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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio improves the prognostic prediction of the International Prognostic Index for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the pre- and post- neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in cooperating with immunologic profiles in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients treated with R-CHOP. A total of 447 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP were analyzed retrospectively. A pre-NLR ? 3 was also independently associated with poor progression-free survival (PFS) (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.19, P < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (HR = 2.89, P < 0.001). In patients with high pre-NLR, reduction of the post-NLR<3 after R-CHOP was correlated with improved survival. Low pre-NLR (< 3) was also associated with a higher number of peripheral CD19(+) lymphocytes (P = 0.049) and NK cells (P = 0.031). In conclusion, a pre-NLR ? 3 was an independent prognostic factor for PFS and OS in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP.
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Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided pancreatic cyst ablation (with video).
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Pancreatic cystic lesions are being diagnosed with increasing frequency owing to the widespread use of cross-sectional imaging. Although most pancreatic cysts are detected incidentally, they represent a wide spectrum of histopathology, and neoplastic cysts appear to be more prevalent than previously estimated. Some histologic types have malignant potential. Considering the perioperative morbidity associated with surgical resection, deciding whether to operate or observe an indeterminate pancreatic cyst is challenging, and there is a strong clinical need to develop a minimally invasive approach. EUS-guided pancreatic cyst ablation has been investigated in several clinical trials, and may represent a viable alternative to surgical resection.
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A Phase II Study of Ifosfamide, Methotrexate, Etoposide, and Prednisolone for Previously Untreated Stage I/II Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type: A Multicenter Trial of the Korean Cancer Study Group.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Combination chemotherapy consisting of ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, and prednisolone (IMEP) was active as first-line and second-line treatment for extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NTCL).
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Apoptosis Inhibitor 5 Increases Metastasis via Erk-mediated MMP expression.
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API5) has recently been identified as a tumor metastasis-regulating gene in cervical cancer cells. However, the precise mechanism of action of API5 is poorly understood. Here, we show that API5 increases metastatic capacity of cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo via up-regulation of MMP-9. Interestingly, the API5-mediated metastasis was strongly dependent on the Erk signaling pathway. Conversely, knock-down of API5 via siRNA technology decreased the level of phospho-Erk, the activity of the MMPs, in vitro invasion, and in vivo pulmonary metastasis. Moreover, the Erk-mediated metastatic action was abolished by the mutation of leucine to arginine within the heptad leucine repeat region, which affects protein-protein interactions. Thus, API5 increases metastatic capacity of tumor cells by up-regulating MMP levels via activation of the Erk signaling pathway.
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Comparison of the toxicity of aluminum oxide nanorods with different aspect ratio.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Aluminum oxide nanoparticles are listed among 14 high-priority nanomaterials published by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, but limited information is available on their potential hazards. In this study, we compared the toxicity of two different aluminum oxide nanorods (AlNRs) commercially available in vivo and in vitro. Considering aspect ratio, one was 6.2 ± 0.6 (long-AlNRs) and the other was 2.1 ± 0.4 (short-AlNRs). In mice, long-AlNRs induced longer and stronger inflammatory responses than short-AlNRs, and the degree reached the maximum on day 7 for both types and decreased with time. In addition, in vitro tests were performed on six cell lines derived from potential target organs for AlNPs, HEK-293 (kidney), HACAT (skin), Chang (liver), BEAS-2B (lung), T98G (brain), and H9C2 (heart), using MTT assay, ATP assay, LDH release, and xCELLigence system. Long-AlNRs generally produced stronger toxicity than short-AlNRs, and HEK-293 cells were the most sensitive for both AlNRs, followed by BEAS-2B cells, although results from 4 kinds of toxicity tests conflicted among the cell lines. Based on these results, we suggest that toxicity of AlNRs may be related to aspect ratio (and resultant surface area). Furthermore, novel in vitro toxicity testing methods are needed to resolve questionable results caused by the unique properties of nanoparticles.
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Sheet-type titania, but not P25, induced paraptosis accompanying apoptosis in murine alveolar macrophage cells.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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In this study, we identified the toxic effects of sheet-type titania (TNS), which are being developed as a material for UV-blocking glass, comparing with P25, a benchmark control for titania, in MH-S cells, a mouse alveolar macrophage cell line. After 24 h exposure, the TNS-exposed cells formed large vacuoles while the P25-exposed ones did not. The decreased levels of cell viability were similar between the P25 and TNS groups, but ATP production was clearly lower in cells exposed to the TNS. P25 decreased the expression of calnexin protein, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane marker, and increased the number of cells generating ROS in a dose dependent manner. Meanwhile, TNS dilated the ER and mitochondria and increased the secretion of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but not of ROS. Subsequently, we studied the molecular response following TNS-induced vacuolization. TNS started to form vacuoles in the cytosol since 20 min after exposure, and the expression of the mitochondria function-related genes were down-regulated the most in the cells exposed for 1 h. After 24 h exposure, the number of apoptotic cells and the relative levels of BAX to Bcl-2 increased. The expression of SOD1 protein, but not of SOD2, also dose-dependently increased with an increase in caspase-8 activity. Additionally, the MAPK pathway was significantly activated, even though the expression of p-EGFR did not change significantly. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells increased rapidly with time and with the inhibition of vacuole formation. Taken together, we suggest that P25 and TNS may target different organelles. In addition, TNS, but not P25, induced paraptosis accompanied by apoptosis in MH-S cells, and the formation of the cytoplasmic vacuoles allowed delay apoptosis following TNS exposure.
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Impact of multimodality approach for patients with leptomeningeal metastases from solid tumors.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate treatment patterns, outcome and prognosticators for patients with leptomeningeal metastases from solid tumor. Medical records of 80 patients from January 1, 2004 to May 31, 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Most frequent site of origin was the lung (59%) followed by the breast (25%). Most patients were treated with intrathecal chemotherapy (90%) and/or whole brain radiotherapy (67.5%). Systemic therapy was offered to 27 patients (33.8%). Percentage of patients treated with single, dual, and triple modality were 32.5%, 43.8%, and 23.8%, respectively. Median survival was 2.7 months and 1 yr survival rate was 11.3%. Multivariate analysis showed that negative cerebrospinal fluid cytology, fewer chemotherapy regimen prior to leptomeningeal metastases, whole brain radiotherapy, systemic therapy, and combined modality treatment (median survival; single 1.4 vs. dual 2.8 vs. triple 8.3 months, P<0.001) had statistical significance on survival. Subgroup analysis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients showed that targeted therapy had significant independent impact on survival (median survival; 10.5 vs. 3.0 months, P=0.008). Unlike previous reports, survival of patients with NSCLC primary was comparable to breast primary. Furthermore, combined modality treatment for all patients and additionally targeted therapy for NSCLC patients should be considered in the treatment of leptomeningeal metastases from solid tumor.
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Electrospun cu/sn/c nanocomposite fiber anodes with superior usable lifetime for lithium- and sodium-ion batteries.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Cu/Sn/C composite nanofibers were synthesized by using dual-nozzle electrospinning and subsequent carbonization. The composite nanofibers are a homogeneous amorphous matrix comprised of Cu, Sn, and C with a trace of crystalline Sn. The Li- and Na-ion storage performance of the Cu/Sn/C fiber electrodes were investigated by using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Excellent, stable cycling performance indicates capacities of 490 and 220?mA?h?g(-1) for Li-ion (600?cycles) and Na-ion (200?cycles) batteries, respectively. This is a significant improvement over other reported Sn/C nanocomposite devices. These superior electrochemical properties could be attributed to the advantages of incorporating one-dimensional nanostructures into the electrodes, such as short electron diffusion lengths, large specific surface areas, ideal homogeneous structures for buffering volume changes, and better electronic conductivity that results from the amorphous copper and carbon matrix.
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Nomogram Predicting Clinical Outcomes in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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The aim of this study was to develop a pragmatic nomogram for prediction of progressionfree survival (PFS) for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Germanium microflower-on-nanostem as a high-performance lithium ion battery electrode.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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We demonstrate a new design of Ge-based electrodes comprising three-dimensional (3-D) spherical microflowers containing crystalline nanorod networks on sturdy 1-D nanostems directly grown on a metallic current collector by facile thermal evaporation. The Ge nanorod networks were observed to self-replicate their tetrahedron structures and form a diamond cubic lattice-like inner network. After etching and subsequent carbon coating, the treated Ge nanostructures provide good electrical conductivity and are resistant to gradual deterioration, resulting in superior electrochemical performance as anode materials for LIBs, with a charge capacity retention of 96% after 100 cycles and a high specific capacity of 1360?mA h g(-1) at 1?C and a high-rate capability with reversible capacities of 1080 and 850?mA h g(-1) at the rates of 5 and 10?C, respectively. The improved electrochemical performance can be attributed to the fast electron transport and good strain accommodation of the carbon-filled Ge microflower-on-nanostem hybrid electrode.
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AZD9291, an irreversible EGFR TKI, overcomes T790M-mediated resistance to EGFR inhibitors in lung cancer.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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First-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKI) provide significant clinical benefit in patients with advanced EGFR-mutant (EGFRm(+)) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients ultimately develop disease progression, often driven by acquisition of a second T790M EGFR TKI resistance mutation. AZD9291 is a novel oral, potent, and selective third-generation irreversible inhibitor of both EGFRm(+) sensitizing and T790M resistance mutants that spares wild-type EGFR. This mono-anilino-pyrimidine compound is structurally distinct from other third-generation EGFR TKIs and offers a pharmacologically differentiated profile from earlier generation EGFR TKIs. Preclinically, the drug potently inhibits signaling pathways and cellular growth in both EGFRm(+) and EGFRm(+)/T790M(+) mutant cell lines in vitro, with lower activity against wild-type EGFR lines, translating into profound and sustained tumor regression in EGFR-mutant tumor xenograft and transgenic models. The treatment of 2 patients with advanced EGFRm(+) T790M(+) NSCLC is described as proof of principle.
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ALK molecular phenotype in non-small cell lung cancer: CT radiogenomic characterization.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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To present a radiogenomic computed tomographic (CT) characterization of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (ALK+).
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Preliminary report on a new hybrid metal stent for EUS-guided biliary drainage (with videos).
Gastrointest. Endosc.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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EUS-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) may be a feasible and useful alternative in patients with malignant biliary obstruction after failed ERCP. One of the main limitations of EUS-BD is the lack of devices specifically tailored to this technique.
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The gefitinib dose reduction on survival outcomes in epidermal growth factor receptor mutant non-small cell lung cancer.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Gefitinib is safe for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but some patients experience toxicities and require dose reduction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gefitinib dose reduction on survival.
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Polymeric photosensitizer-embedded self-expanding metal stent for repeatable endoscopic photodynamic therapy of cholangiocarcinoma.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new therapeutic approach for the palliative treatment of malignant bile duct obstruction. In this study, we designed photosensitizer-embedded self-expanding nonvascular metal stent (PDT-stent) which allows repeatable photodynamic treatment of cholangiocarcinoma without systemic injection of photosensitizer. Polymeric photosensitizer (pullulan acetate-conjugated pheophorbide A; PPA) was incorporated in self-expanding nonvascular metal stent. Residence of PPA in the stent was estimated in buffer solution and subcutaneous implantation on mouse. Photodynamic activity of PDT-stent was evaluated through laserexposure on stent-layered tumor cell lines, HCT-116 tumor-xenograft mouse models and endoscopic intervention of PDT-stent on bile duct of mini pigs. Photo-fluorescence imaging of the PDT-stent demonstrated homogeneous embedding of polymeric Pheo-A (PPA) on stent membrane. PDT-stent sustained its photodynamic activities at least for 2 month. And which implies repeatable endoscopic PDT is possible after stent emplacement. The PDT-stent after light exposure successfully generated cytotoxic singlet oxygen in the surrounding tissues, inducing apoptotic degradation of tumor cells and regression of xenograft tumors on mouse models. Endoscopic biliary in-stent photodynamic treatments on minipigs also suggested the potential efficacy of PDT-stent on cholangiocarcinoma. In vivo and in vitro studies revealed our PDT-stent, allows repeatable endoscopic biliary PDT, has the potential for the combination therapy (stent plus PDT) of cholangiocarcinoma.
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Bilirubin Activates Transcription of HIF-1? in Human Proximal Tubular Cells Cultured in the Physiologic Oxygen Content.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is influenced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Effect of bilirubin on HIF-1 expression in proximal tubular cells was investigated under physiological oxygen concentration, which is relative hypoxic condition mimicking oxygen content in the medulla of renal tissue. The human kidney (HK2) cells were cultured in 5% oxygen with or without bilirubin. HIF-1? protein expression was increased by bilirubin treatment at 0.01-0.2 mg/dL concentration. The messenger RNA expression of HIF-1? was increased by 1.69±0.05 folds in the cells cultured with 0.1 mg/dL bilirubin, compared to the control cells. The inhibitors of PI3K/mTOR, PI3K/AKT, and ERK 1/2 pathways did not attenuate increased HIF-1? expression by bilirubin. HIF-1? expression decreased by 10 µM exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); scavenger of ROS with or without bilirubin in the HK2 cells increased HIF-1? concentration more than that in the cells without bilirubin. Exogenous H2O2 decreased the phosphorylation of P70S6 kinase, which was completely reversed by bilirubin treatment. Knockdown of NOX4 gene by small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased HIF-1? mRNA expression. In coonclusion, bilirubin enhances HIF-1? transcription as well as the up-regulation of HIF-1? protein translation through the attenuation of ROS and subunits of NADPH oxidase.
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Cobalt Chloride Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Inflammation through NF-?B Inhibition in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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We evaluated the effect of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) on TNF-? and IFN-?-induced-inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells). We treated HK-2 cells with CoCl2 before the administration of TNF-?/IFN-?. To regulate hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, the cells were treated CoCl2 or HO-1 siRNA. CoCl2 reduced the generation of ROS induced by TNF-?/IFN-?. TNF-?/IFN-?-treated-cells showed an increase in the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated NF-?Bp65 protein, the DNA-binding activity of NF-?Bp50 and NF-?B transcriptional activity and a decrease in I?B? protein expression. These changes were restored by CoCl2. We noted an intense increase in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) production in TNF-?/IFN-?-treated cells. We demonstrated that this effect was mediated through NF-?B signaling because an NF-?B inhibitor significantly reduced MCP-1 and RANTES production. CoCl2 effectively reduced MCP-1 and RANTES production. The expression of HO-1 was increased by CoCl2 and decreased by HO-1 siRNA. However, knockdown of HO-1 by RNA interference did not affect MCP-1 or RANTES production. We suggest that CoCl2 has a protective effect on TNF-?/IFN-?-induced inflammation through the inhibition of NF-?B and ROS in HK-2 cells. However, CoCl2 appears to act in an HO-1-independent manner.
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Effect of bilirubin on triglyceride synthesis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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We aimed to elucidate the effect of bilirubin on dyslipidemia and nephropathy in a diabetes mellitus (DM) type I animal model. Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into control, DM, and bilirubin-treated DM (Bil) groups. The Bil group was injected intraperitoneally with 60 mg/kg bilirubin 3 times per week and hepatoma cells were cultured with bilirubin at a concentration of 0.3 mg/dL. The Bil group showed lower serum creatinine levels 5 weeks after diabetes onset. Bilirubin treatment also decreased the amount of mesangial matrix, lowered the expression of renal collagen IV and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, and reduced the level of apoptosis in the kidney, compared to the DM group. These changes were accompanied by decreased tissue levels of hydrogen superoxide and NADPH oxidase subunit proteins. Bilirubin decreased serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), free fatty acids, and triglycerides (TGs), as well as the TG content in the liver tissues. Bilirubin suppressed protein expression of LXR?, SREBP-1, SCD-1, and FAS, factors involved in TG synthesis that were elevated in the livers of DM rats and hepatoma cells under high-glucose conditions. In conclusion, bilirubin attenuates renal dysfunction and dyslipidemia in diabetes by suppressing LXR? and SREBP-1 expression and oxidative stress.
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A multicenter phase II study of everolimus in patients with progressive unresectable adenoid cystic carcinoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of everolimus in patients with progressive unresectable adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC).
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Enhancement of primary neuronal cell proliferation using printing-transferred carbon nanotube sheets.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Artificial nerve guidance conduits (aNGCs) prepared from polymer scaffolds and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess unique chemical and physical properties, and have been widely used in preclinical trials to promote neuronal differentiation and growth. However, there have been only a few reports on the clinical applicability of CNT sheets for proliferation of primary neuronal cells due to safety concerns. The present study assesses the ability and potential applicability of multiwalled CNTs (MWNTs) composited with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheets to promote and enhance the proliferation of primary neuronal cells. In this study, the aqueous MWNT dispersion was filtered, and the PDMS/MWNT sheets were prepared using a simple printing transfer method. Characterization of PDMS/MWNT sheets demonstrated their unique physical properties such as superior mechanical strength and electroconductivity when compared with PDMS sheets. The effect of the PDMS/MWNT sheets on the neural cell proliferation and cytotoxicity was evaluated using MTT and alamar blue assays. Our results indicate the viability and proliferation of primary neuronal cells and Schwann cells in PDMS/MWNT sheets increased over twice when compared with a noncoated dish that is not usual in the primary neuronal cell growth control (p?
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Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors vs conventional chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer harboring wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor: a meta-analysis.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Current guidelines recommend both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs as standard treatment options for patients with wild-type (WT) EGFR who were previously treated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, it is not clear that EGFR TKIs are as efficacious as chemotherapy in patients with WT EGFR.
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The presence of extrathoracic metastasis is more prognostic of survival than Masaoka stage (IVa/IVb) in metastatic thymic epithelial tumor: a retrospective cohort study.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Our aim in this study was to identify independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in order to explain the heterogeneity of OS in patients with metastatic thymic epithelial tumor (TET).
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Toxic response of graphene nanoplatelets in vivo and in vitro.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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With the development of nanotechnology, myriad types of novel materials have been discovered at the nanoscale, among which the most interesting material is graphene. However, the toxicity data available on graphene are extremely limited. In this study, we explored toxic response of commercially available graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in vivo and in vitro. The GNPs used in this study had a high surface area and feature considerably few defects. In mice, GNPs (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) remained in the lung until 28 days after a single instillation, and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines reached the maximal level at Day 14 and then decreased over time. In vitro study using BEAS-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, GNPs located within autophagosome-like vacuoles 24 h after exposure. The GNPs (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 ?g/mL) also dose-dependently reduced cell viability, which was accompanied by an increase in the portion of cells in the subG1 and S phases. Moreover, the GNPs down-regulated the generation of reactive oxygen species, suppressed ATP production, caused mitochondria damage, and elevated the levels of autophagy-related proteins. Based on these results, we suggest that GNPs provoked a subchronic inflammatory response in mice and that GNPs induced autophagy accompanying apoptosis via mitochondria damage in vitro.
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Clinical Characteristics and Effectiveness of the Lateral Tarsal Strip and Medial Spindle Procedure.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical characteristics and efficacy of the lateral tarsal strip (TS) and medial spindle procedure (MS). We conducted a retrospective chart review of the patients who underwent TS and MS between September 2008 and July 2011 by a single surgeon (S.H.B.). Data were collected on patient age, sex, laterality, diagnosis, procedures performed simultaneously, follow-up duration, postoperative complications, and surgical outcomes. One hundred eleven eyelids of 74 patients who underwent TS and 41 eyelids of 29 patients who underwent MS were included in this study. Patients' mean age was 61.5 years (range, 24-82) in the TS group and 68.2 years (range, 45-89) in the MS group. The most common diagnoses were lower lid laxity (54.1%) and involutional entropion (26.1%) in the TS group, and punctal ectropion in the MS group (95.1%). The percentage of patients who underwent an additional simultaneous procedure was 86.5% of the TS group and 92.7% of the MS group. Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy was the most commonly performed simultaneous procedure in both TS and MS groups (28.1% and 65.8%, respectively). Success rates were 96.4% in the TS group and 97.6% in the MS group. In the TS group, 3 eyelids (2.7%) required reoperation. The most common complication was chemosis in both TS and MS groups (51.4% and 50%, respectively). TS and MS are commonly performed simultaneously with other surgical procedures. These procedures aim to resolve lower lid laxity and punctal ectropion as well as relieve the symptoms of epiphora by stabilizing medial and lateral lid laxity. This review of the clinical features and effectiveness of MS and TS procedures provides useful information for clinicians.
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Ceritinib in ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) rearrangement is sensitive to the ALK inhibitor crizotinib, but resistance invariably develops. Ceritinib (LDK378) is a new ALK inhibitor that has shown greater antitumor potency than crizotinib in preclinical studies.
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Ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, and prednisolone (IMEP) plus L-asparaginase as a first-line therapy improves outcomes in stage III/IV NK/T cell-lymphoma, nasal type (NTCL).
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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The prognosis of patients with stage III/IV NK/T-cell lymphoma (NTCL) is extremely poor. Although L-asparaginase (L-asp) is effective for NTCL, its significance has not been clearly demonstrated. In addition, there are few studies comparing treatment outcomes in stage III/IV NTCL. This study evaluated the efficacy of L-asp-based chemotherapy and prognostic factors in stage III/IV NTCL. Seventy patients with newly diagnosed stage III/IV NTCL were enrolled between January 2000 and February 2013. Patients received ifosfamide, etoposide, methotrexate, and prednisolone (IMEP) plus L-asp (N?=?22) or combination chemotherapy without L-asp (N?=?48) as a first-line treatment. Clinical prognostic factors, treatment outcomes, and prognostic scores were compared between the groups. After a median follow-up period of 12.8 months (range, 1.1-186.6 months), median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 11.3 and 5.6 months, respectively. Treatment outcomes were superior in patients treated with IMEP plus L-asp compared to those treated with chemotherapy without L-asp (overall response rate, 90.0 vs. 34.8 %, P?
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Role of postoperative radiotherapy after curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with pathological stage N2 non-small-cell lung cancer: a propensity score matching analysis.
Clin Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in the setting of adjuvant chemotherapy for pathological stage N2 (pN2) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Effect of HIFU treatment on tumor targeting efficacy of docetaxel-loaded Pluronic nanoparticles.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Numerous studies have been performed to identify the microenvironment of solid tumors, which is responsible for the insufficient delivery of anticancer drugs to tumor cells due to the poorly organized vasculature and the increased interstitial fluid pressure. As a result, the extravasation of convection-dependent agents including NPs is severely limited. Therefore, we have demonstrated the feasibility of targeting an enhancement of docetaxel-loaded Pluronic nanoparticles (NPs) using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as an external stimulus-induced clinical system in tumor tissue. The efficient extravasation of NPs into the interior cells in tumor tissue was induced by relatively low HIFU exposure without apparent acute tissue damage. The enhanced targeting of NPs with near-infrared fluorescence dye was observed in tumor-bearing mice with various HIFU exposures. As a result, the greatest accumulation of NPs at the tumor tissue was observed at an HIFU exposure of 20 W/cm(2). However, the tumor tissue above at 20 W/cm(2) appeared to be destroyed and the tumor targetability of NPs was significantly decreased owing to thermal ablation with necrosis, resulting in the destruction of the tumor tissue and the blood vessels. In particular, a cross-sectional view of the tumor tissue verified that the NPs migrated into the middle of the tumor tissue upon HIFU exposure. The preliminary results here demonstrate that HIFU exposure through non-thermal mechanisms can aid with the extravasation of NPs into the interior cells of tumors and increase the therapeutic effect in enhanced and targeted cancer therapy.
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First-line pemetrexed plus cisplatin followed by gefitinib maintenance therapy versus gefitinib monotherapy in East Asian patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer: a randomised, phase 3 trial.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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In the Iressa Pan-ASia Study (IPASS), gefitinib claimed improved progression-free survival (PFS) versus carboplatin-paclitaxel in clinically selected lung cancer patients. The primary objective of this study was to assess the PFS of pemetrexed-cisplatin (PC) followed by gefitinib maintenance versus gefitinib monotherapy in an IPASS-like population.
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Prediction of survival in terminally ill cancer patients at the time of terminal cancer diagnosis.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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We aimed to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict terminal stage survival (TSS) at the time of terminal cancer diagnosis.
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Time-dependent bioaccumulation of distinct rod-type TiO2 nanoparticles: comparison by crystalline phase.
J Appl Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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A complete understanding of the interaction between nanoparticles and biological systems, including nanoparticle uptake and distribution and the biological responses, could guide the design of safer and more effective nanoparticles than those currently available. In this study, we compared the distribution in mice over time of two rod-type titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiNPs) that feature distinct phases, anatase (ATO) and brookite (BTO). Surface areas of BTO and ATO were estimated to be 102 and 268?m(2) ?g(-1) , respectively, and negative charge on the surface of ATO was higher than that of BTO in deionized water. Both TiNPs were rapidly distributed into tissues after injection. At 4?weeks after injection, both TiNPs were maximally accumulated in the spleen, followed by the liver, but the total accumulation of ATO in tissues measured in this study was more than that of BTO. Moreover, the cellular antioxidant function was similar although the levels of Ti measured in tissues were distinct between the two TiNPs. Based on these results, we suggest that the fate of TiNPs in the body may differ according to the size and surface charge of the TiNPs even when their shape is the same.
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Hierarchical assembly of TiO2-SrTiO3 heterostructures on conductive SnO2 backbone nanobelts for enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Heterostructures can play a role in enhanced photoinduced electrochemical and catalytic reactions due to the advantageous combination of two compounds. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of Sb:SnO2@TiO2-SrTiO3 3D heterostructures via a simple hydrothermal method using a conductive Sb:SnO2@TiO2 nanobelt electrode as a template. XRD, FESEM, and TEM analyses confirm that a well-dispersed and crystalized SrTiO3 layer is formed on the surface of TiO2 nanorods. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of the heterostructure is optimized by controlling the reaction time. Details about the effect of the hydrothermal reaction time on the PEC performance are discussed. The optimized Sb:SnO2@TiO2-SrTiO3 heterostructure exhibited a higher onset potential and a saturated photocurrent in comparison to the Sb:SnO2@TiO2 nanostructure. The result is attributed to a Fermi level shift and a blocking layer effect caused by the SrTiO3. Furthermore, the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was significantly enhanced on the optimized Sb:SnO2@TiO2-SrTiO3. This work demonstrates that a synergetic effect between three-dimensional nanoarchitecturing and a heterojunction structure is responsible for enhanced PEC as well as improved photocatalytic performance levels, both of which can be extended to other metal-oxide and/or ternary compounds.
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Histological Changes in the Bile Duct after Long-Term Placement of a Fully Covered Self-Expandable Metal Stent within a Common Bile Duct: A Canine Study.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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To date, it has been difficult to determine the optimal stenting duration of a fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FCSEMS) in a benign biliary stricture. The purpose of this study was to identify the histopathological changes in a bile duct resulting from long-term placement of a FCSEMS.
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Risk factors and prognostic impact of venous thromboembolism in Asian patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Thromb. Haemost.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Although the overall risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is high in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), risk identification is limited. The goal of this study was to estimate the incidence, risk factors and prognostic implications of VTE, and to evaluate a genetic link between oncogenes and the risk of VTE in Asian patients with NSCLC. A total of 1,998 consecutive patients with NSCLC were enrolled and analysed retrospectively. Since the effects of therapeutics on VTE development were modified by stage, stratified analyses were performed. When comparing overall survival in terms of VTE development, a propensity score-matching method was adopted to minimise potential confounding. The six-month and two-year cumulative incidences of VTE were 4.2% and 6.4%, respectively. The risk of VTE increased 2.45-fold with each advancing stage in NSCLC (p<0.001). The independent predictors of VTE were advanced age, pneumonectomy and palliative radiotherapy in localised NSCLC and ineligibility for surgery and palliative radiotherapy in locally advanced NSCLC. Adenocarcinoma histology (vs squamous cell) and former/current smoking status were significant predictors of VTE in metastatic NSCLC. A significant association between VTE and decreased survival was observed only among patients with localised NSCLC. EGFR mutations (p=0.170) and ALK rearrangements (p=0.159) were not associated with VTE development in lung adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, the two-year cumulative incidence of VTE is 6.4% in Asian patient with NSCLC. The significant predictors of VTE are different across stages of NSCLC. The prognostic impact of VTE on poor survival was limited to localised NSCLC.
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A Randomized Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Multicenter Trial of Azasetron versus Ondansetron to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety in the Prevention of Delayed Nausea and Vomiting Induced by Chemotherapy.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of azasetron compared to ondansetron in the prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
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Utility of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration for peri-arterial soft tissue cuffs without identifiable pancreas mass on CT and EUS: a prospective comparative study.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Pancreatic cancer may present as a peri-arterial soft tissue cuff (PSTC) around the superior mesenteric artery or celiac axis without an identifiable pancreatic mass. We evaluated the diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in patients with a PSTC without definite pancreas involvement and those with a typical pancreatic mass. The patients who underwent EUS-FNA of a PSTC without pancreatic involvement were prospectively enrolled. The patients who underwent EUS-FNA for a pancreatic mass were recruited as a control group. A total of 224 patients underwent 247 EUS-FNAs. Among the 13 patients with a PSTC, 11 were positive for malignancy as determined by EUS-FNA, with 5 diagnosed after the first session and 6 after the second session. The diagnostic yield of PSTCs by EUS-FNA was significantly lower than that for typical pancreatic masses (65% vs. 87%, p = 0.02). An on-site cytopathologist and repeated EUS-FNA are recommended to improve the diagnostic accuracy of this disease entity.
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A pilot proof-of-concept study of a modified device for one-step endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage in a new experimental biliary dilatation animal model.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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To evaluate the technical feasibility of a modified tapered metal tip and low profile introducer for one-step endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) in a new experimental biliary dilatation porcine model.
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Systemic effect of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided pancreatic cyst ablation with ethanol and paclitaxel.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided pancreatic cyst ablation is a minimally invasive treatment modality. Local injection of ablative agents may rarely cause systemic effects in patients.
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Adsorption of microbial esterases on Bacillus subtilis-templated cobalt oxide nanoparticles.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Due to low diffusion rates and large surface areas, nanomaterials have received great interest as supporting materials for enzyme immobilization. Here, the preparation of a cobalt oxide nanoparticle using Bacillus subtilis as a biological template and use of the nanostructure for microbial esterase immobilization is described. Morphological features and size distributions were investigated using electron microscopy (EM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Catalytic properties of enzyme-coated nanostructures were investigated using 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate and p-nitrophenyl (PNP) acetate as model substrates. Enzyme-coated nanostructures were observed to retain ?85% of the initial activity after 15 successive reaction cycles, and enzyme immobilization processes could be repeated four times without a loss of immobilization potential. The present work demonstrates that B. subtilis-templated cobalt oxide nanoparticles have the potential to be used as biocompatible immobilization materials, and are promising candidates for the preparation of effective nanobiocatalysts.
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Simplified fistula dilation technique and modified stent deployment maneuver for EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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To evaluate the success rates, procedural time and adverse event rates of the modified methods in endoscopic ultrasonography-guided hepaticogastrostomy (EUS-HGS).
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Highly Reversible Li Storage in Hybrid NiO/Ni/Graphene Nanocomposites Prepared by an Electrical Wire Explosion Process.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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NiO/Ni/graphene nanocomposites were prepared using a simple and environmentally friendly method comprising an electrical wire pulse technique in oleic acid containing graphenes and subsequent annealing to form anodes for Li ion batteries. The control product of NiO/Ni nanocomposite was prepared under the same conditions and characterized by structural and electrochemical analysis. The obtained NiO/Ni/graphene nanocomposite particles had sizes of 5-12 nm and a high surface area of 137 m(2) g(-1). In comparison to NiO/Ni, NiO/Ni/graphene exhibited improved cycling performance and good rate capability. Reversible capacity was maintained at over 600 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C and was attributed to the alleviation in volume change and improved electrical conductivity of NiO/Ni/graphene nanocomposites.
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Prognostic factors in patients with gallbladder cancer after surgical resection: analysis of 279 operated patients.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Identification of prognostic factors can help predict life expectancy and decide treatment plan. We evaluated prognostic factors in patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC) after surgical resection.
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Clinicopathologic analysis of ROS1-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer and proposal of a diagnostic algorithm.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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We sought to evaluate the clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that harbored a ROS1 rearrangement.
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Temporary placement of fully covered self-expandable metal stents in benign biliary strictures.
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Benign biliary strictures (BBSs) have been endoscopically managed with plastic stent placement. However, data regarding fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMSs) in BBS patients remain scarce in Korea.
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[A comparative study on serum immunoglobulin and tumor marker levels in the patients with autoimmune pancreatitis and pancreatobiliary malignancies].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) often occurs with obstructive jaundice in old age in cases of weight loss, mimicking pancreatobiliary cancer. This study aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity serum IgG, IgG4 and CEA, CA 19-9 levels for the diagnosis of AIP and their ability to distinguish AIP from pancreatobiliary cancer.
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Erlotinib versus gefitinib for control of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in non-small-cell lung cancer.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a clinically important neurological complication in the era of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of gefitinib and erlotinib for control of LMC in NSCLC.
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Amurensin G enhances the susceptibility to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-mediated cytotoxicity of cancer stem-like cells of HCT-15 cells.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and play a significant role in cancer recurrence. Design of better treatment strategies that can eliminate or otherwise control CSC populations in tumors is necessary. In this study, the sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced cytotoxicity and the effect of amurensin G, a novel sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) inhibitor, were examined using the CSC-enriched fraction of HCT-15 human colon cancer cells. Cancer stem cell-enriched HCT-15 colony cells were paradoxically less sensitive to doxorubicin, and more sensitive to TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity, than their parental cells. Also, CD44(+) HCT-15 cells were more susceptible to TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity than CD44(-) HCT-15 cells, possibly due to increased levels of death receptors DR4 and DR5 as well as c-Myc, and decreased levels of c-FLIPL /S in CD44(+) cells compared with CD44(-) HCT-15 cells. The combination effect of amurensin G on TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity was much more apparent in CD44(+) cells than in CD44(-) HCT-15 cells, and this was associated with more prominent downregulation of c-FLIPL /S in CD44(+) cells than in CD44(-) HCT-15 cells. These results indicate that HCT-15 colony or CD44(+) cells, which may have CSC properties, are more sensitive to TRAIL than parental or CD44(-) HCT-15 cells. Amurensin G may be effective in eliminating colon CSCs and be applicable to potentiate the sensitivity of colon CSCs to TRAIL.
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Clinical Significance of Downstaging in Patients With Limited-Disease Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
Clin Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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We investigated the effect of downstaging on OS in LD-SCLC patients treated with first-line treatment.
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Hydrothermal realization of a hierarchical, flowerlike MnWO4@MWCNTs nanocomposite with enhanced reversible Li storage as a new anode material.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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A phase-pure MnWO4-based nanocomposite, MnWO4@MWCNTs (MWCNTs=multiwalled carbon nanotubes), was successfully synthesized through a simple hydrothermal reaction at 180 °C by adjusting the pH of the precursor medium. The resulting nanocomposite maintains the original flowerlike morphology of MnWO4 with hierarchical structures composed of numerous single-crystalline nanorods that drive growth preferentially along the [001] direction. The growth mechanism for the flowerlike formations is also discussed. In addition, the Li electroactivity of pure MnWO4 and MnWO4@MWCNTs electrodes was investigated. As an anode for Li-ion batteries, the MnWO4@MWCNTs nanocomposite showed enhanced electrochemical performance in reversible Li storage relative to that shown by bare MnWO4 electrodes, including a high capacity of 425 mAh g(-1) and superior rate performance. This performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect of the nanocomposite combined with the MWCNTs, which provide efficient electron transport in their role as a conductor.
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Forward-viewing endoscopic ultrasound-guided NOTES interventions: a study on peritoneoscopic potential.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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To evaluate the feasibility of diagnostic and therapeutic transgastric (TG) peritoneoscopic interventions with a forward-viewing endoscopic ultrasound (FV-EUS).
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Crizotinib versus chemotherapy in advanced ALK-positive lung cancer.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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In single-group studies, chromosomal rearrangements of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) have been associated with marked clinical responses to crizotinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting ALK. Whether crizotinib is superior to standard chemotherapy with respect to efficacy is unknown.
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Effect of various intraoral repair systems on the shear bond strength of composite resin to zirconia.
J Adv Prosthodont
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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This study compared the effect of three intraoral repair systems on the bond strength between composite resin and zirconia core.
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Rare and complex mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor, and efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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There are many complex and rare mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) other than the two classical mutations of L858R and exon 19 deletional mutation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of rare and complex mutations, and the efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).
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Comparison of toxicity of different nanorod-type TiO2 polymorphs in vivo and in vitro.
J Appl Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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It is predicted that the toxicity of nanoparticles may be different depending on the properties of the nanoparticles and biological system being tested. However, the factors that influence the toxicity of nanoparticles have not been adequately investigated. In this study, we characterized two types of TiO2 nanorods, anatase (ATO) and brookite (BTO), and compared their toxicity in vivo and in vitro. ATO and BTO differed from each other most notably in their surface areas. Treatment with the two TiO2 nanorods (10 µg ml(-1) ) produced similar effects on the cell cycle in eight cell lines which are derived from potential target organs of nanoparticles, with the BTO eliciting stronger responses than ATO in all cell lines, among the cell lines, H9C2 showed the maximal change. Similarly, when mice were exposed to two TiO2 nanorods (1 mg kg(-1) ), BTO induced clearer histopathological lesions and triggered a more robust secretion of inflammatory cytokines than ATO. Furthermore, we compared the cellular response of both TiO2 nanorods using BEAS-2B cells, the human bronchial epithelial cell line. Both nanorods induced cell death by increasing the formation of autophagosome-like vacuoles. The mitochondrial calcium concentration decreased by exposure of both types, but the distribution of lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) showed a clear difference between the two nanorods. Thus, we conclude that the surface area acts as an important factor which depends on toxicity of nanorod type-TiO2 nanoparticles. Furthermore, the toxicity of nanoparticles varies according to the type of cells tested, and that the assembly of autophagosome-like vacuoles is a critical part of the cellular response to nanoparticle exposure. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Scalable one-pot bacteria-templating synthesis route toward hierarchical, porous-Co3O4 superstructures for supercapacitor electrodes.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Template-driven strategy has been widely used to synthesize inorganic nano/micro materials. Here, we used a bottom-up controlled synthesis route to develop a powerful solution-based method of fabricating three-dimensional (3D), hierarchical, porous-Co3O4 superstructures that exhibit the morphology of flower-like microspheres (hereafter, RT-Co3O4). The gram-scale RT-Co3O4 was facilely prepared using one-pot synthesis with bacterial templating at room temperature. Large-surface-area RT-Co3O4 also has a noticeable pseudocapacitive performance because of its high mass loading per area (~10?mg cm(-2)), indicating a high capacitance of 214?F g(-1) (2.04?F cm(-2)) at 2?A g(-1) (19.02?mA cm(-2)), a Coulombic efficiency averaging over 95%, and an excellent cycling stability that shows a capacitance retention of about 95% after 4,000 cycles.
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Endoscopic gastrojejunostomy with a natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery technique.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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To determine the technical feasibility and safety of an endoscopic gastrojejunostomy with a pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) technique using a T-anchoring device in a porcine survival model.
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Clinical usefulness of AJCC response criteria for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Recently, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7th edition proposed new response criteria for neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of AJCC response criteria.
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Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) for clinical management of intra-abdominal diseases.
Dig Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Clinical research on natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has been increasingly reported over the past 5 years and more than 1200 patients have received various NOTES procedures. The present article reviews the clinical practice of NOTES for the treatment of intra-abdominal diseases, and was carried out through systematic search with specific keywords in major databases for NOTES-related clinical literature. The last date of the search was 15 August, 2012. Transvaginal cholecystectomy is the commonest NOTES procedure reported, and its clinical feasibility and safety was established through prospective case series and randomized trials. There is a regional difference in NOTES development with the majority of NOTES fromCaucasian countries being transvaginal cholecystectomy and most reports from Asian countries being NOTES-related procedures. Safe closure of gastrointestinal access remains challenging, and novel endoscopic instruments are essential to enhance future development of NOTES.
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How Molecular Understanding Affects to Prescribing Patterns and Clinical Outcome of Gefitinib in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer? 10 Year Experience of Single Institution.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Gefitinib was introduced in 2002 for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, it is not clear whether its use in daily practice has changed the outcome of patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the question of how molecular understanding regarding gefitinib and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation affect the prescribing patterns and clinical outcomes of treatment with gefitinib in NSCLC, in a real practical field.
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Multiplexed deep sequencing analysis of ALK kinase domain identifies resistance mutations in relapsed patients following crizotinib treatment.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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The recently approved ALK kinase inhibitor crizotinib has demonstrated successful treatment of metastatic and late stage ALK fusion positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the median duration of clinical benefit is ~10-11months due to the emergence of multiple and simultaneous resistance mechanisms in these tumors. Mutations in the ALK kinase domain confer resistance to crizotinib in about one-third of these patients. We developed a multiplex deep sequencing method using semiconductor sequencing technology to quickly detect resistance mutations within the ALK kinase domain from tumor biopsies. By applying a base-pair specific error-weighted mutation calling algorithm (BASCA) that we developed for this assay, genomic DNA analysis from thirteen relapsed patients revealed three known crizotinib resistance mutations, C1156Y, L1196M and G1269A. Our assay demonstrates robust and sensitive detection of ALK kinase mutations in NSCLC tumor samples and aids in the elucidation of resistance mechanisms pertinent to the clinical setting.
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Clinical outcomes of radiation-based locoregional therapy in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients not responding to induction chemotherapy.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of radiation-based locoregional therapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC) patients who did not respond to induction chemotherapy (IC).
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Asia-Pacific consensus recommendations for endoscopic and interventional management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) is one of the most common types of hepatobiliary cancers reported in the world including Asia-Pacific region. Early HCCA may be completely asymptomatic. When significant hilar obstruction develops, the patient presents with jaundice, pale stools, dark urine, pruritus, abdominal pain, and sometimes fever. Because no single test can establish the definite diagnosis then, a combination of many investigations such as tumor markers, tissue acquisition, computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic ultrasonography/intraductal ultrasonography, and advanced cholangioscopy is required. Surgery is the only curative treatment. Unfortunately, the majority of HCCA has a poor prognosis due to their advanced stage on presentation. Although there is no survival advantage, inoperable HCCA managed by palliative drainage may benefit from symptomatic improvement. Currently, there are three techniques of biliary drainage which include endoscopic, percutaneous, and surgical approaches. For nonsurgical approaches, stent is the most preferred device and there are two types of stents i.e. plastic and metal. Type of stent and number of stent for HCCA biliary drainage are subjected to debate because the decision is made under many grounds i.e. volume of liver drainage, life expectancy, expertise of the facility, etc. Recently, radio-frequency ablation and photodynamic therapy are promising techniques that may extend drainage patency. Through a review in the literature and regional data, the Asia-Pacific Working Group for hepatobiliary cancers has developed statements to assist clinicians in diagnosing and managing of HCCA. After voting anonymously using modified Delphi method, all final statements were determined for the level of evidence quality and strength of recommendation.
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Heterogeneity of genetic changes associated with acquired crizotinib resistance in ALK-rearranged lung cancer.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is markedly sensitive to the ALK inhibitor crizotinib. However, acquired resistance to crizotinib is inevitable through several mechanisms. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify genetic alterations associated with crizotinib resistance.
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Controlled synthesis and Li-electroactivity of rutile TiO2 nanostructure with walnut-like morphology.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Herein, we report on the synthesis of phase-pure rutile walnut-like TiO(2) (W-TiO(2)) spheres composed of single-crystalline nanorod-building blocks using a surfactant-free non-aqueous acidic modified "benzyl alcohol route". Based on the various HCl concentration- and reaction time-dependent experiments, an effect of hydrochloric acid on the phase formation mechanism in a non-aqueous system is suggested. As anodes for Li-ion batteries, the W-TiO(2) sphere electrodes exhibited superior cycling performance at a rate of 0.2 C without any conducting layers coated onto the anodes; this result is attributed to their high crystallinity and large surface area.
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Comparison of toxicity between the different-type TiO? nanowires in vivo and in vitro.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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In this study, we compared their toxicity in vivo and in vitro based on the physicochemical properties of three different types of TiO? nanowires, H?Ti?O? nanowires (1HTO), hydrothermal treatment (2HTO), and calcination (3HTO) of 1HTO. The surface of 1HTO was smooth, and the surface of 2HTO was much rougher. The negative charge on the surface increased in the order of 2HTO, 3HTO, and 1HTO, whereas the surface area increased in the order of 3HTO, 1HTO, and 2HTO. The lung is a main exposure route of nanoparticles. On day 28 after a single instillation (1 mg/kg), three nanowires induced a Th2-type inflammatory response together with the relative increase in CD4? T cells, especially by 2HTO. In vitro, three TiO? nanowires (10 ?g/ml) commonly induced the generation of cell debris in eight cell lines which may be the potential target organ of nanoparticles, especially by 2HTO. It seemed that the generation of cell debris coincides with the increase in autophagosome-like vacuoles in the cytosol. In further study using BEAS-2B cells originated from the lung, the protein amount from cells exposed to 2HTO decreased more clearly although the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was less compared to 1HTO and 3HTO. Based on these results, we suggest that surface area may act as an important factor depends on the biological response by TiO? nanowires. Furthermore, the increase in autophagosome-like vacuoles may be an important cause of cell death by nanoparticles with ROS.
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Hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for medically inoperable early stage non-small-cell lung cancer.
Radiat Oncol J
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes of hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) with three-dimensional conformal technique for medically inoperable patients with early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to evaluate prognostic factors.
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Clinical usefulness of endoscopic palliation in patients with biliary obstruction caused by hepatocellular carcinoma.
Digestion
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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To evaluate the clinical usefulness of endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Tumor burden is predictive of survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations who receive gefitinib.
Clin Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Although activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are excellent predictors of gefitinib outcome in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), most patients become resistant to gefitinib. Despite our knowledge of the molecular basis of acquired resistance, clinical predictors have not been well elucidated. This study was undertaken to evaluate predictors of clinical outcome in patients with NSCLC and with EGFR mutations treated with gefitinib.
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Efficacy of exemestane in korean patients with metastatic breast cancer after failure of nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors.
J Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Exemestane has shown good efficacy and tolerability in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer. However, clinical outcomes in Korean patients have not yet been reported.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.