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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Alteration of the glycan profile of serum glycoproteins during the seroconversion process in hepatitis B virus-infected patients treated with antiviral therapy and its clinical significance].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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To use a lectin microarray to study the alteration of glycan affinity profiles of serum glycoproteins during the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroconversion in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) following treatment with antiviral therapy,and to explore its biological significance.
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Imaging Caspase-3 Activation as a Marker of Apoptosis-Targeted Treatment Response in Cancer.
Mol Imaging Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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We tested whether positron emission tomography (PET) with the caspase-3-targeted isatin analog [(18)F]WC-4-116 could image caspase-3 activation in response to an apoptosis-inducing anticancer therapy.
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Levetiracetam Effect on Adult-Onset Temporal Lobe Epilepsy With Positive Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Antibody.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Temporal lobe epilepsy is considered to be the most frequent of all epileptic syndromes. Recently, several retrospective studies suggest that limbic encephalitis (LE) may be a cause for adult onset unexplained seizure disorders in patients. This report describes two cases of adult onset epilepsy with voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies (VGKC-abs)-associated LE that responded well to levetiracetam (LEV). As demonstrated by these two cases and reviewing previous reports, we propose that the therapeutic regimen for VGKC-abs associated seizures still needs to be determined and LEV may be effective in treating this kind of disorders.
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Simultaneous Phase Unwrapping and Removal of chemical Shift (SPURS) using Graph Cuts: Application in Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) is a magnetic resonance imaging technique that reveals tissue magnetic susceptibility. It relies on having a high quality field map, typically acquired with a relatively long echo spacing and long final TE. Applications of QSM outside the brain require the removal of fat contributions to the total signal phase. However, current water/fat separation methods applied on typical data acquired for QSM suffer from three issues: inadequacy when using large echo spacing, over-smoothing of the field maps and high computational cost. In this paper, the general phase wrap and chemical shift problem is formulated using a single species fitting and is solved using graph cuts with conditional jump moves. This method is referred as Simultaneous Phase Unwrapping and Removal of chemical Shift (SPURS). The result from SPURS is then used as the initial guess for a voxel-wise Iterative Decomposition of water and fat with Echo Asymmetric and Least-squares estimation (IDEAL). The estimated three-dimensional field maps are used to compute Quantitative Susceptibility Maps (QSM) in body regions outside of the brain, such as the liver. Experimental results show substantial improvements in field map estimation, water/fat separation and reconstructed QSM compared to two existing water/fat separation methods on 1.5T and 3T magnetic resonance human data with long echo spacing and rapid field map variation.
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Bivalent histone modifications during tooth development.
Int J Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Histone methylation is one of the most widely studied post-transcriptional modifications. It is thought to be an important epigenetic event that is closely associated with cell fate determination and differentiation. To explore the spatiotemporal expression of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) epigenetic marks and methylation or demethylation transferases in tooth organ development, we measured the expression of SET7, EZH2, KDM5B and JMJD3 via immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis in the first molar of BALB/c mice embryos at E13.5, E15.5, E17.5, P0 and P3, respectively. We also measured the expression of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 with immunofluorescence staining. During murine tooth germ development, methylation or demethylation transferases were expressed in a spatial-temporal manner. The bivalent modification characterized by H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 can be found during the tooth germ development, as shown by immunofluorescence. The expression of SET7, EZH2 as methylation transferases and KDM5B and JMJD3 as demethylation transferases indicated accordingly with the expression of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 respectively to some extent. The bivalent histone may play a critical role in tooth organ development via the regulation of cell differentiation.International Journal of Oral Science advance online publication, 14 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ijos.2014.60.
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Utilizing electrostatic interactions to facilitate F-18 radiolabeling of poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimers.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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The development of methods for the facile conjugation and radiolabeling of poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimers would be of great benefit in evaluating biomedical applications of these intriguing molecularly defined polymers. Two anionic N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) esters ( and ) were developed and radiolabeled with fluorine-18 using Cu(i)-catalyzed click reactions. The radiolabeling of a primary amine-terminated PAMAM generation-6 (G6) dendrimer with [(18)F] or [(18)F] was complete in water or methanol within 5 min at room temperature. This highly efficient conjugation reaction benefits from a high, localized concentration of these NHS esters on the surface of PAMAM dendrimers, due to the electrostatic attraction between the anionic NHS esters and the positively-charged PAMAM dendrimers. The large medium effect (pH, salt, solvent) observed for these conjugation reactions is consistent with this mechanism. This novel strategy of utilizing electrostatic interactions provides a novel, facile, and efficient method for the conjugation and radiolabeling of PAMAM dendrimers that also has potential for radiolabeling other appropriate nanoparticles.
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Protective efficacy of Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (TgCDPK1) adjuvated with recombinant IL-15 and IL-21 against experimental toxoplasmosis in mice.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Toxoplasma gondii can infect all warm-blooded animals including humans. Infection with T. gondii is probably the leading cause of posterior uveitis in humans and the most comment route of transmission is raw and undercooked meat from infected animals. T. gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (TgCDPK1) plays a critical role in direct parasite motility, host-cell invasion, and egress.
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Lamina replacement with titanium plate fixation improves spinal stability after total lumbar laminectomy.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Biomechanical experiments and strain analyses were performed to investigate the effects of lamina replacement surgery for intraspinal lesions on postoperative spinal stability. Eight specimens of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (T12-L4) were collected from adult cadavers. Stepwise lumbar total laminectomy, and laminoplasty with lamina reduction and replacement was undertaken in combination with titanium-plate fixation to simulate the surgical setting. The effects of thoracic and lumbar vertebral strain, displacement, and rigidity on spinal stability were measured following both single and multiple segment laminectomy. Significant differences in mechanical indices of stability were seen between stepwise laminectomy of lumbar vertebrae and normal specimens (p < 0.05), between lamina replacement in combination with titanium-plate fixation and laminectomy (p < 0.05), and between single- and multiple-segment laminectomy (p < 0.05). Differences between laminoplasty with lamina replacement in combination with titanium-plate fixation and normal specimens need to be examined for further study. Lumbar laminectomy followed by reduction and replacement, in combination with titanium-plate fixation, was shown to be beneficial in terms of preserving spinal stability and maintaining biomechanical function and spinal loading capability.
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Proteomic investigation into betulinic acid-induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer HeLa cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that exhibits anticancer functions in human cancer cells. This study provides evidence that betulinic acid is highly effective against the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa by inducing dose- and time-dependent apoptosis. The apoptotic process was further investigated using a proteomics approach to reveal protein expression changes in HeLa cells following betulinic acid treatment. Proteomic analysis revealed that there were six up- and thirty down-regulated proteins in betulinic acid-induced HeLa cells, and these proteins were then subjected to functional pathway analysis using multiple analysis software. UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase decarboxylating, chain A Horf6-a novel human peroxidase enzyme that involved in redox process, was found to be down-regulated during the apoptosis process of the oxidative stress response pathway. Consistent with our results at the protein level, an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed in betulinic acid-treated cells. The proteins glucose-regulated protein and cargo-selection protein TIP47, which are involved in the endoplasmic reticulum pathway, were up-regulated by betulinic acid treatment. Meanwhile, 14-3-3 family proteins, including 14-3-3? and 14-3-3?, were down-regulated in response to betulinic acid treatment, which is consistent with the decrease in expression of the target genes 14-3-3? and 14-3-3?. Furthermore, it was found that the antiapoptotic bcl-2 gene was down-regulated while the proapoptotic bax gene was up-regulated after betulinic acid treatment in HeLa cells. These results suggest that betulinic acid induces apoptosis of HeLa cells by triggering both the endoplasmic reticulum pathway and the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.
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Calcium hydroxide removal in curved root canals with apical transportation In Vitro.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Calcium hydroxide (CH) is applied to improve disinfection of root canals in most root canal retreatment. This study aimed to analyze the CH removal efficacy using 7 different root preparing files (K file, pre-curved K file, EndoActivator, Ultrasonic file, pre-curved ultrasonic file, F file and needle irrigation alone) with apical transportation. Standardized models of curved canal with such apical transportation or not were set up before applying CH to root canal for 7 days. Seven techniques described above were used for its removal. Then the roots were disassembled and digital photos were taken. The ratio of residual CH in the overall canal surface was calculated using the image analyzer image pro plus 6.0. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test. Results revealed that CH was effectively removed (P<0.05) by using all 6 mechanical methods except irrigation alone. In curved root canals with apical transportation, EndoActivator, pre-curved ultrasonic file and F file were found to be more effective in removing CH than the other four file (P<0.001), while there was no significant difference among EndoActivator, pre-curved ultrasonic file and F file groups (P>0.05). The percentage of residual CH in the canal with apical transportation was higher than that in the canal without apical transportation (P<0.05). In conclusion, CH can be hardly removed completely. Canal with apical transportation will result in insufficient CH removal. EndoActivator, pre-curved ultrasonic file and F file are more effective in the curved root canal with apical transportation.
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Mutual Antagonism of Wilms' Tumor 1 and ?-Catenin Dictates Podocyte Health and Disease.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Activation of ?-catenin, the intracellular mediator of canonical Wnt signaling, has a critical role in mediating podocyte injury and proteinuria. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that ?-catenin triggers ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation of Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) and functionally antagonizes its action. In mice injected with adriamycin, WT1 protein was progressively lost in glomerular podocytes at 1, 3, and 5 weeks after injection. Notably, loss of WT1 apparently did not result from podocyte depletion but was closely associated with upregulation of ?-catenin. This change in WT1/?-catenin ratio was accompanied by loss of podocyte-specific nephrin, podocalyxin, and synaptopodin and acquisition of mesenchymal markers Snail1, ?-smooth muscle actin, and fibroblast-specific protein 1. In vitro, overexpression of ?-catenin induced WT1 protein degradation through the ubiquitin proteasomal pathway, which was blocked by MG-132. WT1 and ?-catenin also competed for binding to common transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein and mutually repressed the expression of their respective target genes. In glomerular miniorgan culture, activation of ?-catenin by Wnt3a repressed WT1 and its target gene expression. In vivo, blockade of Wnt/?-catenin signaling by endogenous antagonist Klotho induced WT1 and restored podocyte integrity in adriamycin nephropathy. These results show that ?-catenin specifically targets WT1 for ubiquitin-mediated degradation, leading to podocyte dedifferentiation and mesenchymal transition. Our data also suggest that WT1 and ?-catenin have opposing roles in podocyte biology, and that the ratio of their expression levels dictates the state of podocyte health and disease in vivo.
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A resting-state functional connectivity study in patients at high risk for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Seizure-related respiratory and cardiac dysfunctions were once thought to be the direct cause of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), but both may be secondary to postictal cerebral inhibition. An important issue that has not been explored to date is the neural network basis of cerebral inhibition. Our aim was to investigate the features of neural networks in patients at high risk for SUDEP using a blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) resting-state functional connectivity (FC) approach.
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Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sika deer (Cervus nippon) in northeastern China.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can infect warm-blooded animals and humans. A serological survey was undertaken to examine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in sika deer in northeastern China. 114 (13.46%, 95% CI 11.16-15.76) out of 847 serum samples were positive to T. gondii by modi?ed agglutination test (MAT) at a 1:25 cut-off, with titers of 1:25 in 44, 1:50 in 32, 1:100 in 17, 1:500 in 11, 1:1500 or higher in 10. These samples were collected between November 2012 and October 2013 from Inner Mongolia, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in China. However, statistically signi?cant differences were not observed between T. gondii seroprevalence and genders or regions of sika deer in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05) and left out of the ?nal model. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in male sika deer was 14.07% (95% CI 11.14-17.01), slightly higher than that in the female (12.38%) (95% CI 8.69-16.06) and seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in Harbin, Changchun city, Jilin city and Chifeng city were 12.02% (95% CI 7.60-16.44), 15.51% (95% CI 11.52-19.50), 12.27% (95% CI 7.23-17.31) and 12.50% (95% CI 7.38-17.63), respectively. Seasons of sampling were considered as main risk factors associated with T. gondii infection, autumn (15.32%) were more than two times (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.18-3.33, P=0.01) at risk of acquiring T. gondii infection compared to winter (8.37%). Our results indicated a widespread exposure to T. gondii among sika deer in China. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in sika deer in China.
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Sequence variation in Toxoplasma gondii rop17 gene among strains from different hosts and geographical locations.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Genetic diversity of T. gondii is a concern of many studies, due to the biological and epidemiological diversity of this parasite. The present study examined sequence variation in rhoptry protein 17 (ROP17) gene among T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical regions. The rop17 gene was amplified and sequenced from 10 T. gondii strains, and phylogenetic relationship among these T. gondii strains was reconstructed using maximum parsimony (MP), neighbor-joining (NJ), and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses. The partial rop17 gene sequences were 1375 bp in length and A+T contents varied from 49.45% to 50.11% among all examined T. gondii strains. Sequence analysis identified 33 variable nucleotide positions (2.1%), 16 of which were identified as transitions. Phylogeny reconstruction based on rop17 gene data revealed two major clusters which could readily distinguish Type I and Type II strains. Analyses of sequence variations in nucleotides and amino acids among these strains revealed high ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous polymorphisms (>1), indicating that rop17 shows signs of positive selection. This study demonstrated the existence of slightly high sequence variability in the rop17 gene sequences among T. gondii strains from different hosts and geographical regions, suggesting that rop17 gene may represent a new genetic marker for population genetic studies of T. gondii isolates.
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Simultaneous first- and second-order percolation transitions in interdependent networks.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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In a system of interdependent networks, an initial failure of nodes invokes a cascade of iterative failures that may lead to a total collapse of the whole system in the form of an abrupt first-order transition. When the fraction of initial failed nodes 1-p reaches criticality p = p(c), the abrupt collapse occurs by spontaneous cascading failures. At this stage, the giant component decreases slowly in a plateau form and the number of iterations in the cascade ? diverges. The origin of this plateau and its increasing with the size of the system have been unclear. Here we find that, simultaneously with the abrupt first-order transition, a spontaneous second-order percolation occurs during the cascade of iterative failures. This sheds light on the origin of the plateau and how its length scales with the size of the system. Understanding the critical nature of the dynamical process of cascading failures may be useful for designing strategies for preventing and mitigating catastrophic collapses.
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Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1?:?16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution.
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Altered Functional Connectivity Patterns of the Insular Subregions in Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures.
Brain Topogr
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are characterized by unstable cognitive-emotional and motor system, which is engaged in hyperactivity of limbic regions and sensorimotor area. The insula, which is a part of the limbic system, includes various subregions with some distinct connectivity patterns separately. However, whether these insular subregions show different connectivity patterns respectively in PNES remains largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the functional connectivity (FC) of insular subregions in PNES and extend the understanding of the complex pathophysiological mechanisms of this disease. A resting-state FC based on the insular subregions were conducted in 18 patients and 20 healthy controls. We examined the differences in FC values between PNES patients and controls using two sample t test. Our results showed patients had significantly stronger FC between insular subregions and sensorimotor network, lingual gyrus, superior parietal gyrus and putamen, which suggested a hyperlink pattern of insular subregions involved in abnormal emotion regulation, cognitive processes and motor function in PNES. Pearson correlation analysis between the mean FC values within abnormal regions and the frequency of PNES further indicated PNES exhibited abnormal functional organization whose stressful emotion of patients have great direct influence on their motor functions. The differentially impaired functional connectivity patterns of insular subregions might provide new insights into the complex neurological mechanism of PNES.
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Association between mir-24 and mir-378 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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MiR-24/378 is thought to be onco-miRNAs for their ability of enhancing tumor growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential predictive value of miR-24/378 expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer patients.
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Wnt5a promotes inflammatory responses via nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in human dental pulp cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Wnt5a has been found recently to be involved in inflammation regulation through a mechanism that remains unclear. Immunohistochemical staining of infected human dental pulp and tissue from experimental dental pulpitis in rats showed that Wnt5a levels were increased. In vitro, Wnt5a was increased 8-fold in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) after TNF-? stimulation compared with control cells. We then investigated the role of Wnt5a in HDPCs. In the presence of TNF-?, Wnt5a further increased the production of cytokines/chemokines, whereas Wnt5a knockdown markedly reduced cytokine/ chemokine production induced by TNF-?. In addition, in HDPCs, Wnt5a efficiently induced cytokine/chemokine expression and, in particular, expression of IL-8 (14.5-fold) and CCL2 (25.5-fold), as assessed by a Luminex assay. The cytokine subsets regulated by Wnt5a overlap partially with those induced by TNF-?. However, no TNF-? and IL-1? was detected after Wnt5a treatment. We then found that Wnt5a alone and the supernatants of Wnt5a-treated HDPCs significantly increased macrophage migration, which supports a role for Wnt5a in macrophage recruitment and as an inflammatory mediator in human dental pulp inflammation. Finally, Wnt5a participates in dental pulp inflammation in a MAPK-dependent (p38-, JNK-, and ERK-dependent) and NF-?B-dependent manner. Our data suggest that Wnt5a, as an inflammatory mediator that drives the integration of cytokines and chemokines, acts downstream of TNF-?.
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First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in pet parrots in China.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, has become a serious public health problem worldwide. T. gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including parrots. However, little is known of T. gondii infection in parrots in China. Antibodies against T. gondii in 311 parrots including 202 Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), 26 Lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), 22 Cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), and 61 Alexandrine Parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) in the cities of Beijing and Weifang in north China were tested using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Twenty-six (8.36%) out of 311 serum samples were positive for T. gondii at the cutoff of 1:5. Among the four species, a higher seroprevalence of T. gondii was found in Cockatiels (13.64%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-27.98), although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.61). Seropositivity rates against T. gondii in male parrots (10.43%, 95% CI 5.74-15.12) were not statistically different from that in female parrots (6.08%, 95% CI 2.23-9.93, p=0.17). The seropositivity of T. gondii in parrots from Weifang and Beijing was 11.11% (95% CI 6.13-16.09) and 5.70% (95% CI 2.08-9.31), respectively. The seroprevalence varied in parrots of different age groups, ranging from 5.71% (95% CI 1.27-10.15) to 13.00% (95% CI 6.41-19.69), however, the difference among age groups was not statistically significant (p=0.12). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in parrots in summer (11.63%, 95% CI 6.84-16.42) was significantly higher than in spring (4.32%, 95% CI 0.94-7.70, p=0.02). The results of the present survey indicated that parrots in China are exposed to T. gondii. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in parrots in China.
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TACN-based oligomers with aromatic backbones for efficient nucleic acid delivery.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Cationic oligomers with a rigid aromatic backbone were first applied as non-viral gene delivery vectors. These materials showed better DNA condensation ability than their flexible analogues. In vitro transfection experiments revealed that the materials with more rigid backbone exhibited considerably higher TE and lower cytotoxicity than 25 kDa PEI.
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HHV-7 in adults with drug-resistant epilepsy: A pathological role in hippocampal sclerosis?
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) is a ?-herpesvirus associated with febrile seizures. No association between HHV-7 and epilepsy has been confirmed.
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Review of research on the mechanical properties of the human tooth.
Int J Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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'Bronze teeth' reflect the mechanical properties of natural teeth to a certain extent. Their mechanical properties resemble those of a tough metal, and the gradient of these properties lies in the direction from outside to inside. These attributes confer human teeth with effective mastication ability. Understanding the various mechanical properties of human teeth and dental materials is the basis for the development of restorative materials. In this study, the elastic properties, dynamic mechanical properties (visco-elasticity) and fracture mechanical properties of enamel and dentin were reviewed to provide a more thorough understanding of the mechanical properties of human teeth.
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First report of Cryptosporidium spp. in white yaks in China.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Cryptosporidium is an enteric apicomplexan parasite, which can infect yaks, leading to reduction of milk production and poor weight gain. White yak (Bos grunniens) is a unique yak breed inhabiting only in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, Gansu province, northwestern China. The objective of the present study was to molecularly determine Cryptosporidium infection and species in white yaks.
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[Effect of arginine dentifrice on remineralization of initial enamel carious lesions].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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To evaluate remineralization efficacy of an arginine containing dentifrice on initial enamel carious lesions in vitro.
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Serological report of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection among cats in northeastern China in 2012-02 and 2013-03.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Influenza A virus has a wide range of hosts. It has not only infected human, but also been reported interspecies transmission from humans to other animals, such as pigs, poultry, dogs and cats. However, prevalence of A (H1N1) pdm09 influenza virus infections in cats in northeastern China is unknown. Therefore, the prevalence of A (H1N1) pdm09 influenza virus infections was performed among cats in northeastern China in this study.
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Serological report of pandemic and seasonal human influenza virus infection in dogs in southern China.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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From January to July 2012, we looked for evidence of subclinical A (H1N1) pdm09 and seasonal human influenza viruses infections in healthy dogs in China. Sera from a total of 1920 dogs were collected from Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian and Jiangxi provinces. We also examined archived sera from 66 dogs and cats that were collected during 2008 from these provinces. Using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays, we found that only the dogs sampled in 2012 had elevated antibodies (?1:32) against A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and seasonal human influenza viruses: Of the 1920 dog sera, 20.5 % (n = 393) had elevated antibodies against influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 by the HI assay, 1.1 % (n = 22), and 4.7 % (n = 91) of the 1920 dogs sera had elevated antibodies against human seasonal H1N1 influenza virus and human seasonal H3N2 influenza virus by the HI assay. Compared with dogs that were raised on farms, dogs that were raised as pets were more likely to have elevated antibodies against A(H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal human influenza viruses. Seropositivity was highest among pet dogs, which likely had more diverse and frequent exposures to humans than farm dogs. These findings will help us better understand which influenza A viruses are present in dogs and will contribute to the prevention and control of influenza A virus. Moreover, further in-depth study is necessary for us to understand what roles dogs play in the ecology of influenza A.
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Tailoring nanostructures in micrometer size germanium particles to improve their performance as an anode for lithium ion batteries.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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A facile and scalable single-step approach is employed to synthesize a bulk germanium electrode, which consists of nanoscale Ge-grains in ?5 ?m porous powders. This three-dimensional Ge electrode exhibits superior specific capacity (?1500 mA h g(-1)) and cyclic performance, attributed to its unique lithiation/delithiation processes.
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Synergy of mIL-21 and mIL-15 in enhancing DNA vaccine efficacy against acute and chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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The synergistic protective efficacy of murine interleukin 21 (mIL-21) and mIL-15 administrated with DNA vaccine against acute and chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice was investigated using T. gondii MIC8 (TgMIC8) as a model. We cloned mIL-21 and mIL-15 from splenic tissues of Kunming mice, and constructed eukaryotic plasmid pVAX/mIL-15, pVAX/mIL-21, and pVAX/mIL-21/mIL-15, respectively. After immunizing with pVAX/TgMIC8 in the presence or absence of these cytokines, immune responses were analyzed using lymphoproliferative assay, cytokine and serum antibody measurements, flow cytometric surface markers on lymphocytes and protection against acute and chronic T. gondii infection. Mice receiving pVAX/TgMIC8 alone developed a strong humoral responses and Th1 type cellular immune responses, and showed an increase of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells compared with all the controls. Adding pVAX/mIL-21 to pVAX/TgMIC8 compared to pVAX/TgMIC8 resulted in only a slight increase in humoral and cellular immune responses, and this immune response was lower than that induced by the pVAX/mIL-15 combined with pVAX/TgMIC8. Co-administration of pVAX/mIL-21/mIL-15 combined with pVAX/TgMIC8 elicited the strongest humoral and cellular immune responses among all the groups, leading to significantly increased survival time against acute infection and the significant reduction of tissue cysts, compared to all the controls. Synergy of mIL-21 and mIL-15 can facilitate specific humoral as well as cellular immune responses elicited by DNA vaccine against acute and chronic T. gondii infection in mice.
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Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in Jiangxi Province, Southeastern China.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in humans and a wide range of animal species. In the current study, a serological investigation using an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs in Jiangxi Province, southeastern China. A total of 1232 serum samples were collected from pigs in 10 administrative districts in Jiangxi, and specific antibodies were detected in 282 pigs (22.9%) with the titers ?1:64. Positive pigs were found in each administrative district, with prevalence ranging from 5.0% to 46.2%. Age and season were found to be associated with T. gondii infection. Lactating sows (odds ratio [OR]=15.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]=6.8-35.2, p<0.01), pregnant sows (OR=11.5, 95% CI=5.3-24.8, p<0.01), nonpregnant sows (OR=13.7, 95% CI=6.4-29.3, p<0.01), breeding boars (OR=9, 95% CI=3.8-21.4, p<0.01), and fattening pigs (OR=4.9, 95% CI=2.1-11.7, p<0.01) all had a greater risk of acquiring infection compared to the weanling pigs. There is a higher risk of infection in the spring (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.6, p=0.01) and the summer (OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.3-3.2, p<0.01) than in the winter. This is the first documentation of T. gondii seroprevalence in pigs in Jiangxi Province, which enriches the epidemiological data of T. gondii infection in pigs in China. The results of this study indicate that pigs in Jiangxi Province are frequently exposed to T. gondii, posing a direct threat to the pig industry as well as to public health. Integrated strategies are needed to strengthen future prevention and control of T. gondii infection in pigs in this region.
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Seroprevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in three species of pet birds in China.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most common zoonosis worldwide, affecting a wide range of warm-blooded mammals and birds worldwide. However, no information on T. gondii infection in pet birds in China is available. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in pet birds in Gansu province, China.
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Prospective study on the withdrawal and reinstitution of antiepileptic drugs among seizure-free patients in west China.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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This study explored the relapse rates and risk factors for seizure recurrence after discontinuing antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy among seizure-free patients in west China, and explored whether to reinstitute AED immediately after a single seizure after AED withdrawal. Patients with epilepsy who were seizure-free for at least 2 years and decided to gradually stop AED therapy were followed up every 3 months for seizure relapse. Patients who experienced their first seizure after drug withdrawal were divided into two groups according to their willingness to reinstitute AED therapy, and were followed up until their second seizure. In the mean 29.35 months of follow-up, 37 patients (37/162, 22.8%) suffered at least one seizure after withdrawal. The cumulative probability of seizure recurrence was 16% at 12 months and 20.2% at 24 months. AED response time >1 year and multiple types of seizure were identified as risk factors for seizure recurrence. Eight patients (8/32, 25%) suffered a second seizure within 1 year after the first whether or not they reinstituted AED immediately. There were no significant demographic or clinical differences between patients who reinstituted AED therapy and those who did not. The epilepsy recurrence rate after AED withdrawal is relatively low, with a relatively slow tapering process. Patients with long AED response times and/or multiple types of seizures have a higher risk of seizure recurrence. The first seizure after drug withdrawal is not an indication for immediate AED reinstitution, but may be recommended after a second seizure.
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Evaluation of three-dimensional biofilms on antibacterial bonding agents containing novel quaternary ammonium methacrylates.
Int J Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Antibacterial adhesives are promising to inhibit biofilms and secondary caries. The objectives of this study were to synthesize and incorporate quaternary ammonium methacrylates into adhesives, and investigate the alkyl chain length effects on three-dimensional biofilms adherent on adhesives for the first time. Six quaternary ammonium methacrylates with chain lengths of 3, 6, 9, 12, 16 and 18 were synthesized and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose. Streptococcus mutans bacteria were cultured on resin to form biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to measure biofilm thickness, live/dead volumes and live-bacteria percentage vs. distance from resin surface. Biofilm thickness was the greatest for Scotchbond control; it decreased with increasing chain length, reaching a minimum at chain length 16. Live-biofilm volume had a similar trend. Dead-biofilm volume increased with increasing chain length. The adhesive with chain length 9 had 37% live bacteria near resin surface, but close to 100% live bacteria in the biofilm top section. For chain length 16, there were nearly 0% live bacteria throughout the three-dimensional biofilm. In conclusion, strong antibacterial activity was achieved by adding quaternary ammonium into adhesive, with biofilm thickness and live-biofilm volume decreasing as chain length was increased from 3 to 16. Antibacterial adhesives typically only inhibited bacteria close to its surface; however, adhesive with chain length 16 had mostly dead bacteria in the entire three-dimensional biofilm. Antibacterial adhesive with chain length 16 is promising to inhibit biofilms at the margins and combat secondary caries.
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SELP genetic polymorphisms may contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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We conducted a meta-analysis of case-control studies to determine whether SELP genetic polymorphisms contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infarction (MI). A range of electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE (1966-2013), the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013), EMBASE (1980-2013), CINAHL (1982-2013), Web of Science (1945-2013) and the Chinese biomedical database (1982-2013) without language restrictions. Meta-analysis was performed with the use of the STATA statistical software. Nine case-control studies with a total of 3,154 CHD patients, 1,608 MI patients and 17,304 healthy controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Six common polymorphisms in the SELE gene were assessed, including -1969G/A (rs1800805 G>A), -1817T/C (rs1800808 T>C), -2123C/G (rs1800807 C>G), Thr715Pro (rs6136 A>C), Leu599Val (rs6133 G>T), and Ser290Asn (rs6131 C>T). Our findings illustrated significantly positive associations of SELE genetic polymorphisms with the development of CHD and MI. The results of subgroup analysis by SNP type indicated that -1969G/A, -1817T/C, -2123C/G, Thr715Pro and Ser290Asn in the SELP gene might be strongly correlated with CHD and MI risk, but no similar results were found in SELP Leu599Val polymorphism. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, our results indicated significant relationships between SELE genetic polymorphisms and the pathogenesis of CHD and MI among Asians and Caucasians. However, we observed no significant associations between SELP genetic polymorphisms and the risk of CHD and MI among Africans. Our findings provide empirical evidence that SELE genetic polymorphisms may contribute to the pathogenesis of CHD and MI, especially among Asians and Caucasians. Thus, SELP genetic polymorphisms could be potential and practical biomarkers for early diagnosis of CHD and MI.
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Toxoplasma gondii: protective immunity induced by rhoptry protein 9 (TgROP9) against acute toxoplasmosis.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein 9 (ROP9) is involved in the early stages of host invasion, and contains B cell epitopes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding TgROP9 gene against acute T. gondii infection in mice. A DNA vaccine (pVAX-ROP9) encoding TgROP9 inserted into eukaryotic expression vector pVAX I was constructed, and the efficacy of intramuscular vaccination of Kunming mice with pVAX-ROP9 was analyzed. Mice immunized with pVAX-ROP9 induced a high level of specific anti-T. gondii antibodies, as well as a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response with predominance of IgG2a production. Also, injection of pVAX-ROP9 induced a specific lymphocyte proliferative responses and Th1-type cellular immune response with production of IFN-? and interleukin-2. The percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were significantly increased in mice immunized with pVAX-ROP9, compared to empty vector, PBS or blank controls. Immunization with pVAX-ROP9 significantly (P<0.05) prolonged survival time (12.9±2.9days) after challenge infection with the virulent T. gondii RH strain (Type I), compared with the control groups which died within 6days. DNA vaccination with pVAX-ROP9 triggered strong humoral and cellular responses, and induced effective protection in mice against acute T. gondii infection, indicating that TgROP9 is a promising vaccine candidate against acute toxoplasmosis.
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High-resolution ultrasonography for the diagnosis of brachial plexus root lesions.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using high-resolution ultrasonography in the diagnosis of brachial plexus (BP) root lesions. A prospective study of ultrasonographic evaluation of BP nerve roots was performed in 37 patients with BP root lesions (29 with root injuries, 8 with tumors). The pre-operative ultrasonographic findings were compared with the surgical and pathohistological findings. All C5-7 roots were detected by ultrasonography in all patients, whereas 92% (68/74) of C8 and 51% (38/74) of T1 nerve roots were visualized. Among 29 patients with BP root avulsion, partial injuries or totally interrupted BP roots were detected in all patients. Cystic masses and neuromas were detected in 16 and 23 patients, respectively. In 8 patients with BP root tumors, 8 hypo-echoic masses were detected inside or partly outside of intervertebral foramina connecting to nerve roots. Surgical exploration revealed that there were 57 BP root avulsions in 29 patients. However, 2 T1 nerve root avulsions had been missed by pre-operative ultrasonography. Pathohistology revealed that all 8 BP root tumors pre-operatively diagnosed by ultrasonography were schwannomas. High-resolution ultrasonography can provide a convenient and accurate imaging modality for quick diagnosis and location of BP root lesions.
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Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Haemophilus parasuis infection in Tibetan pigs in Tibet.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Haemophilus parasuis is the causative agent of Glässer's disease, an important emerging infectious disease, but little is known of H. parasuis infection in Tibetan pigs in Tibet. The objective of the present investigation was to examine H. parasuis seroprevalence in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China. Serum samples from 423 Tibetan pigs in Nyingchi, Tibet, China from April to December in 2010 were examined independently for the presence of antibodies against H. parasuis. A total of 147 (34.75%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 30.21-39.29) Tibetan pigs were tested positive for H. parasuis antibodies by the indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) using a kit commercially available. 80 of 231 in Nyingchi (34.63%, 95% CI 28.50-40.77) and 67 of 192 in Mainling (34.89%, 95% CI 28.15-41.64) were tested positive, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05, ?(2)=0.003). The prevalence ranged from 19.72% (95% CI 10.46-28.97) to 75.00% (95% CI 32.57-100) varying in different age groups, with higher prevalence in breeding boars than in piglets, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The prevalence of H. parasuis infection in males (45.03%, 95% CI 37.57-52.49) was significantly higher than that in the female (30%, 95% CI 22.41-37.59) pigs (P<0.05, ?(2)=7.361). Gender of Tibetan pigs was the main risk factor associated with H. parasuis infection. The results of the present survey indicated a wide distribution of H. parasuis among Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China and further investigation should better assess circulation of H. parasuis in Tibetan pigs. To the best of our knowledge, the present study represents the first report of H. parasuis infection in Tibetan pigs in China.
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Electromagnetic fields for treating osteoarthritis.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2002. Osteoarthritis is a disease that affects the synovial joints, causing degeneration and destruction of hyaline cartilage and subchondral bone. Electromagnetic field therapy is currently used by physiotherapists and may promote growth and repair of bone and cartilage. It is based on principles of physics which include Wolffs law, the piezoelectric effect and the concept of streaming potentials.
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Altered Resting-State Functional and White Matter Tract Connectivity in Stroke Patients With Dysphagia.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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. Swallowing dysfunction is intractable after acute stroke. Our understanding of the alterations in neural networks of patients with neurogenic dysphagia is still developing.
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Hair loss with levetiracetam in five patients with epilepsy.
Seizure
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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To report cases of hair loss with levetiracetam (LEV) in epilepsy patient and summarise their demographic and clinical features.
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Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Qinghai vole, Plateau pika and Tibetan ground-tit on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2013
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The distribution of genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in wildlife is of interest to understand the transmission of this parasite in the environment. Limited information on T. gondii genotypes has been reported in wildlife in China. The objective of this study was to carry out the genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from wild animals on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
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Comparative analysis of microRNAs from the lungs and trachea of dogs (Canis familiaris) infected with canine influenza virus.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs of 18-22-nucleotides in length that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in the miRNA expression profiles of the lungs and trachea of beagle dogs infected with canine influenza virus (CIV). Total RNA was isolated from lung and trachea tissues of beagle dogs infected and non-infected with H3N2 CIV at 4dpi. A total of 41,512,315 and 39,107,475 reads were obtained from the lung and trachea, respectively. Out of a total 288 dog miRNAs available in miRBase, 227 and 236 miRNAs were detected in the infected (Fg) and the non-infected lungs (Fc), respectively, whereas 242 miRNAs were detected in both the infected (Qg) and the non-infected trachea (Qc). From these, 34 and 45 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the lungs and trachea between the infected and non-infected dogs, respectively. More miRNAs were highly expressed in the non-infected tissues than in the infected tissues. miR-143 was the most abundantly expressed miRNA in the four samples, followed by let-7. In total, 252, 234, 196 and 235 novel miRNAs were identified in the Fc, Fg, Qc, and Qg groups, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining the miRNA gene expression in CIV infected dogs using the Solexa sequencing approach. We have revealed the existence of a large number miRNAs that are affected by CIV infection as well as identified some potentially new miRNAs. These findings will help us better understand the host-CIV interaction and its relationship to pathogenesis, as well as contribute to the prevention and control of CIV.
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First report of seroprevalence of swine influenza a virus in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Swine influenza A virus (SIV) is zoonotic pathogen that can be acquired by food-borne transmission because food animals, for example pigs, are recognized as a reservoir. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of anti-SIV (H1N1 and H3N2) in Tibetan pigs in Tibet Nationality Autonomous Region, China, a region with cold weather and high altitude. A total of 421 serum samples were randomly collected from Tibetan pigs in Tibet and were evaluated for antibodies against SIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 52 % (219/421) of the animals was positive for H1N1, 16.9 % (71/421) positive for H3N2, and 8.8 % (37/421) positive for both H1N1 and H3N2. The results of the present survey indicated that SIV is highly prevalent among Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China. The results of the present investigation have implications for the ongoing control of SIV infection in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China and elsewhere.
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Protective immunity against Toxoplasma gondii induced by DNA immunization with the gene encoding a novel vaccine candidate: calcium-dependent protein kinase 3.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Toxoplasma gondii can infect almost all warm-blood animals including human beings. The plant-like calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) harbored by T. gondii are involved in gliding motility, cell invasion, egress and some other developmental processes, and so have been implicated as important virulence factors.
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Genetic variability among Schistosoma japonicum isolates from the Philippines, Japan and China revealed by sequence analysis of three mitochondrial genes.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Abstract The present study examined sequence variability in the mitochondrial (mt) protein-coding genes cytochrome b (cytb), NADH dehydrogenase subunits 2 and 6 (nad2 and nad6) among 24 isolates of Schistosoma japonicum from different endemic regions in the Philippines, Japan and China. The complete cytb, nad2 and nad6 genes were amplified and sequenced separately from individual schistosome. Sequence variations for isolates from the Philippines were 0-0.5% for cytb, 0-0.6% for nad2, and 0-0.9% for nad6. Variation was 0-0.5%, 0.1-0.8%, 0-0.7% for corresponding genes for schistosome samples from mainland China. For worms in Japan, genetic variations were 0-0.2%, 0.1-0.2% and 0 for the three genes, respectively. Sequence variations were 0-1.0%, 0-1.8% and 0-1.1% for cytb, nad2 and nad6, respectively, among schistosome isolates from different geographical strains in the Philippines, Japan and China. Of the three countries, lowest sequence variations were found between isolates from mainland China and the Philippines and highest were detected between Japan and the Philippines in three mtDNA genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the combined sequences of cytb, nad2 and nad6 revealed that all isolates in the Philippines clustered together sistered to samples from Yunnan and Zhejiang provinces in China, while isolates from Yamanashi in Japan were in a solitary clade. These results demonstrated the usefulness of the combined three mtDNA sequences for studying genetic diversity and population structure among S. japonicum isolates from the Philippines, China and Japan.
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Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia infection in dogs in Southwestern China.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed globally, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. To date, there is limited information about the seroprevalence of Chlamydia and the risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection in dogs in the world. In the present study, a serological survey was undertaken to examine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with dog chlamydiosis in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. A total of 591 dogs were sampled, antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.6%. The risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Gender and age of dogs were not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05) and left out of the final model. Type and geographical origin of dogs were considered as main risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection, stray dogs (31.37%) were more than 16 times (OR=16.167, 95% CI=6.283-41.599, P<0.01) at risk of acquiring the infection compared to the police dogs (7.62%), while pet dogs (14.41%) had a 3 times (OR=2.968, 95% CI=1.349-6.529, P=0.007) higher risk. Positive dogs were found in 5 districts of Yunnan Province with prevalence ranging from 2.56% to 31.67% except Diqing (0/56). Dogs in Kunming (20.21%) had a 9 times higher risk of being seropositive compared to dogs in Lijiang (2.56%) (OR=9.057, 95% CI=1.211-67.714, P=0.032), although no regional differences were found in other 4 administrative divisions compared to Lijiang (P>0.05). Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in dogs in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, with higher exposure risk in stray dogs and distinct geographical distribution. These findings suggest the potential importance of dogs in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing dog diseases.
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Effects of chronic exposure to 0.5?Hz and 5?Hz flickering illumination on the eye growth of guinea pigs.
Curr. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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To investigate the effect of prolonged flickering illumination exposure on the growth of the guinea pig eye.
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DNA immunization with eukaryotic initiation factor-2? of Toxoplasma gondii induces protective immunity against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in mice.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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Toxoplasma gondii infection is a serious health problem of humans and animals worldwide. T. gondii eukaryotic initiation factor-2? (TgIF2?) plays a crucial role in parasite viability and is an important virulence factor of T. gondii. To evaluate the vaccine potential of TgIF2?, we constructed a novel eukaryotic plasmid pVAX-IF2? expressing TgIF2? from the RH strain and validated expression and immunogenicity in vitro in the Marc145 cell expression system by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). Administration of pVAX-IF2? intramuscularly induced specific humoral immune responses including high levels of specific TgIF2? IgG antibody and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response with a predominance of IgG2a production. The cellular immune response was elicited, showing significant production of IFN-? and IL-2 associated with Th1 type response, and thus strong cell-mediated cytotoxic activity with increased frequencies of IFN-? parameters analyzed in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell compartments (CD4(+) IFN-?(+) T cells and CD8(+) IFN-?(+) T cells). Immunization resulted in partial protection against acute and chronic toxoplamosis in outbred Kunming mice, demonstrated by a significantly prolonged survival time (15.9±4.6 days) after challenge with the virulent RH strain and significant reduction in brain cysts (44.1%) against chronic infection with PRU cyst in contrast to control mice. Our data suggested that pVAX-IF2? could be used as a DNA vaccine candidate against both acute and chronic T. gondii infection by the activation of effective humoral and cellular immune responses.
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Percolation of interdependent networks with intersimilarity.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Real data show that interdependent networks usually involve intersimilarity. Intersimilarity means that a pair of interdependent nodes have neighbors in both networks that are also interdependent [Parshani et al. Europhys. Lett. 92, 68002 (2010)]. For example, the coupled worldwide port network and the global airport network are intersimilar since many pairs of linked nodes (neighboring cities), by direct flights and direct shipping lines, exist in both networks. Nodes in both networks in the same city are regarded as interdependent. If two neighboring nodes in one network depend on neighboring nodes in the other network, we call these links common links. The fraction of common links in the system is a measure of intersimilarity. Previous simulation results of Parshani et al. suggest that intersimilarity has considerable effects on reducing the cascading failures; however, a theoretical understanding of this effect on the cascading process is currently missing. Here we map the cascading process with intersimilarity to a percolation of networks composed of components of common links and noncommon links. This transforms the percolation of intersimilar system to a regular percolation on a series of subnetworks, which can be solved analytically. We apply our analysis to the case where the network of common links is an Erd?s-Rényi (ER) network with the average degree K, and the two networks of noncommon links are also ER networks. We show for a fully coupled pair of ER networks, that for any K?0, although the cascade is reduced with increasing K, the phase transition is still discontinuous. Our analysis can be generalized to any kind of interdependent random network systems.
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The complete mitochondrial genomes of three parasitic nematodes of birds: a unique gene order and insights into nematode phylogeny.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Analyses of mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences in recent years challenge the current working hypothesis of Nematoda phylogeny proposed from morphology, ecology and nuclear small subunit rRNA gene sequences, and raise the need to sequence additional mt genomes for a broad range of nematode lineages.
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Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from pigs from different localities in China by PCR-RFLP.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Toxoplasma gondii is a widely prevalent protozoan parasite that causes serious toxoplasmosis in humans and animals. The present study aimed to determine the genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates from pigs in Jiangxi, Sichuan, Guangdong Provinces and Chongqing Municipality in China using multilocous polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Toxascaris leonina: Comparison with other closely related species and phylogenetic implications.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Adults of Toxascaris leonina (Nematoda: Ascarididae) live in the gastrointestinal tract of both dogs and cats, and cause significant economic losses and potential public health problem worldwide. Although many studies have given insights into this significant pathogen, to date, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence is still not available for T. leonina. Here, we sequenced the complete mt genome of T. leonina. This AT-rich (71.53%) mt genome (14,310bp) is circular and consists of 36 genes, including 12 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA and 22 genes for tRNA. All mt genes of T. leonina are transcribed in the same direction. The gene order is the same as those of Ascaris spp. (Ascarididae), Toxocara spp. (Toxocaridae), Anisakis simplex and Contracaecum rudolphii B (Anisakidae), but distinct from that of Ascaridia spp. (Ascaridiidae). Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes by Bayesian inference (BI) showed distinct groups with high statistical support, and our data confirm that T. leonina is a member of the Ascarididae, and that this family is more closely related to the Toxocaridae rather than the Anisakidae within the Ascaridoidea. The determination of mt genome sequences of T. leonina provides novel genetic markers for studies into the systematics, population genetics and epidemiology of this parasite.
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Fabrication and properties of TiO2 nanofilms on different substrates by a novel and universal method of Ti-ion implantation and subsequent annealing.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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We report a new, novel and universal method to fabricate high-quality titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofilms on different substrates by a solid phase growth process of ion implantation and subsequent annealing in oxygen atmosphere. Ti ions were implanted into fused silica, soda lime glass, Z-cut quartz, or (0001) ?-sapphire by a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source implanter to fluences of 0.75, 1.5 and 3 × 10(17) ions cm(-2) with a nominal accelerating voltage of 20 kV. To understand the influence of the annealing temperature, time, and substrate on the formation and phase transformation of the TiO2 nanofilms, the Ti-ion-implanted substrates were annealed in oxygen atmosphere from 500 to 1000 °C for 1-6 h. The formation of TiO2 nanofilms resulted from the slow out-diffusion of implanted Ti ions from the substrates which were then oxidized at the surfaces. The thickness and phase of the nanofilms can be tailored by controlling the implantation and annealing parameters. Since the TiO2 nanofilms are formed under high temperature and low growth rate, they show good crystallinity and antibacterial properties, with good film adhesion and stability, suggesting that the TiO2 nanofilms formed by this method have great potential in applications such as antibacterial and self-cleaning transparent glass.
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Osteocyte-derived insulin-like growth factor I is essential for determining bone mechanosensitivity.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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This study sought to determine whether deficient Igf1 expression in osteocytes would affect loading-induced osteogenic response. Tibias of osteocyte Igf1 conditional knockout (KO) mice (generated by cross-breeding Igf1 floxed mice with Dmp1-Cre transgenic mice) and wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to four-point bending for 2 wk. Microcomputed tomography confirmed that the size of tibias of conditional mutants was smaller. Loading with an equivalent loading strain increased periosteal woven bone and endosteal lamellar bone formation in WT mice but not in conditional KO mice. Consistent with the lack of an osteogenic response, the loading failed to upregulate expression of early mechanoresponsive genes (Igf1, Cox-2, c-fos) or osteogenic genes (Cbfa-1, and osteocalcin) in conditional KO bones. The lack of osteogenic response was not due to reduced osteocyte density or insufficient loading strain. Deficient osteocyte Igf1 expression reduced the loading-induced upregulation of expression of canonical Wnt signaling genes (Wnt10b, Lrp5, Dkk1, sFrp2). The loading also reduced (by 40%) Sost expression in WT mice, but the loading not only did not reduce but upregulated (~1.5-fold) Sost expression in conditional KO mice. Conditional disruption of Igf1 in osteocytes also abolished the loading-induced increase in the bone ?-catenin protein level. These findings suggest an impaired response in the loading-induced upregulation of the Wnt signaling in conditional KO mice. In summary, conditional disruption of Igf1 in osteocytes abolished the loading-induced activation of the Wnt signaling and the corresponding osteogenic response. In conclusion, osteocyte-derived IGF-I plays a key determining role in bone mechanosensitivity.
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siRNA-targeted inhibition of growth hormone receptor in human colon cancer SW480 cells.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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To determine the effects of RNAi-mediated inhibition of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene on tumors and colon cancer cells in vivo.
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An iterative spherical mean value method for background field removal in MRI.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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The sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (SHARP) method has been proposed for the removal of background field in MRI phase data. It relies on the spherical mean value (SMV) property of harmonic functions, and its accuracy depends on the radius of the sphere used for computing the SMV and truncation threshold needed for deconvolution. The goal of this study was to develop an alternative SMV-based background field removal method with reduced dependences on these parameters.
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Chlamydia felis exposure in companion dogs and cats in Lanzhou, China: a public health concern.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Chlamydiaceae is a family of obligate intracellular pathogens with a worldwide distribution in many animal species, including humans. No information exists on the prevalence of Chlamydia felis infections in cats and dogs in Lanzhou, the geographical center of China. The aim of this study was to carry out a census of cats and dogs in Lanzhou and document the seroprevalence of C. felis exposure in these companion animals.
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Practice guidelines for ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation for hepatic malignancy.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Primary liver cancer and liver metastases are among the most frequent malignancies worldwide, with an increasing number of new cases and deaths every year. Traditional surgery is only suitable for a limited proportion of patients and imaging-guided percutaneous thermal ablation has achieved optimistic results for management of hepatic malignancy. This synopsis outlines the first clinical practice guidelines for ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation therapy for hepatic malignancy, which was created by a joint task force of the Society of Chinese Interventional Ultrasound. The guidelines aim at standardizing the microwave ablation procedure and therapeutic efficacy assessment, as well as proposing the criteria for the treatment candidates.
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Characterization of mouse brain microRNAs after infection with cyst-forming Toxoplasma gondii.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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BACKGROUND: The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii can interfere with host cell signaling pathways, alter host defense systems and cell cycle control, and establish a chronic infection in the central nervous system. T. gondii infection may alter the expression profile of host microRNAs (miRNAs) which have key regulatory functions at the post-transcriptional level. METHODS: Using high-throughput sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR technology, we compared the miRNA expression profiles of uninfected mouse brains with brains from mice at 14 days and 21 days after infection with cyst-forming T. gondii (Type II). RESULTS: A total of 51.30 million raw reads were obtained from all samples and 495 (14d infected mouse sample), 511 (14d sham-infected control), 504 (21d infected mouse sample) and 514 (21d sham-infected control) miRNA candidates identified. Among these, 414 miRNAs were consistent across all the studied groups, 17 were specific to the 14d infected group and 32 were specific to the 21d infected group. In addition, 9 miRNAs were common to both the 14d- and 21d-infected groups. Enrichment analysis for the targets of these miRNAs showed a high percentage of "protein tag" functions. Immune related targets including chemokines, cytokines, growth factors and interleukins were also found. CONCLUSIONS: These results not only showed that the miRNA expression of the host can be changed by the invasion of cyst-forming T. gondii, but also indicated that the host attempts to respond using two tactics: marking proteins with "protein tags" and adaptation of immune related systems.
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Role of sortase in Streptococcus mutans under the effect of nicotine.
Int J Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Streptococcus mutans is a common Gram-positive bacterium and plays a significant role in dental caries. Tobacco and/or nicotine have documented effects on S. mutans growth and colonization. Sortase A is used by many Gram-positive bacteria, including S. mutans, to facilitate the insertion of certain cell surface proteins, containing an LPXTGX motif such as antigen I/II. This study examined the effect of nicotine on the function of sortase A to control the physiology and growth of S. mutans using wild-type S. mutans NG8, and its isogenic sortase-defective and -complemented strains. Briefly, the strains were treated with increasing amounts of nicotine in planktonic growth, biofilm metabolism, and sucrose-induced and saliva-induced antigen I/II-dependent biofilm formation assays. The strains exhibited no significant differences with different concentrations of nicotine in planktonic growth assays. However, they had significantly increased (P?0.05) biofilm metabolic activity (2- to 3-fold increase) as the concentration of nicotine increased. Furthermore, the sortase-defective strain was more sensitive metabolically to nicotine than the wild-type or sortase-complemented strains. All strains had significantly increased sucrose-induced biofilm formation (2- to 3-fold increase) as a result of increasing concentrations of nicotine. However, the sortase-defective strain was not able to make as much sucrose- and saliva-induced biofilm as the wild-type NG8 did with increasing nicotine concentrations. These results indicated that nicotine increased metabolic activity and sucrose-induced biofilm formation. The saliva-induced biofilm formation assay and qPCR data suggested that antigen I/II was upregulated with nicotine but biofilm was not able to be formed as much as wild-type NG8 without functional sortase A.
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Factors associated with epileptic seizure of cavernous malformations in the central nervous system in West China.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Objective: To explore the factors associated with preoperative and postoperative epileptic seizure in patients with cavernous malformations (CMs). Methods: A total of 52 consecutive patients from January 2009 to June 2011 who underwent surgical treatment in West China Hospital of Sichuan University due to CMs and confirmed by histopathology were retrospectively reviewed.Patients were divided into two groups (epilepsy-group and non-epilepsy group) according to clinical presentation. Other clinical data, treatment procedure, and follow-up information were collected. Engel classification was used to evaluate seizure outcome. Results: Low birth weight, temporal lobe involvement and cortical lesion showed significant difference between two groups (p=0.017, 0.003 and 0.025 respectively). Cortical lesion highly increased risk for preoperative epileptic seizure (OR=10.48; 95% CI 1.61-68.23). After a mean follow-up of 2.1 years, 77.8% of epileptic patients achieved Engel class I. Temporal lobe involvement, lesion size < 2.5cm and surgery within one year of symptom onset were found associated with better seizure outcome (p=0.016, 0.012 and 0.050). Temporal lobe involvement significantly decreased the risk for postoperative epileptic seizure (OR=0.038; 95% CI 0.002-0.833). Application of ECoG made no significant difference to seizure outcome (p=0.430). Most patients need continuing medication therapy after surgery. Conclusion: Surgical treatment of patient with CMs is satisfactory in most cases and temporal lobe involvement usually predict favourable postoperative seizure outcome whether under the monitoring of ECoG or not. Thus, epileptic patients with CMs should be considered for surgical treatment especially when cortical brain layer or temporal lobe was involved.
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[Change of T cell TCR-CD3 complex-mediated gene expression pattern in lead poisoning patients].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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In order to study the feature of T cell TCR-CD3 complex-mediated gene in lead poisoning patients.
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Serological evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in five species of bats in China.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect almost all warm-blooded animals and humans with a worldwide distribution. Bats are reservoirs for an increasing number of emerging zoonotic viruses, such as henipaviruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). However, little is known of T. gondii infection in bats. The objective of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in bats in China. A total of 217 serum samples from 5 species of bats were collected between April, 2010, and August, 2011, from 4 provinces in China. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1:25 or higher). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 26.5% (18/68) Megaderma lyra, 13.6% (12/88) Rousettus leschenaulti, 13.6% (3/22) Cynopterus sphinx, 20% (4/20) Vespertilio superaus, and 15.8% (3/19) Pipistrellus javanicus. Antibody titers ranged from 1:25 to 1:400, with titers of 1:200 detected in 4 of the 5 bat species. The present study suggests the likely occurrence of T. gondii infection in bats in China, and these bats are new putative hosts for T. gondii, which may pose a threat to human health.
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Evaluation of protective effect of pVAX-TgMIC13 plasmid against acute and chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection in a murine model.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Toxoplasma gondii is a significant zoonotic parasite which can cause congenital infection and abortion in warm-blooded animals and humans. Microneme protein 13 (MIC13) plays an important role in attachment and penetration of the host cell by T. gondii. In this study, a DNA vaccine expressing mic13 of T. gondii was constructed and its protective efficacy was evaluated in Kunming L615(H2k) mice. Immunization with pVAX-TgMIC13 induced a strong immune responses demonstrated by significant lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and antibody responses. Immunized mice showed increased survival time (21.3±11.3 days) and reduced number of cysts in brain of mice (57.14%) after challenge with tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii RH strain and cysts of the T. gondii PRU strain, respectively, demonstrating that T. gondii MIC13 is a potential vaccine candidate, worth being included in future vaccine development against acute and chronic T. gondii infection.
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First report of Chlamydiaceae seroprevalence in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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The seroprevalence of Chlamydiaceae infection in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China, was examined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), between April, 2010, and December, 2010. A total of 71 of 427 serum samples (16.63%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 15.31-17.95] were positive for Chlamydiaceae antibodies. Forty Chlamydiaceae seropositives from 232 samples were recorded in sera from Nyingchi (17.24%, 95% CI 15.40-19.08) and 31 positives were recorded in 195 serum samples from Mainling (15.90%, 95% CI 14.02-17.78). The investigation showed that the prevalence in female animals was 17.61% (95% CI 15.22-20.00), and in male animals it was 12.72% (95% CI 11.07-14.37). The prevalence ranged from 0% to 20.61% (95% CI 17.81-23.48) among different age groups, with a higher prevalence in growing pigs (p<0.01). The results indicated that Chlamydiaceae infection was widespread in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China, which is of public health concern in this region of the world. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Chlamydiaceae seroprevalence in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China.
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Changes in the proteomic profiles of mouse brain after infection with cyst-forming Toxoplasma gondii.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic pathogenic protozoan parasite, which infects approximately one third of the human population worldwide, causing opportunistic zoonotic toxoplasmosis. The predilection of T. gondii for the central nervous system (CNS) causes behavioral disorders and fatal necrotizing encephalitis and thus constitutes a major threat especially to AIDS patients.
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TRAIL-induced expression of uPA and IL-8 strongly enhanced by overexpression of TRAF2 and Bcl-xL in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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The death ligand, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), induces apoptosis and non-apoptotic signaling in some tumor cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of the pro-apoptotic TRAIL receptors, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2, as well as Bcl-xL and TRAF2 in TRAIL-induced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 and the invasion-promoting protein urokinase (uPA) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells.
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Seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China.
Ir Vet J
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria that cause a wide range of significant diseases in humans and animals worldwide, resulting in significant economic losses. Chlamydial infection in cattle has been reported in many countries including China. However, there has been no survey of chlamydial infection of dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China. The objective of the present investigation was to examine the chlamydial seroprevalence in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, subtropical southern China by using an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in dairy cattle was 7.25% (29/400). Greater than or equal to eight-yr-old dairy cattle had the highest seroprevalence (10.34%), followed by those that were???6 years old or??0.05). Dairy cattle with 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (10.81%). These results indicate that chlamydial infection was present in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, subtropical southern China, and integrated strategies and measures should be executed to control and prevent chlamydial infection and disease outbreak in the study region.
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Mitochondrial genome of the eyeworm, Thelazia callipaeda (Nematoda: Spirurida), as the first representative from the family Thelaziidae.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Human thelaziosis is an underestimated parasitic disease caused by Thelazia species (Spirurida: Thelaziidae). The oriental eyeworm, Thelazia callipaeda, infects a range of mammalian definitive hosts, including canids, felids and humans. Although this zoonotic parasite is of socio-economic significance in Asian countries, its genetics, epidemiology and biology are poorly understood. Mitochondrial (mt) DNA is known to provide useful genetic markers to underpin fundamental investigations, but no mt genome had been characterized for any members of the family Thelaziidae. In the present study, we sequenced and characterized the mt genome of T. callipaeda. This AT-rich (74.6%) mt genome (13,668 bp) is circular and contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes, but lacks an atp8 gene. All protein-coding genes are transcribed in the same direction; the gene order is the same as those of Dirofilaria immitis and Setaria digitata (Onchocercidae), but distinct from Dracunculus medinensis (Dracunculidae) and Heliconema longissimum (Physalopteridae). Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated amino acid sequence data for all 12 protein-coding genes by Bayesian inference (BI) showed that T. callipaeda (Thelaziidae) is related to the family Onchocercidae. This is the first mt genome of any member of the family Thelaziidae and should represent a new source of genetic markers for studying the epidemiology, ecology, population genetics and systematics of this parasite of humans and other mammals.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.