There are limited data on the outcomes of autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in diffuse large B cell lymphoma transformed from follicular lymphoma. We analyzed transplantation outcomes in 141 subjects with biopsy-proven diffuse large B-cell lymphoma transformed from follicular lymphoma reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 1990 and 2009. Two groups were identified: autologous HCT (auto-HCT; n = 108) and allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT; n = 33). Fewer auto-HCTs were done for transformed follicular lymphoma in 2003 to 2009, with a shift favoring allo-HCT. Auto-HCT was associated with a 1-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) of 8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4% to 14%), 5-year progression-free survival of 35% (95% CI, 26% to 45%), and 5-year overall survival of 50% (95% CI, 40% to 59%). In contrast, allo-HCT was associated with a 1-year NRM of 41% (95% CI, 23% to 58%), 5-year progression-free survival of 18% (95% CI, 6% to 35%), and 5-year overall survival of 22% (95% CI, 8% to 41%). Auto-HCT for transformed follicular lymphoma achieves sustained remission in a high proportion of subjects. The high NRM of allo-HCT offset any benefit that might be associated with this transplantation modality.
The survival of patients with relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) is very poor. We studied the outcomes of 302 patients who underwent secondary allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) from an unrelated donor (URD) using either myeloablative (n = 242) or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC; n = 60) regimens reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research. After a median follow-up of 58 months (range, 2 to 160 months), the probability of treatment-related mortality was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38%-50%) at 1-year. The 5-year incidence of relapse was 32% (95% CI, 27%-38%), and that of overall survival was 22% (95% CI, 18%-27%). Multivariate analysis revealed a significantly better overal survival with RIC regimens (hazard ratio [HR], 0.51; 95% CI, 0.35-0.75; P <.001), with Karnofsky Performance Status score ?90% (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47-0.82: P = .001) and in cytomegalovirus-negative recipients (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.94; P = .022). A longer interval (>18 months) from auto-HCT to URD allo-HCT was associated with significantly lower riak of relapse (HR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.09-0.38; P <.001) and improved leukemia-free survival (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34-0.84; P = .006). URD allo-HCT after auto-HCT relapse resulted in 20% long-term leukemia-free survival, with the best results seen in patients with a longer interval to secondary URD transplantation, with a Karnofsky Performance Status score ?90%, in complete remission, and using an RIC regimen. Further efforts to reduce treatment-related mortaility and relapse are still needed.
Pre-existing central nervous system (CNS) involvement may influence referral for autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The outcomes of 151 adult patients with NHL with prior secondary CNS involvement (CNS(+) ) receiving an AHCT were compared to 4688 patients without prior CNS lymphoma (CNS(-) ). There were significant baseline differences between the cohorts. CNS(+) patients were more likely to be younger, have lower performance scores, higher age-adjusted international prognostic index scores, more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, more aggressive histology, more sites of extranodal disease, and a shorter interval between diagnosis and AHCT. However, no statistically significant differences were identified between the two groups by analysis of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years. A matched pair comparison of the CNS(+) group with a subset of CNS(-) patients matched on propensity score also showed no differences in outcomes. Patients with active CNS lymphoma at the time of AHCT (n = 55) had a higher relapse rate and diminished PFS and OS compared with patients whose CNS lymphoma was in remission (n = 96) at the time of AHCT. CNS(+) patients can achieve excellent long-term outcomes with AHCT. Active CNS lymphoma at transplant confers a worse prognosis.
Patients with chemorefractory non-Hodgkin lymphomas generally have a poor prognosis. We used the observational database of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to study the outcome of 533 patients with refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or grade III follicular lymphoma (FL-III) who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) using either myeloablative (MA; n = 307) or reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC/NST; n = 226) between 1998 and 2010. We analyzed nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse/progression, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Only 45% of the patients at transplantation had a Karnofsky performance score of ?90%. Median follow-up of surviving patients after MA and RIC/NST allo-HCT is 35 months and 30 months, respectively. At 3 years, MA allo-HCT was associated with a higher NRM compared with RIC/NST (53% versus 42%; P = .03), similar PFS (19% versus 23%; P = .40), and lower OS (19% versus 28%; P = .02), respectively. On multivariate analysis, FL-III histology was associated with lower NRM (relative risk [RR], .52), reduced risk of relapse/progression (RR, .42), and superior PFS (RR, .51) and OS (RR, .53), whereas MA conditioning was associated with reduced risk of relapse/progression (RR, .66). Despite a refractory state, a small subset of DLBCL and FL-III patients can attain durable remissions after allo-HCT. Conditioning regimen intensity was not associated with PFS and OS despite a higher risk of relapse/progression with RIC/NST allo-HCT.
Patients with chemorefractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) have a poor prognosis. We used the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database to study the outcome of 202 patients with refractory MCL who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) using either myeloablative (MA) or reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC/NST), during 1998-2010. We analyzed nonrelapse mortality (NRM), progression/relapse, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Seventy-four patients (median age, 54 years) received MA, and 128 patients (median age, 59 years) received RIC/NST. Median follow-up after allo-HCT was 35 months in the MA group and 43 months in the RIC/NST group. At 3 years post-transplantation, no significant between-group differences were seen in terms of NRM (47% in MA versus 43% in RIC/NST; P = .68), relapse/progression (33% versus 32%; P = .89), PFS (20% versus 25%; P = .53), or OS (25% versus 30%; P = .45). Multivariate analysis also revealed no significant between-group differences in NRM, relapse, PFS, or OS; however, receipt of a bone marrow or T cell-depleted allograft was associated with an increased risk of NRM and inferior PFS and OS. Our data suggest that despite a refractory disease state, approximately 25% of patients with MCL can attain durable remission after allo-HCT, and conditioning regimen intensity does not influence outcome of allo-HCT.
Obesity has implications for chemotherapy dosing and selection of patients for therapy. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (AutoHCT) improves outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma, but optimal chemotherapy dosing for obese patients is poorly defined. We analyzed the outcomes of 1087 recipients of AutoHCT for myeloma reported to the CIBMTR between 1995 and 2003 who received high-dose melphalan conditioning, with or without total body irradiation (TBI). We categorized patients by body mass index (BMI) as normal, overweight, obese, or severely obese. There was no overall effect of BMI on progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), progression, or nonrelapse mortality (NRM). In patients receiving melphalan and TBI conditioning, obese and severely obese patients had superior PFS and OS compared with normal and overweight patients, but the clinical significance of this finding is unclear. More obese patients were more likely to receive a reduced dose of melphalan, but there was no evidence that melphalan or TBI dosing variability affected PFS. Therefore, current common strategies of dosing melphalan do not impair outcomes for obese patients, and obesity should not exclude patients from consideration of autologous transplantation. Further research is necessary to optimize dosing of both chemotherapy and radiation in obese patients.
The neuroprotective effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were reported in several neurological disease models, including Parkinsons disease (PD). In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of G-CSF after the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD was established. G-CSF was subcutaneously administered into C57BL/6 mice that had undergone systemic MPTP injections. We found that G-CSF treatment markedly increased the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of the G-CSF-treated group. Consistent with this finding, we found a significant increase in dopamine release under high K(+) stimulation in the striatum of the G-CSF-treated animals compared to the MPTP-exposed mice. Finally, we observed a persistent recovery of locomotor function in the G-CSF-treated animals. These results suggest the potential therapeutic value of G-CSF in treating PD. However, our bromodeoxyuridine labeling experiment failed to identify any newly generated dopaminergic neurons in SNpc. This might indicate an indirect effect of G-CSF on cell proliferation. The underlying mechanism of G-CSF is under further investigation.
The poor prognosis of patients with prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) has led some clinicians to recommend allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). However, the data to support this approach is limited to case-reports and small case series. We reviewed the database of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) to determine outcomes after allotransplant for patients with PLL. We identified 47 patients with a median age of 54 years (range: 30-75 years). With a median follow-up of 13 months, progression-free survival (PFS) was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI] 20%-47%) at 1 year. The most common cause of death was relapse or progression in 49%. The cumulative incidence of treatment-related mortality (TRM) at 1-year posttransplant was 28%. The small patient population prohibited prognostic factor analysis, but these data support consideration of allotransplant for PLL. Further study of a larger population of patients is needed to determine which patients are more likely to benefit.
Success of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can vary by race, but the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) is not known. To evaluate the role of race and SES, we studied 6207 unrelated-donor myeloablative (MA) HCT recipients transplanted between 1995 and 2004 for acute or chronic leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Patients were reported by transplant center to be White (n = 5253), African American (n = 368), Asian/Pacific-Islander (n = 141), or Hispanic (n = 445). Patient income was estimated from residential zip code at time of HCT. Cox regression analysis adjusting for other significant factors showed that African American (but not Asian or Hispanic) recipients had worse overall survival (OS) (relative-risk [RR] 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-1.68, P < .001) compared to Whites. Treatment-related mortality (TRM) was higher in African Americans (RR 1.56; 95% CI 1.34-1.83, P < .001) and in Hispanics (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.11-1.51, P = .001). Across all racial groups, patients with median incomes in the lowest quartile (<$34,700) had worse OS (RR 1.15; 95% CI 1.04-1.26, P = .005) and higher risks of TRM (RR 1.21; 1.07-1.36, P = .002). Inferior outcomes among African Americans are not fully explained by transplant-related factors or SES. Potential other mechanisms such as genetic polymorphisms that have an impact on drug metabolism or unmeasured comorbidities, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviors may be important. Low SES, regardless of race, has a negative impact on unrelated donor HCT outcomes.
Incorporation of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab into front-line regimens to treat diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has resulted in improved survival. Despite this progress, however, many patients develop refractory or recurrent DLBCL and then undergo autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AuHCT). It is unclear to what extent pre-transplant exposure to rituximab affects outcomes after AuHCT. Outcomes of 994 patients receiving AuHCT for DLBCL between 1996 and 2003 were analyzed according to whether rituximab was (n = 176; +R cohort) or was not (n = 818; -R cohort) administered with front-line or salvage therapy before AuHCT. The +R cohort had superior progression-free survival (PFS; 50% vs 38%; P = .008) and overall survival (OS; 57% vs 45%; P = .006) at 3 years. Platelet and neutrophil engraftment were not affected by exposure to rituximab. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) did not differ significantly between the 2 cohorts. In multivariate analysis, the +R cohort had improved PFS (relative risk of relapse/progression or death, 0.64; P < .001) and improved OS (relative risk of death, 0.74; P = .039). We conclude that pre-transplant rituximab is associated with a lower rate of progression and improved survival after AuHCT for DLBCL, with no evidence of impaired engraftment or increased NRM.
Although peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) have replaced bone marrow (BM) as the most common unrelated donor progenitor cell product collected, a direct comparison of concurrent PBSC versus BM donation experiences has not been performed. We report a prospective study of 2726 BM and 6768 PBSC donors who underwent collection from 2004 to 2009. Pain and toxicities were assessed at baseline, during G-CSF administration, on the day of collection, within 48 hours of donation, and weekly until full recovery. Peak levels of pain and toxicities did not differ between the 2 donation processes for most donors. Among obese donors, PBSC donors were at increased risk of grade 2 to 4 pain as well as grade 2 to 4 toxicities during the pericollection period. In contrast, BM donors were more likely to experience grade 2 to 4 toxicities at 1 week and pain at 1 week and 1 month after the procedure. BM donors experienced slower recovery, with 3% still not fully recovered at 24 weeks, whereas 100% of PBSC donors had recovered. Other factors associated with toxicity included obesity, increasing age, and female sex. In summary, this study provides extensive detail regarding individualized risk patterns of PBSC versus BM donation toxicity, suggesting donor profiles that can be targeted with interventions to minimize toxicity.
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