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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A comprehensive availability modeling and analysis of a virtualized servers system using stochastic reward nets.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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It is important to assess availability of virtualized systems in IT business infrastructures. Previous work on availability modeling and analysis of the virtualized systems used a simplified configuration and assumption in which only one virtual machine (VM) runs on a virtual machine monitor (VMM) hosted on a physical server. In this paper, we show a comprehensive availability model using stochastic reward nets (SRN). The model takes into account (i) the detailed failures and recovery behaviors of multiple VMs, (ii) various other failure modes and corresponding recovery behaviors (e.g., hardware faults, failure and recovery due to Mandelbugs and aging-related bugs), and (iii) dependency between different subcomponents (e.g., between physical host failure and VMM, etc.) in a virtualized servers system. We also show numerical analysis on steady state availability, downtime in hours per year, transaction loss, and sensitivity analysis. This model provides a new finding on how to increase system availability by combining both software rejuvenations at VM and VMM in a wise manner.
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Standards for endovascular neurosurgical training and certification of the society of korean endovascular neurosurgeons 2013.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The need for standard endovascular neurosurgical (ENS) training programs and certification in Korea cannot be overlooked due to the increasing number of ENS specialists and the expanding ENS field. The Society of Korean Endovascular Neurosurgeons (SKEN) Certification Committee has prepared training programs and certification since 2010, and the first certificates were issued in 2013. A task force team (TFT) was organized in August 2010 to develop training programs and certification. TFT members researched programs and systems in other countries to develop a program that best suited Korea. After 2 years, a rough draft of the ENS training and certification regulations were prepared, and the standard training program title was decided. The SKEN Certification Committee made an official announcement about the certification program in March 2013. The final certification regulations comprised three major parts: certified endovascular neurosurgeons (EN), certified ENS institutions, and certified ENS training institutions. Applications have been evaluated and the results were announced in June 2013 as follows: 126 members received EN certification and 55 hospitals became ENS-certified institutions. The SKEN has established standard ENS training programs together with a certification system, and it is expected that they will advance the field of ENS to enhance public health and safety in Korea.
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Comparison of the Indications and Treatment Results of Burr-Hole Drainage at the Maximal Thickness Area versus Twist-Drill Craniostomy at the Pre-Coronal Point for the Evacuation of Symptomatic Chronic Subdural Hematomas.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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To analyze the clinical data and surgical results from symptomatic chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) patients who underwent burr-hole drainage (BHD) at the maximal thickness area and twist-drill craniostomy (TDC) at the precoronal point.
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Synthesis and characterization of monodispersed core-shell/polystyrene-silica composite nanospheres as artificial dusts.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Monodispersed core-shell/polystyrene-silica composite nanospheres are synthesized as artificial dusts by a two-step process, the preparation of seed copolymer spheres and the formation of a silica layer on the seed spheres. The poly(styrene-co-MPS) copolymer spheres containing silanol groups are first prepared by emulsion polymerization using 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MPS) as a co-monomer, potassium persulfate (KPS) as a initiator, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a stabilizer. The diameter of the copolymer spheres is in the range of 220-270 nm with very small coefficients of variation (CV), depending on the content of MPS. The thermal property of the copolymer spheres is also improved as the content of silica increases. Later a silica layer is formed on the seed copolymer spheres by a reaction with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) in aqueous solution. The thickness of the silica layer formed is about 4 to 10 nm, which greatly improves the thermal stability of the copolymer spheres.
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Protocols and Results of Resident Neurosurgeons Transfemoral Catheter Angiography Training Supervised by Neuroendovascular Specialists.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Transfemoral catheter angiography (TFCA) is a basic procedure in neurovascular surgery with increasing importance in surgical and non-invasive treatments. Unfortunately, resident neurosurgeons have relatively few opportunities to perform TFCA in most institutions. We report a method developed in our hospital for training resident neurosurgeons to perform TFCA and evaluate the efficacy of this training.
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Characterization and quantitation of anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweet potatoes cultivated in Korea by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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The characterization and quantitative analysis of anthocyanins in four purple-fleshed sweet potato varieties (Borami, Mokpo 62, Shinzami, and Zami) cultivated in Korea were carried out by HPLC/diode array detector (DAD), HPLC-TOF/MS, and HPLC-MS/MS analyses. For the identification of anthocyanins, molecular formulas were first calculated by using the exact mass data of the molecular ions ([M](+)). The patterns of isotope ions of M(+) were also monitored to confirm the assignment of the molecular formulas. HPLC-MS(2) analysis was further conducted for elucidating their molecular structures. Twenty-seven different anthocyanins were tentatively identified in the sweet potatoes. Six of them are the first reported in sweet potatoes roots. The quantity and profiles of anthocyanins in sweet potatoes varied greatly with variety. Borami was found, for the first time, to be a rare sweet potato variety with an exceptionally high quantity of pelargonidin-based anthocyanins.
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Adenosine potentiates the therapeutic effects of neural stem cells expressing cytosine deaminase against metastatic brain tumors.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Tumor-tropic properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) provide a novel approach with which to deliver targeting therapeutic genes to brain tumors. Previously, we developed a therapeutic strategy against metastatic brain tumors using a human NSC line (F3) expressing cytosine deaminase (F3.CD). F3.CD converts systemically administered 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), a blood-brain barrier permeable nontoxic prodrug, into the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In this study, we potentiated a therapeutic strategy of treatment with nucleosides in order to chemically facilitate the endogenous conversion of 5-FU to its toxic metabolite 5-FU ribonucleoside (5-FUR). In vitro, 5-FUR showed superior cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-435 cancer cells when compared to 5-FU. Although adenosine had little cytotoxic activity, the addition of adenosine significantly potentiated the in vitro cytotoxicity of 5-FU. When MDA-MB?435 cells were co-cultured with F3.CD cells, F3.CD cells and 5-FC inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-435 cells more significantly in the presence of adenosine. Facilitated 5-FUR production by F3.CD was confirmed by an HPLC analysis of the conditioned media derived from F3.CD cells treated with 5-FC and adenosine. In vivo systemic adenosine treatment also significantly potentiated the therapeutic effects of F3.CD cells and 5-FC in an MDA-MB-435 metastatic brain tumor model. Simple adenosine addition improved the antitumor activity of the NSCs carrying the therapeutic gene. Our results demonstrated an increased therapeutic potential, and thereby, clinical applicability of NSC-based gene therapy.
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Chemo-enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol fermentation of lipid-extracted residual biomass of the microalga, Dunaliella tertiolecta.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Chemo-enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol fermentation of the residual biomass of Dunaliella tertiolecta after lipid extraction for biodiesel production were investigated. HCl-catalyzed saccharification of the residual biomass at 121 °C for 15 min produced reducing sugars with a yield of 29.5% (w/w) based on the residual biomass dry weight. Various enzymes were evaluated for their ability to saccharify the residual biomass. Enzymatic saccharification using AMG 300 L produced 21.0 mg/mL of reducing sugar with a yield of 42.0% (w/w) based on the residual biomass at pH 5.5 and 55 °C. Bioethanol was produced from the enzymatic saccharification products without additional pretreatment by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with yields of 0.14 g ethanol/g residual biomass and 0.44 g ethanol/g glucose produced from the residual biomass. The waste residual biomass generated during microalgal biodiesel production could be used for the production of bioethanol to improve the economic feasibility of microalgal biorefinery.
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Graphitic carbon growth on crystalline and amorphous oxide substrates using molecular beam epitaxy.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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We report graphitic carbon growth on crystalline and amorphous oxide substrates by using carbon molecular beam epitaxy. The films are characterized by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The formations of nanocrystalline graphite are observed on silicon dioxide and glass, while mainly sp2 amorphous carbons are formed on strontium titanate and yttria-stabilized zirconia. Interestingly, flat carbon layers with high degree of graphitization are formed even on amorphous oxides. Our results provide a progress toward direct graphene growth on oxide materials.PACS: 81.05.uf; 81.15.Hi; 78.30.Ly.
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Identification of prognostic biomarkers for glioblastomas using protein expression profiling.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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A set of proteins reflecting the prognosis of patients have clinical significance since they could be utilized as predictive biomarkers and/or potential therapeutic targets. With the aim of finding novel diagnostic and prognostic markers for glioblastoma (GBM), a tissue microarray (TMA) library consisting of 62 GBMs and 28 GBM-associated normal spots was constructed. Immunohistochemistry against 78 GBM-associated proteins was performed. Expression levels of each protein for each patient were analyzed using an image analysis program and converted to H-score [summation of the intensity grade of staining (0-3) multiplied by the percentage of positive cells corresponding to each grade]. Based on H-score and hierarchical clustering methods, we divided the GBMs into two groups (n=19 and 37) that had significantly different survival lengths (p<0.05). In the two groups, expression of nine proteins (survivin, cyclin E, DCC, TGF-?, CDC25B, histone H1, p-EGFR, p-VEGFR2/3, p16) was significantly changed (q<0.05). Prognosis-predicting potential of these proteins were validated with another independent library of 82 GBM TMAs and a public GBM DNA microarray dataset. In addition, we determined 32 aberrant or mislocalized subcellular protein expression patterns in GBMs compared with relatively normal brain tissues, which could be useful for diagnostic biomarkers of GBM. We therefore suggest that these proteins can be used as predictive biomarkers and/or potential therapeutic targets for GBM.
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Profiles of Spinal Cord Tumors Removed through a Unilateral Hemilaminectomy.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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To present the profiles of spinal cord tumors that can be removed through a unilateral hemilaminectomy and to demonstrate its usefulness for benign spinal cord tumors that significantly occupy the spinal canal.
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Genetically engineered human neural stem cells with rabbit carboxyl esterase can target brain metastasis from breast cancer.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Neural stem cells (NSCs) led to the development of a novel strategy for delivering therapeutic genes to tumors. NSCs expressing rabbit carboxyl esterase (F3.CE), which activates CPT-11, significantly inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-435 cells in the presence of CPT-11. F3.CE cells migrated selectively into the brain metastases located in the opposite hemisphere. The treatment also significantly decreased tumor volume in immune-deficient mice bearing MDA-MB-435 tumors when F3.CE cells were transplanted into the contralateral hemisphere. The survival rate was significantly prolonged with the treatment with F3.CE and CPT-11. This strategy may be considered as an effective treatment regimen for brain metastases.
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Electron spin resonance and luminescence spectroscopic observation and kinetic study of chemical and physical singlet oxygen quenching by resveratrol in methanol.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2010
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Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence spectroscopy were performed to observe singlet oxygen quenching by resveratrol. Resveratrol greatly decreased the 2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-4-piperidone-N-oxyl radical signal as determined by ESR spectroscopy. Resveratrol also efficiently decreased luminescence emission at 1268 nm as studied with a NIR spectrofluorometer, showing positive evidence of singlet oxygen quenching by resveratrol. The total singlet oxygen quenching rate constant (kr+kq) of resveratrol in methanol was determined to be 2.55×10(7) M(-1) s(-1). The singlet oxygen chemical quenching rate constant (kr) of resveratrol was calculated by measuring its reaction rate with singlet oxygen relative to that of ?-terpinene in the same solution under light illumination. The kr value of resveratrol was 1.15×10(6) M(-1) s(-1). The percent partition of chemical quenching over total singlet oxygen quenching (kr×100)/(kr+kq) for resveratrol was 5.11%. The results showed that resveratrol quenches singlet oxygen almost exclusively through the mechanism of physical quenching. Resveratrol showed a protective activity similar to that of BHA on the methylene blue sensitized photooxidation of ?-terpinene. This unambiguously explains the mechanism of how resveratrol protects tissues and cells in biological systems or important nutrients in food systems against their photosensitized oxidations.
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Risk factors for immediate and delayed bleeding associated with endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric neoplastic lesions.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2009
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OBJECTIVE. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of gastric neoplasia has been reported to have a higher bleeding rate than conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for bleeding associated with ESD. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The records of consecutive patients who underwent ESD for gastric adenoma/early gastric cancer were reviewed. Potential risk factors included patient age, lesion size, gross findings, location, and histology of the tumor. The primary end-point was the incidence of immediate or delayed bleeding related to ESD. RESULTS. A total of 144 patients were studied; bleeding occurred in 32 cases (22.2%) with immediate bleeding in 29 cases. Delayed bleeding (3 cases) occurred at day 2 (2 patients) and at day 7 in 1 patient. In all cases of immediate bleeding, immediate hemostatic therapy was successful. The histology of tumor was the only factor that was statistically significantly associated with bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio 6.770, 95% confidence interval 1.830-25.048, p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS. The only factor that correlated with an increased risk of bleeding with ESD was the presence of gastric malignancy. We found no factor that would, prospectively, be amenable to prevention of bleeding.
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An electrically modifiable synapse array of resistive switching memory.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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This paper describes the resistive switching of a cross-point cell array device, with a junction area of 100 nm x 100 nm, fabricated using ultraviolet nanoimprinting. A GdO(x) and Cu-doped MoO(x) stack with platinum top and bottom electrodes served as the resistive switching layer, which shows analog memory characteristics with a resistance ratio greater than 10. To demonstrate a neural network circuit, we operated the cell array device as an electrically modifiable synapse array circuit and carried out a weighted sum operation. This demonstration of cross-point arrays, based on resistive switching memory, opens the way for feasible ultra-high density synapse circuits for future large-scale neural network systems.
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Kinetic study of the quenching reaction of singlet oxygen by common synthetic antioxidants (tert-butylhydroxyanisol, tert-di-butylhydroxytoluene, and tert-butylhydroquinone) as compared with alpha-tocopherol.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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Effects of synthetic phenolic antioxidants (BHA, BHT, and TBHQ) on the methylene blue (MB) sensitized photooxidation of linoleic acid as compared with that of alpha-tocopherol have been studied. Their antioxidative mechanism was studied by both ESR spectroscopy in a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidone (TMPD)-methylene blue (MB) system and spectroscopic analysis of rubrene oxidation induced by a chemical source of singlet oxygen. Total singlet oxygen quenching rate constants (k(ox-Q)+k(q)) were determined using a steady state kinetic equation. TBHQ showed the strongest protective activity against the MB sensitized photooxidation of linoleic acid, followed by BHA and BHT. TBHQ (1 x 10(-3) M) exhibited 86.5% and 71.4% inhibition of peroxide and conjugated diene formations, respectively, in linoleic acid photooxidation after 60-min light illumination. The protective activity of TBHQ against the photosensitized oxidation of linoleic acid was almost comparable to that of alpha-tocopherol. The data obtained from ESR and rubrene oxidation studies clearly showed the strong singlet oxygen quenching ability of TBHQ. The k(ox-Q)+k(q) of BHA, BHT, and TBHQ were determined to be 3.37 x 10(7), 4.26 x 10(6), and 1.67 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The k(ox-Q)+k(q) of TBHQ was within the same order of magnitude of that of alpha-tocopherol, a known efficient singlet oxygen quencher. There was a high negative correlation (r(2) = -0.991) between log (k(ox-Q)+k(q)) and reported oxidation potentials for the synthetic antioxidants, indicating their charge-transfer mechanism for singlet oxygen quenching. This is the 1st report on the kinetic study on k(ox-Q)+k(q) of TBHQ in methanol as compared with other commonly used commercial synthetic antioxidants and alpha-tocopherol.
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Characterization of a renewable extracellular polysaccharide from defatted microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta.
Bioresour. Technol.
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Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) was isolated from defatted micro-algae Dunaliela tertiolecta and defined as linear (1?4)-?-D-glucan based on monosaccharide composition, enzymatic and spectroscopic analyses. Optimization and characterization of acidic and enzymatic hydrolyses of EPS have been performed for its potential use as a renewable biorefinery material. The hydrolytic methods were improved to assess the effect of substrate specificity, reaction time, pH, ionic strength and temperature on efficiency of glucose production. EPS was effectively converted into glucose within one-step enzymatic or acidic hydrolysis under optimized conditions. Over 90% recovery of glucose was achieved for both hydrolytic approaches. High potential production of EPS and high yield conversion of this substrate to glucose may allow further exploration of microalga D. tertiolecta as a potential biomass producer for biotechnological and industrial exploitation of bioethanol.
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Indications and surgical results of twist-drill craniostomy at the pre-coronal point for symptomatic chronic subdural hematoma patients.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
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Twist-drill craniostomy (TDC) with closed-system drainage and burr-hole drainage (BHD) with a closed system are effective treatment options for chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). The aim of this study was to analyze clinical data and surgical results from symptomatic CSDH patients who underwent TDC with closed-system drainage at the pre-coronal point (PCP).
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Morphometric study of hypoglossal nerve and facial nerve on the submandibular region in korean.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
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This study was performed to determine the anatomical landmarks and optimal dissection points of the facial nerve (FN) and the hypoglossal nerve (HGN) in the submandibular region to provide guidance for hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis (HFNA).
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Painful eccrine spiradenoma containing nerve fibers: a case report.
Dermatology (Basel)
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An eccrine spiradenoma is a rare benign tumor most often seen in the head, neck and upper trunk of young adults. Although spontaneous pain or tenderness is a typical symptom of eccrine spiradenomas, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Here, we report the case of a 47- year-old woman who had a spiradenoma in the subcutaneous tissue of her posterior neck accompanied by agonizing pain which was triggered by pressure. Multiple nodular lesions were excised and the typical histopathological findings of spiradenoma were seen. The histopathological architecture of a disorganized nerve fiber encasing the tumor nodules appeared to correlate with the unique clinical symptom of pain.
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Subclinical cervical osteochondroma presenting as brown-sequard syndrome after trivial neck trauma.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
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Osteochondroma is a rare condition in the spine that may be indolent due to its slow growth. The authors present a case of 32-year-old man with subclinical osteochondroma in the cervical spine presenting as Brown-Sequard syndrome after trivial neck trauma. After resection of the tumor through hemilaminectomy, his symptoms were improved with mild residual sequelae.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.