.
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Role of ADAM and ADAMTS metalloproteinases in airway diseases.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2009
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Lungs are exposed to the outside environment and therefore to toxic and infectious agents or allergens. This may lead to permanent activation of innate immune response elements. A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinases (ADAMs) and ADAMs with Thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) are proteinases closely related to Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs). These multifaceted molecules bear metalloproteinase and disintegrin domains endowing them with features of both proteinases and adhesion molecules. Proteinases of the ADAM family are associated to various physiological and pathological processes and display a wide spectrum of biological effects encompassing cell fusion, cell adhesion, "shedding process", cleavage of various substrates from the extracellular matrix, growth factors or cytokines... This review will focus on the putative roles of ADAM/ADAMTS proteinases in airway diseases such as asthma and COPD.
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Mouse models of asthma: a comparison between C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains regarding bronchial responsiveness, inflammation, and cytokine production.
Inflamm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
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Animal models of asthma mimic major features of human disease. Since the genetic background of experimental animals might affect hyperresponsiveness and inflammation, we studied its potential influence and the mechanisms leading to differences in strains.
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Lung interstitial macrophages alter dendritic cell functions to prevent airway allergy in mice.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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The respiratory tract is continuously exposed to both innocuous airborne antigens and immunostimulatory molecules of microbial origin, such as LPS. At low concentrations, airborne LPS can induce a lung DC-driven Th2 cell response to harmless inhaled antigens, thereby promoting allergic asthma. However, only a small fraction of people exposed to environmental LPS develop allergic asthma. What prevents most people from mounting a lung DC-driven Th2 response upon exposure to LPS is not understood. Here we have shown that lung interstitial macrophages (IMs), a cell population with no previously described in vivo function, prevent induction of a Th2 response in mice challenged with LPS and an experimental harmless airborne antigen. IMs, but not alveolar macrophages, were found to produce high levels of IL-10 and to inhibit LPS-induced maturation and migration of DCs loaded with the experimental harmless airborne antigen in an IL-10-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that specific in vivo elimination of IMs led to overt asthmatic reactions to innocuous airborne antigens inhaled with low doses of LPS. This study has revealed a crucial role for IMs in maintaining immune homeostasis in the respiratory tract and provides an explanation for the paradox that although airborne LPS has the ability to promote the induction of Th2 responses by lung DCs, it does not provoke airway allergy under normal conditions.
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Biomarker discovery in asthma-related inflammation and remodeling.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of airways. A network of reciprocal interactions between inflammatory cells, peptidic mediators, extracellular matrix components, and proteases is thought to be involved in the installation and maintenance of asthma-related airway inflammation and remodeling. To date, new proteic mediators displaying significant activity in the pathophysiology of asthma are still to be unveiled. The main objective of this study was to uncover potential target proteins by using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) on lung samples from mouse models of allergen-induced airway inflammation and remodeling. In this model, we pointed out several protein or peptide peaks that were preferentially expressed in diseased mice as compared to controls. We report the identification of different five proteins: found inflammatory zone 1 or RELM alpha (FIZZ-1), calcyclin (S100A6), clara cell secretory protein 10 (CC10), Ubiquitin, and Histone H4.
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New asthma biomarkers: lessons from murine models of acute and chronic asthma.
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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Many patients suffering from asthma are not fully controlled by currently available treatments, and some of them display an airway remodeling leading to exaggerated lung function decline. The aim of the present study was to unveil new mediators in asthma to better understand pathophysiology and propose or validate new potential therapeutic targets. A mouse model of asthma mimicking acute or chronic asthma disease was used to select genes undergoing a modulation in both acute and chronic conditions. Mice were exposed to ovalbumin or PBS for 1, 5, and 10 wk [short-, intermediate-, and long-term model (ST, IT, and LT)], and gene expression in the lung was studied using an Affymetrix 430 2.0 genome-wide microarray and further confirmed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry for selected targets. We report that 598, 1,406, and 117 genes were upregulated and 490, 153, 321 downregulated at ST, IT, and LT, respectively. Genes related to mucous secretion displayed a progressively amplified expression during the allergen exposure protocol, whereas genes corresponding to growth and differentiation factors, matrix metalloproteinases, and collagens were mainly upregulated at IT. By contrast, genes related to cell division were upregulated at ST and IT and were downregulated at LT. In this study, besides confirming that Arg1, Slc26a4, Ear11, and Mmp12 genes are highly modulated throughout the asthma pathology, we show for the first time that Agr2, Scin, and Cd209e genes are overexpressed throughout the allergen exposure and might therefore be considered as suitable new potential targets for the treatment of asthma.
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Comparison of acute inflammatory and chronic structural asthma-like responses between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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The interactions between airway responsiveness, structural remodelling and inflammation in allergic asthma remain poorly understood. Prolonged challenge with inhaled allergen is necessary to replicate many of the features of airway wall remodelling in mice. In both mice and humans, genetic differences can have a profound influence on allergy, inflammation, airway responsiveness and structural changes.
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Role of A disintegrin and metalloprotease-12 in neutrophil recruitment induced by airway epithelium.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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Among proteases, metalloproteases are implicated in tissue remodeling, as shown in numerous diseases including allergy. ADAMs (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease) metalloproteases are implicated in physiologic processes such as cytokine and growth factor shedding, cell migration, adhesion, or repulsion. Our aim was to measure ADAM-12 expression in airway epithelium and to define its role during the allergic response. To raise this question, we analyzed the ADAM-12 expression ex vivo after allergen exposure in patients with allergic rhinitis and in vitro in cultured primary human airway epithelial cells (AEC). Clones of BEAS-2B cells transfected with the full-length form of ADAM-12 were generated to study the consequences of ADAM-12 up-regulation on AEC function. After allergen challenge, a strong increase of ADAM-12 expression was observed in airway epithelium from patients with allergic rhinitis but not from control subjects. In contrast with the other HB-epidermal growth factor sheddases, ADAM-10 and -17, TNF-alpha in vitro increased the expression of ADAM-12 by AEC, an effect amplified by IL-4 and IL-13. Up-regulation of ADAM-12 in AEC increased the expression of alpha3 and alpha4 integrins and to the modulation of cell migration on fibronectin but not on collagen. Moreover, overexpression of ADAM-12 in BEAS-2B enhanced the secretion of CXCL1 and CXCL8 and their capacity to recruit neutrophils. CD47 was strongly decreased by ADAM-12 overexpression, a process associated with a reduced adhesion of neutrophils. These effects were mainly dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor activation. In summary, ADAM-12 is produced during allergic reaction by AEC and might increase neutrophil recruitment within airway mucosa.
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Matrix metalloproteinase 12 silencing: a therapeutic approach to treat pathological lung tissue remodeling?
Pulm Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
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Among the large matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) family, MMP-12, also referred to as macrophage elastase, plays a significant role in chronic pulmonary pathologies characterized by an intense tissue remodeling such as asthma and COPD. This review will summarize knowledge about MMP-12 structure, functions and mechanisms of activation and regulation, including potential MMP-12 modulation by microRNA. As MMP-12 is involved in many tissue remodeling diseases, efforts have been made to develop specific synthetic inhibitors. However, at this time, very few chemical inhibitors have proved to be efficient and specific to a particular MMP. The relevance of silencing MMP-12 by RNA interference is highlighted. The specificity of this approach using siRNA or shRNA and the strategies to deliver these molecules in the lung are discussed.
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Resident CD11b(+)Ly6C(-) lung dendritic cells are responsible for allergic airway sensitization to house dust mite in mice.
PLoS ONE
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Conventional dendritic cells (DCs) are considered to be the prime initiators of airway allergy. Yet, it remains unclear whether specific DC subsets are preferentially involved in allergic airway sensitization. Here, we systematically assessed the respective pro-allergic potential of individually sorted lung DC subsets isolated from house dust mite antigen (HDM)-treated donor mice, following transfer to naïve recipients. Transfer of lung CD11c(+)CD11b(+) DCs, but not CD11c(+)CD11b(-)CD103(+) DCs, was sufficient to prime airway allergy. The CD11c(+)CD11b(+) DC subpopulation was composed of CD11c(+)CD11b(+)Ly6C(+) inflammatory monocyte-derived cells, whose numbers increase in the lungs following HDM exposure, and of CD11c(+)CD11b(+)Ly6C(-) DCs, which remain stable. Counterintuitively, only CD11c(+)CD11b(+)Ly6C(-) DCs, and not CD11c(+)CD11b(+)Ly6C(+) DCs, were able to convey antigen to the lymph nodes and induce adaptive T cell responses and subsequent airway allergy. Our results thus support that lung resident non-inflammatory CD11c(+)CD11b(+)Ly6C(-) DCs are the essential inducers of allergic airway sensitization to the common aeroallergen HDM in mice.
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Control of allergen-induced inflammation and hyperresponsiveness by the metalloproteinase ADAMTS-12.
J. Immunol.
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A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) constitute a family of endopeptidases related to matrix metalloproteinases. These proteinases have been largely implicated in tissue remodeling associated with pathological processes. Among them, ADAMTS12 was identified as an asthma-associated gene in a human genome screening program. However, its functional implication in asthma is not yet documented. The present study aims at investigating potential ADAMTS-12 functions in experimental models of allergic airways disease. Two different in vivo protocols of allergen-induced airways disease were applied to the recently generated Adamts12-deficient mice and corresponding wild-type mice. In this study, we provide evidence for a protective effect of ADAMTS-12 against bronchial inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. In the absence of Adamts12, challenge with different allergens (OVA and house dust mite) led to exacerbated eosinophilic inflammation in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in lung tissue, along with airway dysfunction assessed by increased airway responsiveness following methacholine exposure. Furthermore, mast cell counts and ST2 receptor and IL-33 levels were higher in the lungs of allergen-challenged Adamts12-deficient mice. The present study provides, to our knowledge, the first experimental evidence for a contribution of ADAMTS-12 as a key mediator in airways disease, interfering with immunological processes leading to inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness.
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Nebulized anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody Fab fragment reduces allergen-induced asthma.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
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IL-13 is a prototypic T helper type 2 cytokine and a central mediator of the complex cascade of events leading to asthmatic phenotype. Indeed, IL-13 plays key roles in IgE synthesis, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, and eosinophil infiltration. We assessed the potential efficacy of inhaled anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody Fab fragment on allergen-induced airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling in an experimental model of allergic asthma. Anti-IL-13 Fab was administered to mice as a liquid aerosol generated by inExpose inhalation system in a tower allowing a nose-only exposure. BALB/c mice were treated by PBS, anti-IL-13 Fab, or A33 Fab fragment and subjected to ovalbumin exposure for 1 and 5 weeks (short-term and long-term protocols). Our data demonstrate a significant antiasthma effect after nebulization of anti-IL-13 Fab in a model of asthma driven by allergen exposure as compared with saline and nonimmune Fab fragments. In short- and long-term protocols, administration of the anti-IL-13 Fab by inhalation significantly decreased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid eosinophilia, inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue, and many features of airway remodeling. Levels of proinflammatory mediators and matrix metalloprotease were significantly lower in lung parenchyma of mice treated with anti-IL-13 Fab. These data demonstrate that an inhaled anti-IL-13 Fab significantly reduces airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling. Specific neutralization of IL-13 in the lungs using an inhaled anti-IL-13 Fab could represent a novel and effective therapy for the treatment of asthma.
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Matrix metalloproteinase-2 governs lymphatic vessel formation as an interstitial collagenase.
Blood
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Lymphatic dysfunctions are associated with several human diseases, including lymphedema and metastatic spread of cancer. Although it is well recognized that lymphatic capillaries attach directly to interstitial matrix mainly composed of fibrillar type I collagen, the interactions occurring between lymphatics and their surrounding matrix have been overlooked. In this study, we demonstrate how matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 drives lymphatic morphogenesis through Mmp2-gene ablation in mice, mmp2 knockdown in zebrafish and in 3D-culture systems, and through MMP2 inhibition. In all models used in vivo (3 murine models and thoracic duct development in zebrafish) and in vitro (lymphatic ring and spheroid assays), MMP2 blockage or down-regulation leads to reduced lymphangiogenesis or altered vessel branching. Our data show that lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) migration through collagen fibers is affected by physical matrix constraints (matrix composition, density, and cross-linking). Transmission electron microscopy and confocal reflection microscopy using DQ-collagen highlight the contribution of MMP2 to mesenchymal-like migration of LECs associated with collagen fiber remodeling. Our findings provide new mechanistic insight into how LECs negotiate an interstitial type I collagen barrier and reveal an unexpected MMP2-driven collagenolytic pathway for lymphatic vessel formation and morphogenesis.
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Proinflammatory cytokines induce bronchial hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia in smokers: implications for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease therapy.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
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Tracheobronchial squamous metaplasia is common in smokers, and is associated with both airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and increased risk of lung cancer. Although this reversible epithelial replacement is almost always observed in association with chronic inflammation, the role of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of squamous metaplasia remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the implication of cigarette smoke-mediated proinflammatory cytokine up-regulation in the development and treatment of tracheobronchial epithelial hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia. Using immunohistological techniques, we showed a higher epithelial expression of TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6, as well as an activation of NF-?B and activator protein-1/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in the respiratory tract of smoking patients, compared with the normal ciliated epithelium of nonsmoking patients. In addition, we demonstrated that these signaling pathways strongly influence the proliferation and differentiation state of in vitro-generated normal human airway epithelial basal cells. Finally, we exposed mice to cigarette smoke for 16 weeks, and demonstrated that anti-TNF-? (etanercept), anti-IL-1? (anakinra), and/or anti-IL-6R (tocilizumab) therapies significantly reduced epithelial hyperplasia and the development of squamous metaplasia. These data highlight the importance of soluble inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of tracheobronchial squamous metaplasia. Therefore, the administration of proinflammatory cytokine antagonists may have clinical applications in the management of patients with COPD.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.