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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Analysis of ornithine transcarbamylase gene mutations in three boys affected with late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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To identify the types of OTC gene mutations in three male patients with late onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD, MIM #311250).
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Composition, removal, redox, and metal complexation properties of dissolved organic nitrogen in composting leachates.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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This study investigated the composition, removal, redox, and metal complexation characteristics of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in composting leachates. Results showed that the leachate-derived DON comprised proteinaceous compounds and amines, and most of them were integrated into the fulvic- and humic-like substances. Neutral, basic, acidic, hydroxylic, aromatic, and sulfuric amino acids all were detected in the influent leachates. However, most of them were removed by the biological and physical processes, and only neutral amino acids were detected in the effluent. The DON was not the main contributor to the redox capability of the leachate dissolved organic matter (DOM). However, it exhibited a strong capability for metal complexation. The amines formed strong complexes with the metals Mo, Co, Cr, and Ni, while the proteinaceous matter interacted with the metals Cr and Ni.
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Absorption characteristics of the total alkaloids from Mahonia bealei in an in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion assay.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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To investigate the absorption characteristics of the total alkaloids from Mahoniae Caulis (TAMC) through the administration of monterpene absorption enhancers or protein inhibitors.
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Expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 and protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 in the synovium of collagen-induced arthritis rats.
Chin. Med. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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To study the expression level of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PADI4) and protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) in the synovium of rat model of collagen-induced arthritis, and to explore their possible therapeutic role in rheumatoid arthritis.
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16?,17?-Epoxypregnenolone-20-oxime prevent LPS-induced NO production and iNOS expression in BV-2 microglial cells by inhibiting JNK phosphorylation.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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The free radical nitric oxide (NO), a main member of neuroinflammatory cytokine and a gaseous molecule produced by activated microglia, has many physiological functions, including neuroinflammation. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of serial 16-dehydropregnenolone-3-acetate derivatives on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in BV-2 microglial cells. Among the six derivatives tested, the increases in NO production and iNOS expression observed in BV-2 microglial cells after LPS stimulation were significantly inhibited by treatment with 16?, 17?-epoxypregnenolone-20-oxime. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of 16?,17?-epoxypregnenolone-20-oxime on NO production was similar to that of S-methylisothiourea sulfate (SMT), an iNOS inhibitor. Further studies showed that 16?,17?-epoxypregnenolone-20-oxime inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation but not inhibitor kappa B (I?B)-? degradation. Our data in LPS-stimulated microglia cells suggest that 16?,17?-epoxypregnenolone-20-oxime might be a candidate therapeutic for treatment of NO induced neuroinflammation and could be a novel iNOS inhibitor.
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Cortical source multivariate EEG synchronization analysis on amnestic mild cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Is synchronization altered in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal cognitive functions subjects in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)? Resting eye-closed EEG data were recorded in 8 aMCI subjects and 11 age-matched controls in T2DM. Three multivariate synchronization algorithms (S-estimator (S), synchronization index (SI), and global synchronization index (GSI)) were used to measure the synchronization in five ROIs of sLORETA sources for seven bands. Results showed that aMCI group had lower synchronization values than control groups in parietal delta and beta2 bands, temporal delta and beta2 bands, and occipital theta and beta2 bands significantly. Temporal (r = 0.629; P = 0.004) and occipital (r = 0.648; P = 0.003) theta S values were significantly positive correlated with Boston Name Testing. In sum, each of methods reflected that the cortical source synchronization was significantly different between aMCI and control group, and these difference correlated with cognitive functions.
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[Difference of contaminant composition between landfill leachates and groundwater and its reasons].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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In order to investigate the groundwater pollution by landfill leachates, the distribution characteristics of inorganic salt, organic compounds and heavy metals in leachastes from a simple landfill and groundwater and its reason were study using conventional analysis, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the landfill was heterogeneous, and the extracts from the landfill wastes showed a high concentration of NH4(+) -N, but low contents of Cl-, SO4(2-), dissolved organic matter (DOM) and heavy metals. The nitrification process was blocked due to a strong reducing atmosphere in landfill, which caused a low concentration of NO3(-) -N and NO2(-) -N in leachates. Cu was mainly associated with DOM in leachates, while the distribution of the metals Ba, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and As was primarily related to hydrophobic organic compounds. The contaminate compositions in different groundwater were similar except for the groundwater under the landfill site. In contrast to landfill leachates, the groundwater showed a low concentration of NH4(+) -N, but high concentrations of Cl-, SO4(2-), DOM, NO3(-) -N and NO2(-) -N except for the groundwater under the landfill site. The organic compounds in the groundwater were mainly originated from microbial activity, and the distribution of the metals Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni was mainly related to fluorescecent organic matter in DOM. The results showed that the leak point of landfill leachates can be identified through the cluster analysis method on the basis of the contaminant composition in groundwater.
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[Genetic analysis of ASS1, ASL and SLC25A13 in citrullinemia patients].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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To detect potential mutations of Y9ASS1, ASL and SLC25A13 genes in four patients manifesting citrullinemia.
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Tandem Michael addition-ring transformation reactions of 3-hydroxyoxindoles/3-aminooxindoles with olefinic azlactones: direct access to structurally diverse spirocyclic oxindoles.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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An efficient method for the direct construction of two classes of spirocyclic oxindoles by the reactions of 3-hydroxyoxindoles/3-aminooxindoles and (Z)-olefinic azlactones through a tandem Michael addition-ring transformation process has been developed. With DBU as the catalyst, a range of spiro-butyrolactoneoxindoles and spiro-butyrolactamoxindoles, containing an oxygen or a nitrogen heteroatom, respectively, in the spiro stereocenter, were smoothly obtained with good to excellent diastereoselectivities in high yields.
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Isolated pancreatic tuberculosis in non-immunocompromised patient treated by Whipple's procedure: a case report.
Chin. Med. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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PANCREATIC tuberculosis (TB) is a rare disease and its diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of specific clinical manifestations. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have some diagnostic values in this disease, but it is easy to misdiagnose pancreatic TB as a pancreatic tumor.1 In this article, we present a case of non-immunocompromised patient developing an isolated pancreatic TB, report the CT and MRI findings, and the surgical procedure for it.
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Biotechnological production and applications of Cordyceps militaris, a valued traditional Chinese medicine.
Crit. Rev. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Abstract Cordyceps militaris is a potential harborer of biometabolites for herbal drugs. For a long time, C. militaris has gained considerable significance in several clinical and biotechnological applications. Much knowledge has been gathered with regard to the C. militaris's importance in the genetic resources, nutritional and environmental requirements, mating behavior and biochemical pharmacological properties. The complete genome of C. militaris has recently been sequenced. This fungus has been the subject of many reviews, but few have focused on its biotechnological production of bioactive constituents. This mini-review focuses on the recent advances in the biotechnological production of bioactive compositions of C. militaris and the latest advances on novel applications from this laboratory and many others.
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Unification of the family of Garrison-Wright's phases.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Inspired by Garrison and Wight's seminal work on complex-valued geometric phases, we generalize the concept of Pancharatnam's "in-phase" in interferometry and further develop a theoretical framework for unification of the abelian geometric phases for a biorthogonal quantum system modeled by a parameterized or time-dependent nonhermitian hamiltonian with a finite and nondegenerate instantaneous spectrum, that is, the family of Garrison-Wright's phases, which will no longer be confined in the adiabatic and nonadiabatic cyclic cases. Besides, we employ a typical example, Bethe-Lamb model, to illustrate how to apply our theory to obtain an explicit result for the Garrison-Wright's noncyclic geometric phase, and also to present its potential applications in quantum computation and information.
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Characterizing the heavy metal-complexing potential of fluorescent water-extractable organic matter from composted municipal solid wastes using fluorescence excitation–emission matrix spectra coupled with parallel factor analysis.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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To investigate the effect of organic matter evolution on heavy metal sorption, fluorescence excitation–emission matrix (EEM) spectra combined with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis were employed to characterize the evolution and metal-complexing potential of fluorescent water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from composted municipal solid wastes (MSWs). The WEOMs examined comprised humic-, fulvic-, tryptophan-, and tyrosine-like substances. Composting treatment increased the content of humic- and fulvic-like matter, and changed the existence pattern of tryptophan- and tyrosine-like substances (i.e., the tryptophan- and tyrosine-like substances from uncomposted MSWs were mainly bound in protein-like matter, whereas those from composted MSWs were primarily bound in humic- and fulvic-like substances). Furthermore, composting treatment increased the polar functional group, aromaticity, and humification degree of the WEOMs, but decreased the aliphatic and hydroxyl group. These evolutions decreased the Cu(II) affinities of fulvic- and humic-like substances and the Pb(II) affinities and complexing capacities of fulvic-like substances, but increased the Cu(II) complexing capacities of fulvic- and humic-like substances. These results reveal that mature composts from the MSWs can be used for the remediation of Cu- and Pb-contaminated soils in situ, whereas immature composts can enhance the metal transferability from soil to plant.
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Influence of the composition and removal characteristics of organic matter on heavy metal distribution in compost leachates.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Compost leachates were collected to investigate the influence of the composition and removal of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), humic-like substances (HSs), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) on heavy metal distribution during the leachate treatment process. The results showed that acetic and propionic acids accounted for 81.3 to 93.84% of VFAs, and that these acids were removed by the anaerobic-aerobic process. Humic- and fulvic-like substances were detected by excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis, and their content significantly decreased after the anaerobic and membrane treatments. DON in compost leachates ranged from 26.53 mg L(-1) to 919.46 mg L(-1), comprised of dissolved free amino acids and the protein-like matter bound to humic- and fulvic-like substances, and was removed by the aerobic process. Correlation analysis showed that Mn, Ni, and Pb were bound to VFAs and protein-, fulvic-, and humic-like substances in the leachates. Co was primarily bound to fulvic- and humic-like matter and inorganic sulfurs, whereas Cu, Zn, and Cd interacted with inorganic sulfur.
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Sustained PDGF-BB release from PHBHHx loaded nanoparticles in 3D hydrogel/stem cell model.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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This study aimed to design a growth factor loaded copolyester of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (PHBHHx) nanoparticles containing 3D collagen matrix to achieve growth factor sustained release for long-term stimulation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) proliferation/differentiation for tissue engineer application. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), which is known to enhance hMSCs proliferation in human serum, was selected as a model growth factor, and biodegradable copolyester of PHBHHx was chosen to be the sustained release vehicle. PDGF-BB phospholipid complex encapsulated PHBHHx nanoparticles were fabricated, and their effect on hMSCs proliferation was investigated via assays of CCK-8 and live-dead staining to cells inoculated in 2D tissue culture plates and 3D collagen gel scaffolds, respectively. The resulting spherical PHBHHx nanoparticles were stable in terms of their mean particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential before and after lyophilization. In vitro study revealed a sustained release of PDGF-BB with a low burst release. Furthermore, sustained released PDGF-BB was revealed to significantly promote hMSCs proliferation in both cell monolayer and cell seeded 3D collagen scaffolds inoculated in serum-free media. Therefore, the 3D collagen matrices with locally sustained release growth factor nanoparticles hold promise to be used for stem cell tissue engineering. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014.
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The influences of PRG-1 on the expression of small RNAs and mRNAs.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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In metazoans, Piwi-related Argonaute proteins play important roles in maintaining germline integrity and fertility and have been linked to a class of germline-enriched small RNAs termed piRNAs. Caenorhabditis elegans encodes two Piwi family proteins called PRG-1 and PRG-2, and PRG-1 interacts with the C. elegans piRNAs (21U-RNAs). Previous studies found that mutation of prg-1 causes a marked reduction in the expression of 21U-RNAs, temperature-sensitive defects in fertility and other phenotypic defects.
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Influence of chemical and structural evolution of dissolved organic matter on electron transfer capacity during composting.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can mediate electron transfer and change chemical speciation of heavy metals. In this study, the electron transfer capability (ETC) of compost-derived DOM was investigated through electrochemical approaches, and the factors influencing the ETC were studied using spectral and elemental analysis. The results showed that the electron accepting capacity (EAC) and electron donating capacity (EDC) of compost-derived DOM were 3.29-40.14?mole- (gC)(-1) and 57.1- 346.07?mole- (gC)(-1), respectively. Composting treatment increased the fulvic- and humic-like substance content, oxygenated aliphatic carbon content, lignin-derived aromatic carbon content, molecule weight, and N and S content of DOM, but decreased the aliphatic carbon content and the C and H content. This conversion increased the EDC and EAC of the DOM during composting.
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Hybrid magnetic cross-linked enzyme aggregates of phenylalanine ammonia lyase from Rhodotorula glutinis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Novel hybrid magnetic cross-linked enzyme aggregates of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (HM-PAL-CLEAs) were developed by co-aggregation of enzyme aggregates with magnetite nanoparticles and subsequent crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. The HM-PAL-CLEAs can be easily separated from the reaction mixture by using an external magnetic field. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) indicated that PAL-CLEAs were inlayed in nanoparticle aggregates. The HM-PAL-CLEAs revealed a broader limit in optimal pH compared to free enzyme and PAL-CLEAs. Although there is no big difference in Km of enzyme in CLEAs and HM-PAL-CLEAs, Vmax of HM-PAL-CLEAs is about 1.75 times higher than that of CLEAs. Compared with free enzyme and PAL-CLEAs, the HM-PAL-CLEAs also exhibited the highest thermal stability, denaturant stability and storage stability. The HM-PAL-CLEAs retained 30% initial activity even after 11 cycles of reuse, whereas PAL-CLEAs retained 35% of its initial activity only after 7 cycles. These results indicated that hybrid magnetic CLEAs technology might be used as a feasible and efficient solution for improving properties of immobilized enzyme in industrial application.
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[Clinical investigation and mutation analysis of a child with citrin deficiency complicated with purpura, convulsive seizures and methioninemia].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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To analyze the clinical features and SLC25A13 gene mutations of a child with citrin deficiency complicated with purpura, convulsive seizures and methioninemia.
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Solution-phase parallel syntheses of herbicidal 1-phenyl-2,4,5- imidazolidinetriones and 2-thioxo-4,5-imidazolidinediones.
Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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In order to find new herbicidally active compounds, a fifteen-member library, focusing on the variation of 3- position substituents of 2,4,5-imidazolidine-trione or 2-thioxo-4,5-imidazolidinedione, was designed and prepared in parallel by the reaction of various ureas or thioureas with oxalyl chloride using solution-phase technology. An interesting and, to the best of our knowledge, unprecedented finding is that a by-product of 1-phenyl-3-propylcarbodiimide was formed during the addition of oxalyl chloride into the solution of 1-phenyl-3-propylthiourea in the presence of triethylamine in dichloromethane. It has been shown that the herbicidal activity of 2,4,5-imidazolidinetriones is about the same as that of their analogous 2-thioxo-4,5-imidazolidinediones. Compound with propyl or isopropyl group at the 3- position of 2,4,5-imidazolidinetrione ring demonstrated good herbicidal activity. The most active compound, 1-(2-fluoro- 4-chloro-5-propargyloxy)-phenyl-3-propyl-2-thioxo-4,5-imidazolidinedione, gave 95% control of the growth of velvetleaf at 200 g/ha in the post-emergence test.
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[Study on diabetes-induced cognitive impairment].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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The diabetes-induced cognitive impairment complications have serious effects on the patients lives, and there is an enormous and financial burden on patients, their families and society as a whole. This review investigates the current research status of diabetes-induced cognitive impairment from different view points including molecular, models, clinics and electrophysiology. The relationship between diabetes and cognitive function and developments of research are hereby summarized. And finally, future issues of diabetes-induced cognitive impairments are pointed out, and the effective rehabilitation methods should be considered.
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[Composition and transformation of leachates during municipal solid waste composting].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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The composition and evolution characteristics of inorganic anions, ammonia, heavy metals and organic compounds in leachates with different composing times were studied in a composting plant in order to clarify its composition and evolution and search for a suitable processing technology. The results showed that concentrations of EC, F-, Cl-, SO4(2-) and NH4(+) -N decreased during the composting process, while the contents of NO2(-) -N, NO3(-) -N and Org-N were related to the oxidation reduction atmosphere of leachates. The Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and As concentrations in leachates exhibited a decrease trend during the composting process, while contents of heavy metals Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn showed an increase trend with increasing composting time. The composting leachate organics comprised mainly of protein-like substance, but also consisted of humic-like substances. The leachate organics were suitable to be treated by biochemical process firstly, and then by physico-chemical technique. The relative content of protein-like substances firstly increased and then decreased, while that of humic-like matter exhibited an opposite trend. The contents of salinity and heavy metal in compost leachates were high, which caused the improper reflux utilization of leachates. The compost leachates should be treated by the combined biochemical and physico-chemical process before emission.
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[Fundus images mosaicking based on edge extended phase correlation].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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With regard to the large amount of calculation in image mosaic algorithm, an image mosaic algorithm based on extended phase correlation of edge is presented. The improved wavelet edge detection algorithm is to detect edge of blood vessels. Then the image translation, rotation and scale changes are calculated by the extended phase correlation method. These parameters are utilized to stitch images. Finally, image fusion can be achieved by fade-in-fade-out method. It is proved by experiments that this algorithm is simple to calculate, and can effectively achieve the image mosaic.
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Effects of epidermal growth factor receptor and phosphatase and tensin homologue gene expression on the inhibition of U87MG glioblastoma cell proliferation induced by protein kinase inhibitors.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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The aim of the present study was to analyse the antiproliferative effects and mechanisms of action of protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells with different epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) status. The GBM cell models were established by transfection of plasmids carrying wild-type EGFR, mutated EGFRvIII or PTEN and clonal selection in U87MG cells. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/AKT pathway-focused gene profiles were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assays, protein expression was evaluated by western blotting and the antiproliferative effects of PKI treatment were determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in GBM cells. The cell model with intact PTEN and low EGFR levels was the most sensitive to treatment with the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib, whereas the model with EGFRvIII was the most resistant to treatment with the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor U0126. The dual PI3-K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor PI103 had the most potent antiproliferative effects against all GBM cells tested. Following simultaneous stimulation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, rapamycin concentrations > 0.5 nmol/L failed to exhibit a further growth inhibitory effect. Concurrent inhibition of mTOR and ribosomal protein s6 activity may underlie the inhibition of GBM proliferation by PKI. In conclusion, overexpression of EGFR or EGFRvIII, accompanied by a loss of PTEN, contributed to the activation of multiple intracellular signalling pathways in GBM cells. Rigorous examination of biomarkers in tumour tissues before and after treatment may be necessary to determine the efficacy of PKI therapy in patients with GBM.
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[Effects of extracellular matrix on biological characteristics of late endothelial progenitor cells].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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The present study was designed to investigate the effects of various extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on the biological characteristics of late endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Density gradient centrifugation-isolated rat bone marrow mononuclear cells were cultured in complete M199 medium, which contained 15% fetal calf serum, 10 ?g/L vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and 5 ?g/L basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). EPCs were plated on substrates containing fibronectin (Fn), laminin (Ln) or rat tail tendon collagen (Col), and the corresponding cells were defined as Fn, Ln and Col groups. The 3rd generation EPCs, namely late EPCs, were harvested. The proliferation, adhesion, migration and the ability of forming tubes were assayed using CCK-8, adhesion test, wound healing assay and Matrigel, respectively. The mRNA expressions of endothelial cell differentiation markers, vWF and CD31, were analyzed by real time RT-PCR. The apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry (FCM). The results showed that cell proliferation ability of Fn and Col groups were higher than that of Ln group; Fn group showed increased adhesion compared to Col and Ln groups (P < 0.01); The migration ability of Fn and Col groups were higher than that of Ln group. Moreover, Fn group showed increased tube formation abilities compared to Col and Ln groups (P < 0.05). Although 24-hour free-serum-induced apoptosis in Ln group was the highest, there was no difference of auto-apoptosis among the three groups. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of vWF and CD31 exhibited no difference among the three groups. These results suggest the ECM affects the biological functions of late EPCs, which would have a high probability of providing new directions that lead to the development of artificial heart and blood vessels.
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Enantioselective synthesis of quaternary 3-aminooxindoles via organocatalytic asymmetric Michael addition of 3-monosubstituted 3-aminooxindoles to nitroolefins.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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An enantioselective synthesis of quaternary 3-aminooxindoles with 3-monosubstituted 3-aminooxindoles as nucleophiles is first presented. A Michael addition reaction of 3-monosubstituted 3-aminooxindoles to nitroolefins has been developed with a bifunctional thiourea-tertiary amine as a catalyst to afford a range of 3,3-disubstituted oxindoles bearing adjacent quaternary-tertiary centers in good results (up to 98% yield, >99:1 dr, and 92% ee). We also demonstrate the potential synthetic utility of this methodology by a transformation of the product into a spirocyclic oxindole compound.
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Optimization protocols and improved strategies of cross-linked enzyme aggregates technology: current development and future challenges.
Crit. Rev. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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Abstract Cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA) technology has been regarded as an effective carrier-free immobilization method. This method is very attractive due to its simplicity and robustness, as well as for the possibility of using the crude enzyme extract and the opportunity to co-immobilize multiple different enzymes. The resulting CLEAs generally exhibit high catalyst productivities, improved storage and operational stability and are easy to recycle. Nowadays, although the technology has been applied to various enzymes, some undesirable properties have limited its further application. To overcome these limitations, novel strategies have been developing in recent years. This mini-review focuses on process optimization, new improved strategies and the latest advances on CLEAs technology.
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A new classification of cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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The shape of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (CSICA) is various in different people, which makes it difficult to be located and causes a higher possibility of injury in the transsphenoidal approach. Hence, a comprehensive study of the CSICA and a meaningful classification of it are rather helpful to the approach and other operations related to the CSICA.
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A new method of locating the optic canal based on structures in sella region: computed tomography study.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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The location of optic canal and the intracranial segment of optic nerve is difficult because of the high possibility of the deficiency of optic protuberance as well as its complex relationship to sphenoid and ethmoidal sinus. A new method of locating the optic canal and a comprehensive analysis of it and the structures around is of great importance.
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Biotechnological production and applications of microbial phenylalanine ammonia lyase: a recent review.
Crit. Rev. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Abstract Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) catalyzes the nonoxidative deamination of L-phenylalanine to form trans-cinnamic acid and a free ammonium ion. It plays a major role in the catabolism of L-phenylalanine. The presence of PAL has been reported in diverse plants, some fungi, Streptomyces and few Cyanobacteria. In the past two decades, PAL has gained considerable significance in several clinical, industrial and biotechnological applications. Since its discovery, much knowledge has been gathered with reference to the enzymes importance in phenyl propanoid pathway of plants. In contrast, there is little knowledge about microbial PAL. Furthermore, the commercial source of the enzyme has been mainly obtained from the fungi. This study focuses on the recent advances on the physiological role of microbial PAL and the improvements of PAL biotechnological production both from our laboratory and many others as well as the latest advances on the new applications of microbial PAL.
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GPGPU-Enabled Synchronization Measurement of Multiple Brain Regions Upon Nonlinear Interdependence Analysis.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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The estimation of synchronization amongst multiple brain regions is a critical issue in understanding brain functions. There is a lack of an appropriate approach which is capable of (1) measuring the direction and strength of synchronization of activities of multiple brain regions, and (2) adapting to the quickly increasing sizes and scales of neural signals. Nonlinear Interdependence (NLI) analysis is an effective method for measuring synchronization direction and strength of bivariate neural signal. However, the method currently does not directly apply in handling multivariate signal. Its application in practice has also long been largely hampered by the ultra-high complexity of NLI algorithms. Aiming at these problems, this study (1) extends the conventional NLI to quantify the global synchronization of multivariate neural signals, and (2) develops a parallelized NLI method with general-purpose computing on the graphics processing unit (GPGPU), namely, G-NLI. The approach performs synchronization measurement in a massively parallel manner. The G-NLI has improved the runtime performance by more than 1000 times comparing to the original sequential NLI. Meanwhile, the G-NLI was employed to analyze 10-channel local field potential (LFP) recordings from a patient suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy. The results demonstrate that the proposed G-NLI method can support real-time global synchronization measurement and it could be successful in localization of epileptic focus.
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A simple technique of preparing stable CLEAs of phenylalanine ammonia lyase using co-aggregation with starch and bovine serum albumin.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) have been recently proposed as an alternative to conventional immobilization methods on solid carriers. However, the low cross-linking efficiency causes the major activity loss and instability in the conventional protocol for CLEA preparation. Herein, the effects of bovine serum albumin and starch addition on the cross-linking efficiency of CLEAs of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Rhodotorula glutinis were evaluated. A co-aggregation strategy was developed to improve cross-linking efficiency by adding starch and bovine serum albumin (BSA). CLEAs of PAL prepared in the presence of BSA and starch (PSB-CLEAs) retained 36 % activity, whereas CLEAs prepared without BSA and starch (PAL-CLEAs) retained only 8 % activity of the starting enzyme preparation. Compared with PAL-CLEAs, the thermal stability of PSB-CLEAs has improved considerably, maintaining 30 % residual activity after 4 h of incubation at 70 °C, whereas the PAL-CLEAs have only 13 % residual activity. PSB-CLEAs also exhibited the expected increased stability of PAL against hydrophilic organic solvents, superior operability, and higher storage stability. The proposed technique of preparing CLEAs using co-aggregation with starch and BSA would rank among the potential strategies for efficiently preparing robust and highly stable enzyme aggregates.
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Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra coupled with parallel factor and regional integration analysis to characterize organic matter humification.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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The present several humification indexes cannot provide the whole fluorescence information on organic matter composition and the evaluation results from them are inconsistent sometimes. In this study, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra coupled with parallel factor analysis and fluorescence regional integration analysis were utilized to investigate organic matter humification, and the projection pursuit cluster (PPC) model was applied to form a suitable index for overcoming the difficulties in multi-index evaluation. The result showed that the ratio between the volume of humic- and fulvic-like fluorescence region and the volume of protein-like fluorescence region not only revealed the heterogeneity of organic matter, but also provided more accurate information on organic matter humification. In addition, the results showed that the PPC model could be used to characterize integrally the humification, and the projected characteristic value calculated from the PPC model could be used as the integrated humification evaluation index.
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Neopterin negatively regulates expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 by the LXR? signaling pathway in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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To investigate the effects of neopterin on ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells, and to explore the role of the liver X receptor alpha (LXR?) involved. In the present study, THP-1 cells were pre-incubated with ox-LDL to become foam cells. The protein and mRNA expression were examined by Western blot assays and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively. Liquid scintillation counting and high performance liquid chromatography assays were used to test cellular cholesterol efflux and cholesterol content. Neopterin decreased ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells, and the LXR? siRNA can reverse the inhibitory effects induced by neopterin. Neoterin has a negative regulation on ABCA1 expression via the LXR? signaling pathway, which suggests the aggravated effects of neopterin on atherosclerosis.
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Anatomical study of cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery and its relationship to the structures in sella region.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The shape and position of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (CSICA) are complicated, which makes the surgeries around it difficult. There were many reports about the primary event of internal carotid artery injury resulting in hemorrhage during transsphenoidal resection of pituitary tumors. The anatomical relationship between CSICA and the structures in the sella region around can explain its mechanism.
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Five small heat shock protein genes from Chilo suppressalis: characteristics of gene, genomic organization, structural analysis, and transcription profiles.
Cell Stress Chaperones
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are the most diverse but also the most poorly known family of molecular chaperones, and they play essential roles in various biological processes. The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most serious pests of rice, causing extensive damage and yield loss. In this study, we isolated and characterized five members of the sHSPs family-Cshsp19.8, Cshsp21.4, Cshsp21.5, Cshsp21.7a, and Cshsp21.7b-from C. suppressalis. The cDNAs of these genes encoded proteins of 177, 187, 191, 191, and 191 amino acids with isoelectric points of 7.0, 5.6, 6.1, 6.3, and 6.3, respectively. While Cshsp19.8, Cshsp21.5, and Cshsp21.7b had no introns, Cshsp21.4 and Cshsp21.7a contained one and two introns, respectively. Structural analysis indicated that all five Cshsps possessed conserved arginine and a V/IXI/V motif, which is related to hydrophobic characteristics of sHSPs. The five heat shock proteins can be classified into two main groups: an orthologous type (Cshsp21.4 and Cshsp21.7a) and a species-specific type (Cshsp19.8, Cshsp21.5, and Cshsp21.7b). Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed that Cshsp19.8, Cshsp21.5, Cshsp21.7a, and Cshsp21.7b all exhibited their highest expression levels within Malpighian tubules or the hindgut, while such levels were found in the head for Cshsp21.4. The expression of Csshsps at different developmental stages revealed that the mRNA levels of Cshsp19.8, Cshsp21.4, Cshsp21.5, and Cshsp21.7b peaked in adults, whereas the highest level of Cshsp21.7a was observed in first instar larvae. Cshsp19.8 and Cshsp21.7b were both upregulated dramatically by heat and cold, and Cshsp21.5 could be induced by cold stress. Neither Cshsp21.4 nor Cshsp21.7a responded to heat or cold. These results demonstrated that different Csshsps play distinctive roles in the regulation of the physiological activities in C. suppressalis.
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A Novel Moderate Constitutive Promoter Derived from Poplar (Populus tomentosa Carrière).
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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A novel sequence that functions as a promoter element for moderate constitutive expression of transgenes, designated as the PtMCP promoter, was isolated from the woody perennial Populus tomentosa. The PtMCP promoter was fused to the GUS reporter gene to characterize its expression pattern in different species. In stable Arabidopsis transformants, transcripts of the GUS reporter gene could be detected by RT-PCR in the root, stem, leaf, flower and silique. Further histochemical and fluorometric GUS activity assays demonstrated that the promoter could direct transgene expression in all tissues and organs, including roots, stems, rosette leaves, cauline leaves and flowers of seedlings and maturing plants. Its constitutive expression pattern was similar to that of the CaMV35S promoter, but the level of GUS activity was significantly lower than in CaMV35S promoter::GUS plants. We also characterized the promoter through transient expression in transgenic tobacco and observed similar expression patterns. Histochemical GUS staining and quantitative analysis detected GUS activity in all tissues and organs of tobacco, including roots, stems, leaves, flower buds and flowers, but GUS activity in PtMCP promoter::GUS plants was significantly lower than in CaMV35S promoter::GUS plants. Our results suggested that the PtMCP promoter from poplar is a constitutive promoter with moderate activity and that its function is presumably conserved in different species. Therefore, the PtMCP promoter may provide a practical choice to direct moderate level constitutive expression of transgenes and could be a valuable new tool in plant genetic engineering.
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Immobilization of cross-linked phenylalanine ammonia lyase aggregates in microporous silica gel.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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A separable and highly-stable enzyme system was developed by adsorption of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Rhodotorula glutinis in amino-functionalized macroporous silica gel and subsequent enzyme crosslinking. This resulted in the formation of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (PAL-CLEAs) into macroporous silica gel (MSG-CLEAs). The effect of adsorptive conditions, type of aggregating agent, its concentration as well as that of cross-linking agent was studied. MSG-CLEAs production was most effective using ammonium sulfate (40%-saturation), followed by cross-linking for 1 h with 1.5% (v/v) glutaraldehyde. The resulting MSG-CLEAs extended the optimal temperature and pH range compared to free PAL and PAL-CLEAs. Moreover, MSG-CLEAs exhibited the excellent stability of the enzyme against various deactivating conditions such as temperature and denaturants, and showed higher storage stability compared to the free PAL and the conventional PAL-CLEAs. Such as, after 6 h incubation at 60°C, the MSG-CLEAs still retained more than 47% of the initial activity whereas PAL-CLEAs only retained 7% of the initial activity. Especially, the MSG-CLEAs exhibited good reusability due to its suitable size and active properties. These results indicated that PAL-CLEAs on MSG might be used as a feasible and efficient solution for improving properties of immobilized enzyme in industrial application.
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Gold-catalyzed intermolecular hydroamination of allenes with sulfonamides.
Beilstein J Org Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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A co-catalyst of (PPh3)AuCl/AgOTf for the intermolecular hydroamination of allenes with sulfonamides is shown. The reaction proceeded smoothly under mild conditions for differently substituted allenes giving N-allylic sulfonamides in good yields with high regioselectivity and E-selectivity.
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The cytocompatability of polyhydroxyalkanoates coated with a fusion protein of PHA repressor protein (PhaR) and Lys-Gln-Ala-Gly-Asp-Val (KQAGDV) polypeptide.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2011
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Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a family of polyesters with biodegradability, biocompatibility and adjustable mechanical properties that are under intensive development for bioimplant applications. In this research, a fusion protein of PHA repressor protein (PhaR) and Lys-Gln-Ala-Gly-Asp-Val (KQAGDV) oligopeptide (PhaR-KQAGDV) was utilized to enhance the PHA cytocompatability via a mechanism of PhaR hydrophobically binding to PHA coupled with KQAGDV oligopeptide, a specific ligand to the integrins on the cell surface, for promotion of cell adhesion. The PhaR-KQAGDV fusion protein successfully produced and purified from recombinant E. coli was used to coat the surfaces of several PHA including poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB4HB) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx), respectively. The PhaR was observed to bind efficiently on all PHA surfaces measured by the fluorescence intensity of PhaR-EGFP as compared to the uncoated (PhaR negative) PHA films. The PHA surface hydrophilicity measured by water contact angles was significantly improved after PhaR-KQAGDV coating. Observations under confocal microscope and scanning electron microscopy, together with CCK-8 assays clearly demonstrated that adhesion and proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (HvSMCs) inoculated on PHA films were much better on PhaR-KQAGDV coated surfaces than the non-coated control ones. The convenient physical coating approach for enhanced PHA cytocompatibility provides an advantage for PHA based tissue engineering.
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[Transplantation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells transfected with vascular endothelial growth factor gene for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in rats].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2011
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To explore the therapeutic effect and the mechanism of marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) transfected with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in rats.
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Coexisting ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis: a case report with literature review.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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A 30-year-old female patient with coexisting ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis was diagnosed and treated. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 is a predisposing factor of ankylosing spondylitis and HLA-DR4 is a predisposing factor of rheumatoid arthritis. This patient was HLA-B27 and HLA-DR4 positive, and ankylosing spondylitis manifested before rheumatoid arthritis. After disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs successfully arrested ankylosing spondylitis activity the patient conceived and delivered a healthy baby. One year later, she developed peripheral polyarthritis and was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. We hypothesized that pregnancy may be one of the environmental factors that can activate rheumatoid arthritis, and that disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs play an important role in keeping the disease under control.
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[Based on blood vessel edge feature fundus fluorescein angiography image splicing].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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According to fundus fluorescein angiography images characteristics, this paper proposes a feature based image mosaic vessel edge method. First, detect edge of blood vessels by carrying on the pretreatment to the fundus fluorescein angiography image in the foundation, wavelet edge detection algorithm. Then, the matching method based on chain code feature is described. Finally, a local area based on gray level information of the image fusion method is applied to angiographic image series. Data processing results show that the method can generate an ideal mosaic effect.
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Effects of puerarin on expression of cardiac Smad3 and Smad7 mRNA in spontaneously hypertensive rat.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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Puerarin is a pure extract from traditional Chinese medicine Kudzu root. It has been used to treat hypertension and angina pectoris. In our previous study, it showed a protective effect against cardiac hypertrophy in rats. This study was to observe effects of puerarin on expression of cardiac transforming growth factor ?(1) (TGF-?(1)), Smad3 and Smad7 mRNA in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and to explore its possible mechanism of myocardial protection.
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Effect of plasmid-mediated RNA interference targeting telomerase reverse transcriptase on lung cancer cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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In the present study, a plasmid-mediated siRNA interference vector targeting the hTERT gene was constructed and stably transfected into H1299 lung cancer cells. Using real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR technology, western blotting and flow cytometry-based cell cycle profiling, the silencing effect of this vector and its inhibitory effect on proliferation in lung cancer cells were explored. Based upon the results of our previous study, a pair of siRNA sequences was selected, and a DNA template primer was designed and synthesized. After cloning of the template primer into the promoter of the pGenesil-1.1 expression vector, the constructed interference vector was validated using enzyme digestion and gene sequencing. The recombinant interference vector and empty vector were separately transfected into H1299 lung cancer cells with cationic liposomes, and stable monoclonally transfected cells were obtained after selection with G418. After stable transfection, hTERT mRNA and protein expression levels were detected using real-time RT-PCR technology and western blotting. Using the MTT method and a colony formation assay, the growth and proliferation of the stably transfected lung cancer cells were determined. Changes in the cell cycle profile of the stably transfected lung cancer cells were detected using flow cytometry. An interference vector targeting the hTERT gene (pGenesil.1-hTERT) was successfully constructed. Enzyme digestion and gene sequencing confirmed that the sequence insertion met the criteria of the design. After transfection of H1299 cells with pGenesil.1-hTERT or an empty vector, the stably transfected monoclonal cell lines H1299-pGenesil.1-hTERT and H1299-pGenesil.1 were obtained. Compared to the control cells transfected with the empty vector, the H1299-pGenesil.1-hTERT cells had significantly lower mRNA expression of hTERT (93.97±0.83% inhibition, with P<0.001). The protein expression of hTERT in H1299-pGenesil.1-hTERT cells was significantly lower compared to that in H1299-pGenesil.1 cells. The rate of proliferation of H1299-pGenesil.1-hTERT cells was lower compared to that of H1299-pGenesil.1 lung cancer cells. In H1299-pGenesil.1-hTERT cells, the number of cells in the G1 phase increased by 18.3% (P<0.05) compared to the control group; the number of cells in the S and G2 phases decreased by 10.4 and 7.9%, respectively (P<0.05). A recombinant plasmid that interfered with the expression of the hTERT target gene was successfully constructed. Upon transfection of the recombinant interference plasmid into H1299 lung cancer cells, hTERT mRNA and protein expression were down-regulated effectively, telomerase activity and cell proliferation were inhibited, and the cell cycle profile was altered.
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Segmentation of overlapping leucocyte images with phase detection and spiral interpolation.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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Leucocyte segmentation is one of the most crucial functionalities for an automatic leucocyte recognition system. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to segment the leucocytes from the overlapping cell images. It consists of two main steps. The first step involves generation of a combined image based on the saturation and green channels (CIBSGC) by means of the different distribution characteristics of the leucocyte nucleus. A weight coefficient is used to adjust the CIBSGC for extracting the nucleus and estimating the location of the leucocyte. Second, a method of phase detection and spiral interpolation identifies the overlapping regions of cells and determines the leucocyte edge curve. The performance is evaluated by three parameters: sensitivity, positive predictive value and pixel number error. Experimental results validate that the proposed algorithm can successfully segment the overlapping leucocyte with the satisfactory performance for two cell image datasets under different recording conditions.
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Expression of adenosine receptors in human retinal pigment epithelium cells in vitro.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Adenosine receptors (ADORs) have been reported to play a role in experimental myopia. This study aimed to determine the distribution of ADORs in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells cultured in vitro.
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[SLC25A13 gene analysis in neonates with intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) which resulted from mutation in SLC25A13 gene can present transient intrahepatic cholestasis, low birth weight, growth retardation, hypoproteinemia and so on. This study aimed to identify the mutation type of NICCD patients by DNA sequencing.
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Gold-catalyzed oxidation of arylallenes: Synthesis of quinoxalines and benzimidazoles.
Beilstein J Org Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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A gold-catalyzed oxidation of arylallenes to form ?-diketones and aldehydes in good yields is presented. Further directed synthesis of quinoxalines and benzimidazoles, via the condensation of the resulting ?-diketones and aldehydes with benzene-1,2-diamine, was achieved in high yields.
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New perspectives on chinese herbal medicine (zhong-yao) research and development.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery.
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Purification of a protein from coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia foetida and evaluation of its hemolytic, antibacterial, and antitumor activities.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Earthworm Eisenia foetida (Lumbricus rubellus), a traditional Chinese medicine, is used for treating many diseases, and its coelomic fluid has extensive biological functions.
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RNAi targeting of hTERT gene expression induces apoptosis and inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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The present study aimed to investigate the effects of RNAi-mediated reduction in human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression on apoptosis and lung cancer cell proliferation. A number of cell lines, including 95D, were used. hTERT mRNA levels were detected, and the RNA concentration was calculated. MTT assay was used to detect the inhibition of cell proliferation. The siRNA with the highest suppression rate, siRNA-1, was transfected into 95D cells at three different concentrations (50, 80 and 100 nmol/l). The levels of hTERT mRNA in cells transfected with 50 nmol/l siRNA-1 were not significantly different from those of the negative control-transfected cells (P>0.05), whereas both 80 and 100 nmol/l siRNA-1 showed significant reductions in hTERT mRNA compared to the negative control cells (P<0.01). hTERT levels in the 80- and 100-nmol/l groups were not significantly different (P>0.05). Compared with the control cells, cells transfected with 50, 80 or 100 nmol/l siRNA-1 showed higher fractions of apoptotic cells 48 h post-transfection (P<0.01), although the apoptotic fraction in cells transfected with 50 nmol/l siRNA-1 was not significantly different compared to that in cells transfected with negative control siRNAs (P>0.05). Moreover, the 80- and 100-nmol/l-transfected cells showed significantly increased apoptotic indices (P<0.01). MTT results indicated a time-dependent inhibition of siRNA-1- transfected cell proliferation starting at 12 h and lasting through 48 h post-transfection; the inhibition was attenuated by 72 h post-transfection. The high levels of hTERT mRNA in all human lung cancer cell lines tested suggest that telomerase plays a role in lung carcinogenesis, and this hypothesis was strengthened by the data showing that the siRNA-mediated reduction in hTERT mRNA caused apoptosis and an inhibition of the proliferation of lung cancer cells.
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Blocking core fucosylation of TGF-?1 receptors downregulates their functions and attenuates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of renal tubular cells.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Posttranslational modification of proteins could regulate their multiple biological functions. Transforming growth factor-? receptor I and II (ALK5 and TGF-?RII), which are glycoproteins, play important roles in the renal tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we examined the role of core fucosylation of TGF-?RII and ALK5, which is regulated by ?-1,6 fucosyltransferase (Fut8), in the process of EMT of cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells. The typical cell model of EMT induced by TGF-?1 was constructed to address the role of core fucosylation in EMT. Core fucosylation was found to be essential for both TGF-?RII and ALK5 to fulfill their functions, and blocking it with Fut8 small interfering RNA greatly reduced the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 protein, caused the inactivation of TGF-?/Smad2/3 signaling, and resulted in remission of EMT. More importantly, even with high levels of expressions of TGF-?1, TGF-?RII, and ALK5, blocking core fucosylation also could attenuate the EMT of HK-2 cells. Thus blocking core fucosylation of TGF-?RII and ALK5 may attenuate EMT independently of the expression of these proteins. This study may provide new insight into the role of glycosylation in renal interstitial fibrosis. Furthermore, core fucosylation may be a novel potential therapeutic target for treatment of renal tubular EMT.
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[Weekly irinotecan plus capecitabine as a second-line chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer: an analysis of 21 cases].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of weekly irinotecan combined with capecitabine as a second-line chemotherapy for treatment of advanced gastric cancer.
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[Measurement of the irregular retinal lesion area based on the back propagation neural network method].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
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In this study, the automatic segmentation of the irregular lesion region in the image of fundus fluorescence angiography was actualized by means of the modified Back Propagation (BP) neural network method. Combining the transfer scaling coefficient between pixel of the image and the actual size, the area of the irregular lesion region was measured. The results may provide valuable data for the clinical diagnosis, treatment and prognostic evaluation.
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[Analysis of clinical features and gene mutations in two Chinese pedigrees with late-onset methylmalonic acidemia, cblC type].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2010
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CblC is the most common type of methylmalonic acidemia with homocysteinemia. MMACHC is the coding gene. This study aimed at understanding clinical features and gene mutations in 2 Chinese pedigrees who had late-onset methylmalonic acidemia complicated with homocysteinemia.
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Oligodendroglioma of the ciliary body: a unique case report and the review of literature.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2010
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To date, there is no report in the international literature of an oligodendroglioma of the ciliary body, nor is there an analysis of the possible origins of this lesion.
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Microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoate block copolymer by recombinant Pseudomonas putida.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis genes phaPCJ(Ac) cloned from Aeromonas caviae were transformed into Pseudomonas putida KTOY06?C, a mutant of P. putida KT2442, resulting in the ability of the recombinant P. putida KTOY06?C (phaPCJ(A.c)) to produce a short-chain-length and medium-chain-length PHA block copolymer consisting of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) as one block and random copolymer of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) and 3-hydroxyheptanoate (3HHp) as another block. The novel block polymer was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance, and rheology measurements. DSC studies showed the polymer to possess two glass transition temperatures (T(g)), one melting temperature (T(m)) and one cool crystallization temperature (T(c)). Rheology studies clearly indicated a polymer chain re-arrangement in the copolymer; these studies confirmed the polymer to be a block copolymer, with over 70 mol% homopolymer (PHB) of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) as one block and around 30 mol% random copolymers of 3HV and 3HHp as the second block. The block copolymer was shown to have the highest tensile strength and Youngs modulus compared with a random copolymer with similar ratio and a blend of homopolymers PHB and PHVHHp with similar ratio. Compared with other commercially available PHA including PHB, PHBV, PHBHHx, and P3HB4HB, the short-chain- and medium-chain-length block copolymer PHB-b-PHVHHp showed differences in terms of mechanical properties and should draw more attentions from the PHA research community.
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Scutellarin promotes in vitro angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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Angiogenesis is critical to a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. Scutellarin, a major flavonoid of a Chinese herbal medicine Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand. Mazz. has been shown to offer beneficial effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular functions. However, scutellarins effects on angiogenesis and underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Here, we studied angiogenic effects of scutellarin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Scutellarin was found by MTT assay to induce proliferation of HUVECs. In scutellarin-treated HUVECs, a dramatic increase in migration was measured by wound healing assay; Transwell chamber assay found significantly more invading cells in scutellarin-treated groups. Scutellarin also promoted capillary-like tube formation in HUVECs on Matrigel, and significantly upregulated platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 at both mRNA and protein levels. Scutellarins angiogenic mechanism was investigated in vitro by measuring expression of angiogenic factors associated with cell migration and invasion. Scutellarin strongly induced MMP-2 activation and mRNA expression in cultured HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that scutellarin promotes angiogenesis and may form a basis for angiogenic therapy.
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Cloning of the heat shock protein 60 gene from the stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, and analysis of expression characteristics under heat stress.
J. Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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Heat shock protein 60 is an important chaperonin. In this paper, hsp60 of the stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was cloned by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) reactions. The full length cDNA of hsp6 degrees Consisted of 2142 bp, with an ORF of 1719 bp, encoding 572 amino acid residues, with a 5UTR of 158 bp and a 3UTR of 265 bp. Cluster analysis confirmed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared high identity with the reported sequences from other insects (77%-86%). To investigate whether hsp60 in C. suppressalis responds to thermal stress, the expression levels of hsp60 mRNA in larval haemocytes across temperature gradients from 31 to 39 degrees C were analysed by real-time quantitative PCR. There was no significant difference for hsp60 expression from 28 to 31 degrees C. he temperatures for maximal induction of hsp60 expression in haemocytes was close to 36 degrees C. Hsp60 expression was observed by using flow cytometry. These results revealed that thermal stress significantly induced hsp60 expression and Hsp60 synthesis in larval haemocytes, and the expression profiles of Hsp60 at the mRNA and protein levels were in high agreement with each other from 33 to 39 degrees C.
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[Polar coordinates representation based leukocyte segmentation of microscopic cell images].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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We propose an algorithm for segmentation of the overlapped leukocyte in the microscopic cell image. The histogram of the saturation channel in the cell image is smoothed to obtain the meaningful global valley point by the fingerprint smoothing method, and then the nucleus can be segmented. A circular region, containing the entire regions of the leukocyte, is marked off according to the equivalent sectional radius of the nucleus. Then, the edge of the overlapped leukocyte is represented by polar coordinates. The overlapped region by the change of the polar angle of the edge pixels is determined, and the closed edge of the leukocyte integrating the gradient information of the overlapped region is reconstructed. Finally, the leukocyte is exactly extracted. The experimental results show that our method has good performance in terms of recall ratio, precision ratio and pixel error ratio.
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Effects of matrine on HepG2 cell proliferation and expression of tumor relevant proteins in vitro.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2010
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Matrine, one of the main active components extracted from dry roots of Sophora flavescens Ait (Leguminosae), has been reported to have anticancer effects on a number of cancer cell lines, but the anticancer mechanism of matrine remains elusive. This study shows that matrine also displays anticancer activity on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. In this work, the optimal cultivation condition for HepG2 cells was determined using the combinatorial orthogonal test design [L18 (21 x 37)]. Exposure of HepG2 cells to matrine resulted in inhibition of proliferation in both a time- and dose-dependent manner, as measured by morphology observation, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and MTT assay (p<0.05). Further immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the expression of alpha fetal protein (AFP), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), C-myc and Bcl-2 was down-regulated significantly, but the expression of Bax was up-regulated higher than untreated cells. The results demonstrated that matrine inhibited HepG2 cells proliferation primarily via up-regulating or down-regulating expression of the tumor relevant proteins.
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Abdominal separation in an adult male patient with acute abdominal pain.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
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We report a male patient with prolonged post-prandial abdominal distension and a sudden onset of epigastric pain initially diagnosed as acute abdomen. The patient had no history of surgery. Physical examination revealed peritonitis and abdominal computed tomography scan showed upper abdominal mesentery intorsion. The patient then underwent surgical intervention. It was found that the descending mesocolon dorsal root was connected to the ascending colon and formed a membrane encapsulating the small intestine. The membrane also formed an orifice in the ileal pars caeca, from which a 30 cm herniated ileum formed a "C"-shaped loop which was strangulated by the orifice. An abdominal separation was diagnosed after surgery. We liberated the membranous peritoneum which incarcerated the intestinal canal from the root of ileocecal junction to Treitz ligament, and reduced the small intestinal malrotation. The patient had an uneventful recovery after operation with his abdominal distention disappeared during the follow-up. Abdominal separation is a rare situation, which may be related with embryo development. Surgery is a choice of treatment for it.
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[Effect of different levels of environmental oxygen on the biofilm production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2010
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To investigate the relationship among oxygen concentration, quorum sensing system, type secretion system, and biofilm production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
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[Association of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein gene and major depressive disorder].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein(CREB1) gene and major depressive disorder (MDD).
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Platinum-catalyzed hydrative cyclization of 1,6-diynes for the synthesis of 3,5-substituted conjugated cyclohexenones.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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We have developed a Pt(COD)Cl(2)-catalyzed hydrative cyclization of 1,6-diynes leading to the formation of functionalized cyclohexenones in good yields.
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Immunomodulatory activity in vitro and in vivo of polysaccharide from Potentilla anserina.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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The polysaccharide (PAP) from Potentilla anserina was evaluated for modulating effects by using mouse peritoneal macrophage and the immunosuppressed-model cyclophosphamide-induced. Phagocytotic and mononuclear phagocytic system function assays showed that PAP stimulated the phagocytosis of phagocyte. Splenocyte proliferation assay showed that PAP acted the effect combining Con A or LPS in splenocyte proliferation. The parameters detected showed that PAP increased thymus and spleen indices, the levels of LDH and ACP in the spleen, and IL-10 and IFN-? in serum in immunosuppressed mice. The results suggest that PAP is involved in immunomodulatory effects leading to the exploration for PAP as a potential immunostimulant.
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Overexpression of MAC30 in the cytoplasm of oral squamous cell carcinoma predicts nodal metastasis and poor differentiation.
Chemotherapy
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2010
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Expression of the meningioma-associated protein (MAC30) was increased in several types of tumors, including esophageal, gastric and colon tumors, compared to normal tissue. MAC30 expression levels gradually increased from normal colorectal mucosa to primary colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer spreading to the lymph nodes. MAC30 expression was related to survival in patients with colorectal cancer. However, there is no study on MAC30 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
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The epitope of the VP1 protein of porcine parvovirus.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is the major causative agent in a syndrome of reproductive failure in swine. Much has been learned about the structure and function of PPV in recent years, but nothing is known about the epitopes of the structural protein VP1, which is an important antigen of PPV. In this study, the monoclonal antibody C4 against VP1 of PPV was prepared and was used to biopan a 12-mer phage peptide library three times. The selected phage clones were identified by ELISA and then sequencing. The amino acid sequences detected by phage display were analyzed, and a mimic immuno-dominant epitope was identified. The epitope of VP1 is located in the N-terminal and contains the role amino acid sequence R-K-R. Immunization of mice indicated that the phage-displayed peptide induces antibodies against PPV. This study shows that peptide mimotopes have potential as alternatives to the complex antigens currently used for diagnosis of PPV infection or for development of vaccines.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.