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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Rates and Clinical Characteristics of Pneumolabyrinth in Temporal Bone Fracture.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Pneumolabyrinth is a rare inner ear clinical manifestation. To date, only about 50 cases have been reported-all as case reports. Consequently, the rate and clinical characteristics of pneumolabyrinth have not been evaluated.
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DEPLETION OF AUTOPHAGY-RELATED GENES ATG3 AND ATG5 IN Tenebrio molitor LEADS TO DECREASED SURVIVABILITY AGAINST AN INTRACELLULAR PATHOGEN, Listeria monocytogenes.
Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Macroautophagy (autophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process involved in physiological and developmental processes including cell survival, death, and innate immunity. Homologues of most of 36 originally discovered autophagy-related (ATG) genes in yeast have been characterized in higher eukaryotes including insects. In this study, the homologues of ATG3 (TmATG3) and ATG5 (TmATG5) were isolated from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor by expressed sequence tag and RNAseq approaches. The cDNA of TmATG3 and TmATG5 comprise open-reading frame sizes of 963 and 792 bp encoding polypeptides of 320 and 263 amino acid residues, respectively. TmATG3 and TmATG5 mRNA are expressed in all developmental stages, and mainly in fat body and hemocytes of larvae. TmATG3 and TmATG5 showed an overall sequence identity of 58-95% to other insect Atg proteins. There exist clear one-to-one orthologs of TmATG3 and TmATG5 in Tribolium and that they clustered together in the gene tree. Depletion of TmATG3 and TmATG5 by RNA interference led to a significant reduction in survival ability of T. molitor larvae against an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. Six days post-Listeria challenge, the survival rate in the dsEGFP-injected (where EGFP is enhanced green fluorescent protein) control larvae was significantly higher (55%) compared to 4 and 3% for TmATG3 and TmATG5 double-stranded RNA injected larvae, respectively. These data suggested that TmATG3 and TmATG5 may play putative role in mediating autophagy-based clearance of Listeria in T. molitor model.
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Analysis of the Prognostic Factors for Distant Metastasis after Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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The aim of this study is to identify the prognostic factors of distant metastasis (DM) after induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC).
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Home mechanical ventilation in South Korea.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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To survey the use of invasive and noninvasive home mechanical ventilation (HMV) methods in South Korea from the perspective of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R).
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Frequency-Dependent Conductivity Contrast for Tissue Characterization Using a Dual-Frequency Range Conductivity Mapping Magnetic Resonance Method.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Electrical conductivities of biological tissues show frequency-dependent behaviors, and these values at different frequencies may provide clinically useful diagnostic information. MR-based tissue property mapping techniques such as MREIT and MREPT are widely used and provide unique conductivity contrast information over different frequency ranges. Recently, a new method for data acquisition and reconstruction for low- and high-frequency conductivity images from a single MR scan was proposed. In this study, we applied this simultaneous dual-frequency range conductivity mapping MR method to evaluate its utility in a designed phantom and two in vivo animal disease models. Magnetic flux density and B1+ phase map for dual-frequency conductivity images were acquired using a modified spin-echo pulse sequence. Low-frequency conductivity was reconstructed from MREIT data by the projected current density method, while high-frequency conductivity was reconstructed from MREPT data by B1+ mapping. Two different conductivity phantoms comprising varying ion concentrations separated by insulating films with or without holes were used to study the contrast mechanism of the frequency-dependent conductivities related to ion concentration and mobility. Canine brain abscess and ischemia were used as in vivo models to evaluate the capability of the proposed method to identify new electrical properties-based contrast at two different frequencies. The simultaneous dual-frequency range conductivity mapping MR method provides unique contrast information related to theconcentration and mobility of ions inside tissues. This method has potential to monitor dynamic changes of the state of disease.
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Efficacy of microneedling plus human stem cell conditioned medium for skin rejuvenation: a randomized, controlled, blinded split-face study.
Ann Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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The use of growth factors in skin rejuvenation is emerging as a novel anti-aging treatment. While the role of growth factors in wound healing is well established, their use in skin rejuvenation has only recently been to be studied and no controlled trials have been performed.
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The assembly of Vif ubiquitin E3 ligase for APOBEC3 degradation.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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APOBEC3G is a cellular antiviral protein that restricts retroviral infection. In non-permissive cells infected by Vif-deficient HIV-1, the protein mediates the hypermutation of viral DNA through the enzymatic activity of cytidine deaminase. To counteract the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G, an accessory protein of HIV-1, Vif, forms ubiquitin E3 ligase through assembly with CUL5-RBX2, ELOB-ELOC and CBF?. Subsequently, Vif recruits APOBEC3G to the complex as a substrate adaptor of ubiquitin E3 ligase and induces poly-ubiquitination of APOBEC3G for its proteasomal degradation (Fig. 1). This review briefly summarizes current understanding of protein-protein interaction between Vif and host factors required for APOBEC3 degradation, based on high resolution structures of APOBEC3 proteins and Vif-CUL5NTD-ELOBC-CBF? complex. Fig. 1 A schematic model of assembly of Vif ubiquitin E3 ligase and subsequent APOBEC3 degradation. HIV-1 Vif hijacks cellular E3 ligase components containing CUL5, RBX2, ELOB, ELOC and CBF?, to poly-ubiquitinate antiviral cellular factors, APOBEC3 proteins. Poly-ubiquitinated APOBEC3 proteins are targeted for proteasomal degradation. Ubiquitin is labeled as Ub.
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Effects of lubiprostone on pacemaker activity of interstitial cells of cajal from the mouse colon.
Korean J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Lubiprostone is a chloride (Cl(-)) channel activator derived from prostaglandin E1 and used for managing constipation. In addition, lubiprostone affects the activity of gastrointestinal smooth muscles. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are pacemaker cells that generate slow-wave activity in smooth muscles. We studied the effects of lubiprostone on the pacemaker potentials of colonic ICCs. We used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to determine the pacemaker activity in cultured colonic ICCs obtained from mice. Lubiprostone hyperpolarized the membrane and inhibited the generation of pacemaker potentials. Prostanoid EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 antagonists (SC-19220, PF-04418948, 6-methoxypyridine-2-boronc acid N-phenyldiethanolamine ester, and GW627368, respectively) did not block the response to lubiprostone. L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) and 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase) did not block the response to lubiprostone. In addition, tetraethylammonium (TEA, a voltage-dependent potassium [K(+)] channel blocker) and apamin (a calcium [Ca(2+)]-dependent K(+) channel blocker) did not block the response to lubiprostone. However, glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker) blocked the response to lubiprostone. Similar to lubiprostone, pinacidil (an opener of ATP-sensitive K(+) channel) hyperpolarized the membrane and inhibited the generation of pacemaker potentials, and these effects were inhibited by glibenclamide. These results suggest that lubiprostone can modulate the pacemaker potentials of colonic ICCs via activation of ATP-sensitive K(+) channel through a prostanoid EP receptor-independent mechanism.
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A case of pediatric ectopic thyroid in lateral lymph nodes.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Abstract On average, ectopic thyroids are positioned in the embryotic decent path that emerges as a lingual thyroid or a thyroglossal duct cyst. It is uncommon for ectopic thyroids to be located in the lateral neck, which only represents 1%-3% of all cases. Any ectopic thyroids that emerge in the posterior lateral neck in pediatric patients should be regarded as an extremely unique case. We report a 13-year-old boy with ectopic thyroid tissue in the cervical lymph nodes with orthotopic euthyroid thyroid. The masses were located on the left posterior triangle area, which were confirmed as histologic benign thyroid tissue without any malignancy in the head and neck. Authors suggest that this case supports the benign lymphatic transport theory of lateral ectopic thyroid.
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Effects of Ni doping on the initial electrochemical performance of vanadium oxide nanotubes for Na-ion batteries.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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In this study, we demonstrated the intercalation of Na in hydrothermally synthesized VOx nanotubes (NTs) and Ni-doped VOx NTs. The changes induced in the structures of the two nanomaterials during the Na intercalation process were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. It was observed that the initial capacity and rate performance of the Ni-doped VOx NTs were improved. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and conductance measurement confirmed that higher initial capacity and rate performance were attributed to an increase in the valence states of vanadium and increased conductivity after the Ni exchange process.
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Mooren's Ulcer in a Cornea Referral Practice in Korea.
Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Abstract Purpose: To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with Mooren's ulcer in the Korean population, and to identify the risk factors that affect the therapeutic outcome. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 33 eyes of 24 Korean patients who were referred to a cornea clinic and clinically diagnosed with Mooren's ulcer. Results: Despite intensive immunosuppression, corneal perforation occurred in 16 of 24 (66.7%) patients, which required tectonic graft. Age was significantly correlated with corneal perforation development: the age was 52.5?±?21.8 years in patients with perforation and 70.2?±?6.1 years in those without perforation (p?=?0.036). Also, all 8 patients who were 55 years and younger had corneal perforation, while 8 of 16 patients older than 55 years developed perforation (p?=?0.022). Other factors had no significant correlation with the occurrence of perforation. Conclusions: Young patients with Mooren's ulcer should be treated and carefully followed for high possibility of corneal perforation.
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Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for portal vein tumor thrombosis alone in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.
Radiat Oncol J
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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We sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) alone in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Early immature neuronal death initiates cerebral ischemia-induced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.
Neuroscience
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Throughout adulthood, neurons are continuously replaced by new cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and this neurogenesis is increased by various neuronal injuries including ischemic stroke and seizure. While several mechanisms of this injury-induced neurogenesis have been elucidated, the initiation factor remains unclear. Here, we investigated which signal(s) triggers ischemia-induced cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG region. We found that early apoptotic cell death of the immature neurons occurred in the DG region following transient forebrain ischemia/reperfusion. Moreover, early immature neuronal death in the DG initiated transient forebrain ischemia/reperfusion-induced neurogenesis through glycogen synthase kinase-3?/?-catenin signaling, which was mediated by microglia-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Additionally, we observed that the blockade of immature neuronal cell death, early microglial activation, or IGF-1 signaling attenuated ischemia-induced neurogenesis. These results suggest that early immature neuronal cell death initiates ischemia-induced neurogenesis through microglial IGF-1.
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Operating mechanisms of electrolytes in magnesium ion batteries: chemical equilibrium, magnesium deposition, and electrolyte oxidation.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Since the early nineties there have been a number of reports on the experimental development of Mg electrolytes based on organo/amide-magnesium chlorides and their transmetalations. However, there are no theoretical papers describing the underlying operating mechanisms of Mg electrolytes, and there is no clear understanding of these mechanisms. We have therefore attempted to clarify the operating mechanisms of Mg electrolytes by studying the characteristics of Mg complexes, solvation, chemical equilibrium, Mg-deposition processes, electrolyte-oxidation processes, and oxidative degradation mechanism of RMgCl-based electrolytes, using ab initio calculations. The formation and solvation energies of Mg complexes highly depend on the characteristics of R groups. Thus, changes in R groups of RMgCl lead to changes in the equilibrium position and the electrochemical reduction and oxidation pathways and energies. We first provide a methodological scheme for calculating Mg reduction potential values in non-aqueous electrolytes and electrochemical windows. We also describe a strategy for designing Mg electrolytes to maximize the electrochemical windows and oxidative stabilities. These results will be useful not only for designing improved Mg electrolytes, but also for developing new electrolytes in the future.
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Phylogenetic diversity of Mesorhizobium in chickpea.
J. Biosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Crop domestication, in general, has reduced genetic diversity in cultivated gene pool of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) as compared with wild species (C. reticulatum, C. bijugum). To explore impact of domestication on symbiosis, 10 accessions of chickpeas, including 4 accessions of C. arietinum, and 3 accessions of each of C. reticulatum and C. bijugum species, were selected and DNAs were extracted from their nodules. To distinguish chickpea symbiont, preliminary sequences analysis was attempted with 9 genes (16S rRNA, atpD, dnaJ, glnA, gyrB, nifH, nifK, nodD and recA) of which 3 genes (gyrB, nifK and nodD) were selected based on sufficient sequence diversity for further phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence diversity for 3 genes demonstrated that sequences from C. reticulatum were more diverse. Nodule occupancy by dominant symbiont also indicated that C. reticulatum (60 percent) could have more various symbionts than cultivated chickpea (80 percent). The study demonstrated that wild chickpeas (C. reticulatum) could be used for selecting more diverse symbionts in the field conditions and it implies that chickpea domestication affected symbiosis negatively in addition to reducing genetic diversity.
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Malignant glioma: MR imaging by using 5-aminolevulinic acid in an animal model.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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To evaluate the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for the noninvasive detection of malignant gliomas by using in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in a mouse brain tumor model.
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Simple and accurate quantitative analysis of 20 anti-tuberculosis drugs in human plasma using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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A simple and accurate liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the quantitation of 20 anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs in human plasma, was developed as a tool for therapeutic drug monitoring. Two protein precipitation methods were adopted; one using methanol containing 0.13N HCl, for precipitation of amikacin, kanamycin, streptomycin and pyrazinamide, and the other using acetonitrile, for precipitation of preamoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, clofazimine, cycloserine, ethambutol, ethionamide, isoniazid, levofloxacin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), prothionamide, rifabutin, rifampin and roxithromycin. Separation was performed either on an HILIC silica column or a reversed-phase dC18 column, with a gradient elution. Detection was carried out in multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curves were linear over a 50-fold concentration range, with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.9969 for all anti-TB drugs. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 14.3%, and the accuracy ranged between 84.8 and 113.0%. The developed method was successfully applied to the identification and quantitation of anti-TB drugs in patients with multi-drug resistant TB.
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The Role of Systemic Immunomodulatory Treatment and Prognostic Factors on Chronic Ocular Complications in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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To compare the effect of early systemic immunomodulatory treatment and to identify prognostic factors of chronic ocular complications in Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) patients.
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Preparation and evaluation of fluorine-18-labeled insulin as a molecular imaging probe for studying insulin receptor expression in tumors.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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A convenient emulsion-based labeling method was used to synthesize fluorine-18-labeled insulin specifically B(1)-(4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoyl)insulin ((18)F-4b) in 6% overall radiochemical yield in 240 min. In vitro screening in MCF7 breast cancer cells demonstrated that the nonradioactive analogue (19)F-4a effectively competed with (125)I-insulin for the insulin receptor (IC50 = 10.6 nM) comparable to that for insulin (IC50 = 7.4 nM). (18)F-4b was also more stable than (125)I-insulin in mouse plasma with 50% remaining intact after 30 min. A biodistribution study in normal mice showed initial uptake of the tracer in the kidneys, liver, and gall bladder but rapid clearance via the urine/bladder which was also observed in murine models bearing insulin receptor positive tumors.
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A nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein harboring a single CRM domain plays an important role in the Arabidopsis growth and stress response.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Although several chloroplast RNA splicing and ribosome maturation (CRM) domain-containing proteins have been characterized for intron splicing and rRNA processing during chloroplast gene expression, the functional role of a majority of CRM domain proteins in plant growth and development as well as chloroplast RNA metabolism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized the developmental and stress response roles of a nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein harboring a single CRM domain (At4g39040), designated CFM4, in Arabidopsis thaliana.
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One-step sub-10 ?m patterning of carbon-nanotube thin films for transparent conductor applications.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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We propose a technique for one-step micropatterning of as-grown carbon-nanotube films on a plastic substrate with sub-10 ?m resolution on the basis of the dry transfer process. By utilizing this technique, we demonstrated the novel high-performance flexible carbon-nanotube transparent conductive film with a microgrid structure, which enabled improvement of the performance over the trade-off between the sheet resistance and transmittance of a conventional uniform carbon-nanotube film. The sheet resistance was reduced by 46% at its maximum by adding the microgrid, leading to a value of 53 ?/sq at a transmittance of 80%. We also demonstrated easy fabrication of multitouch projected capacitive sensors with 12 × 12 electrodes. The technique is quite promising for energy-saving production of transparent conductor devices with 100% material utilization.
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Mosaic Turner syndrome associated with schizophrenia.
Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Turner syndrome is a sex-chromosome disorder; occurring in 1 in 2,500 female births. There are sporadic few case reports of concomitant Turner syndrome with schizophrenia worldwide. Most Turner females had a 45,X monosomy, whereas the majority of comorbidity between Turner syndrome and schizophrenia had a mosaic karyotype (45,X/46,XX). We present a case of a 21-year-old woman with Turner syndrome, mosaic karyotype (45,X/46,XX), showing mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and schizophrenia. HOPA gene within Xq13 is related to mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and schizophrenia. Our case may be a potential clue which supports the hypothesis for involvement of genes on X chromosome in development of schizophrenia. Further studies including comorbid cases reports are need in order to discern the cause of schizophrenia in patients having Turner syndrome.
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Oroxylin A enhances memory consolidation through the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mice.
Brain Res. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Memory consolidation is a process by which acquired information is transformed from a labile into a more stable state that can be retrieved at a later time. In the present study, we investigated the role of oroxylin A on the memory consolidation process in mice. Oroxylin A improved the memory retention administered at 0h, 1h and 3h after training in a passive avoidance task, suggesting that oroxylin A facilitates memory consolidation. Oroxylin A increased mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) levels in the hippocampus from 6h to 24h after administration. Moreover, 3h post-training administration of oroxylin A enhanced the mBDNF level at 9h after the acquisition trial compared to the level at 6h after the acquisition trial. However, 6h post-training administration of oroxylin A did not increase the mBDNF level at 9h after the acquisition trial. Blocking mBDNF signaling with recombinant tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)-Fc or k252a at 9h after the acquisition trial obstructed the effect of oroxylin A on memory consolidation. Taken together, our data suggest that oroxylin A facilitates memory consolidation through BDNF-TrkB signaling and confirms that the increase of BDNF in a specific time window plays a crucial role in memory consolidation.
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The Effect of Indigocarmine on Improvement of the Polyp Detection Rate during Colonoscopic Examination with Hood Cap.
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Hood cap-assisted chromocolonoscopy using indigocarmine is expected to improve the detection rate of colorectal polyps, especially adenomatous polyps. Therefore, aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of hood cap-assisted chromocolonoscopy in routine colonoscopic examinations.
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Leukopenia Predicts Remission in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Behcet's Disease on Thiopurine Maintenance.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The thiopurine drugs, azathioprine (AZA), and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are well-established drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although leukopenia is a well-recognized side effect of AZA/6-MP treatment, its association with therapeutic effects has yet to be determined. We therefore evaluated the influences of thiopurine-induced leukopenia on the long-term prognosis of IBD.
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Genetic risk assessment for cardiovascular disease with seven genes associated with plasma C-reactive protein concentrations in Asian populations.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) level is a predictor of cardiovascular risk. We performed a meta-analysis on the effect of 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 8 candidate loci in 36?752 Asians. In addition, we created weighted genetic risk scores (wGRSs) to evaluate the combined effects of genetic variants, which were suggested in the meta-analysis, for predicting the risks of elevated CRP levels as well as increased risks of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 748 Koreans. Nine SNPs located in seven genes, CRP, IL6R, GCKR, IL6, CYP17A1, HNF1A and APOE, were significantly associated with circulating CRP levels in this meta-analysis. Two SNPs, rs7310409 (HNF1A, P=3.4 × 10(-23)) and rs7553007 (CRP, P=3.4 × 10(-17)), had the most significant effects on CRP levels; and two SNPs, rs2097677 (IL6) and rs1004467 (CYP17A1) have never been found in the previous European meta-analysis. In Koreans, the subjects in the highest wGRS group had an ?2.5-fold higher mean CRP level compared with those in the lowest wGRS group (P=2.1 × 10(-5)). We observed significant increases in the risks of hypertension (odds ratio=2.18, P=0.006) and CVD (odds ratio=9.59, P=3.2 × 10(-6)) among the subjects in the highest wGRS group. The wGRS models specific to Koreans may warrant further validation to be used as a proxy for the risk of CVD in Asians.
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Resonant multiple light scattering for enhanced photon harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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A new benchmark for DSSC performances is set using a novel dye and fabricating a very efficient resonant light-scattering device with a high photocurrent and good stability.
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Atypical manifestation of conjunctival epithelial inclusion cyst: a case report.
Case Rep Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To report a case of primary conjunctival epithelial inclusion cyst with atypical manifestation.
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Population-attributable causes of cancer in Korea: obesity and physical inactivity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Changes in lifestyle including obesity epidemic and reduced physical activity influenced greatly to increase the cancer burden in Korea. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic assessment of cancers attributable to obesity and physical inactivity in Korea.
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Effects of Ga- and Al-codoped ZnO buffer layer on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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A Ga, Al-doped zinc oxide (GAZO) buffer layer was applied to inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on P3HT [poly(3-hexylthiophene)]:PCBM [[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester] blend films. The work function of the GAZO layer on indium-tin oxide (ITO) was measured to be 4.45 eV. The insertion of the GAZO layer between the ITO electrode and the P3HT:PCBM blend film in the inverted PSC led to an improved short-circuit current (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) compared to those of the reference cell without GAZO layer. The Jsc enhancement in the inverted PSC with the GAZO layer was attributed to both the effective electron extraction and the increased crystallinity of P3HT, and the work function difference between Ag and GAZO layer induced the increase in Voc. The improved FF value was due to the lowered series resistance and elevated shunt resistance. Thus, the power conversion efficiency of the device with the GAZO layer was improved by more than 200% relative to the reference cell.
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Highly Efficient Plastic Crystal Ionic Conductors for Solid-state Dye-sensitized Solar Cells.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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We have developed highly efficient, ambient temperature, solid-state ionic conductors (SSICs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by doping a molecular plastic crystal, succinonitrile (SN), with trialkyl-substituted imidazolium iodide salts. High performance SSICs with enhanced ionic conductivity (2-4?mScm(-1)) were obtained. High performance solid-state DSSCs with power conversion efficiency of 7.8% were fabricated using our SSICs combined with unique hierarchically nanostructured TiO2 sphere (TiO2-SP) photoelectrodes; these electrodes have significant macroporosity, which assists penetration of the solid electrolyte into the electrode. The performance of our solid-state DSSCs is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest reported thus far for cells using plastic crystal-based SSICs, and is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art DSSCs which use ionic liquid type electrolytes. This report provides a logical strategy for the development of efficient plastic crystal-based SSICs for DSSCs and other electrochemical devices.
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Cloning, characterization and effect of TmPGRP-LE gene silencing on survival of Tenebrio molitor against Listeria monocytogenes infection.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a family of innate immune molecules that recognize bacterial peptidoglycan. PGRP-LE, a member of the PGRP family, selectively binds to diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan to activate both the immune deficiency (Imd) and proPhenoloxidase (proPO) pathways in insects. A PGRP-LE-dependent induction of autophagy to control Listeria monocytogenes has also been reported. We identified and partially characterized a novel PGRP-LE homologue, from Tenebrio molitor and analyzed its functional role in the survival of the insect against infection by a DAP-type PGN containing intracellular pathogen, L. monocytogenes. The cDNA is comprised of an open reading frame (ORF) of 990 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 329 residues. TmPGRP-LE contains one PGRP domain, but lacks critical residues for amidase activity. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed a broad constitutive expression of the transcript at various stages of development spanning from larva to adult. RNAi mediated knockdown of the transcripts, followed by a challenge with L. monocytogenes, showed a significant reduction in survival rate of the larvae, suggesting a putative role of TmPGRP-LE in sensing and control of L. monocytogenes infection in T. molitor. These results implicate PGRP-LE as a defense protein necessary for survival of T. molitor against infection by L. monocytogenes.
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?-(Ethynylbenzoic acid)-substituted push-pull porphyrins: DSSC dyes prepared by a direct palladium-catalyzed alkynylation reaction.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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The palladium-catalyzed oxidative alkynylation of ?-borylated porphyrins allows for concise preparation of push-pull structured ethynylbenzoic acid porphyrin derivatives. The resulting ?-singly- and doubly-substituted porphyrin dyes are regarded as isomeric derivatives of the corresponding meso-substituted reference systems, and were found to give rise to nearly equal power conversion efficiencies when analyzed in DSSCs.
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Surveillance Strategy for Rectal Neuroendocrine Tumors According to Recurrence Risk Stratification.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Rectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have been increasing in incidence. However, the recommendations for disease surveillance after tumor resection have not been well established. We evaluated the long-term outcomes of rectal NETs and surveillance strategies according to recurrence risk stratification.
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Involvement of histaminergic system in the anxiolytic-like activities of Morus alba leaves in mice.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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The aim of this study was to identify the effects of 85% methanolic extract of Morus alba leaves (EMA), which is a traditional herb, in mice. The effects of EMA on the anxiolytic-like behaviour were studied using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and hole-board test. To elucidate the mode of action of the anxiolytic-like effects of EMA, the mice were subjected to the co-administration of EMA (200?mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) and either antagonist. EMA (at 200 or 400?mg/kg) significantly increased the percentages of time-spent in the open arms and entries into the open arms of the EPM versus vehicle-treated control group (p<0.05). Moreover, in the hole-board test, EMA (200 and 400?mg/kg) significantly increased the number of head-dips versus vehicle-treated control group (p<0.05). However, there were no changes in the locomotor activity and myorelaxant effects in any group compared with the vehicle-treated control group. In addition, the anxiolytic-like effects of EMA were abolished by thioperamide (10?mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)), which is a histamine H3 receptor antagonist. Moreover, results from reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) also revealed that the amygdalal histidine decarboxylase mRNA expression levels in EMA (200?mg/kg)-treated group were significantly higher than those in the vehicle-treated controls (p<0.05). These results suggest that EMA might prove to be an effective anxiolytic agent and that EMA acts via the histaminergic system in central nerve system.
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Role of cholecystectomy and lymph node dissection in patients with T2 gallbladder cancer.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Incidental findings of gallbladder cancer (GBCA) have dramatically increased as an initial presentation of the disease because of the expansion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, the optimal management of T2 GBCA remains at issue.
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Src regulates membrane trafficking of the Kv3.1b channel.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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The Kv3.1 channel plays a crucial role in regulating the high-frequency firing properties of neurons. Here, we determined whether Src regulates the subcellular distributions of the Kv3.1b channel. Co-expression of active Src induced a dramatic redistribution of Kv3.1b to the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, co-expression of the Kv3.1b channel with active Src induced a remarkable decrease in the pool of Kv3.1b at the cell surface. Moreover, the co-expression of active Src results in a significant decrease in the peak current densities of the Kv3.1b channel, and a substantial alteration in the voltage dependence of its steady-state inactivation. Taken together, these results indicate that Src kinase may play an important role in regulating membrane trafficking of Kv3.1b channels.
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Compound K, a metabolite of ginseng saponin, inhibits colorectal cancer cell growth and induces apoptosis through inhibition of histone deacetylase activity.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative effects of Compound K, with specific reference to histone modification. Exposure of HT-29 human colon cancer cells to Compound K resulted in time-dependent inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, mRNA and protein expression. Compound K treatment induced unmethylation of the RUNX3 promoter region such as TSA treatment and an accumulation of acetylated histones H3 and H4 within the total cellular chromatin, resulting in an enhanced ability of these histones to bind to the promoter sequences of the tumor suppressor gene Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3). Treatment of cells with Compound K increased the mRNA and protein expression of RUNX3, as well as p21, a downstream target of RUNX3. These alterations were consistent with cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phases and induction of apoptosis. Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms of Compound K action in human colorectal cancer cells and suggest that HDAC inhibition presents a novel approach to prevent or treat colorectal cancer.
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Methane-assisted chemical vapor deposition yielding millimeter-tall single-wall carbon nanotubes of smaller diameter.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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We examined the use of low purity H2 (96 vol % H2 with 4 vol % CH4) in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a C2H2 feedstock, and obtained vertically aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes (VA-SWCNTs) with unexpectedly smaller diameters, larger height, and higher quality compared with those grown using pure H2. During the catalyst annealing, carbon deposited at a small amount from CH4 on the Fe particles, which kept them small and dense. During CVD, CH4 prevented the Fe particles from coarsening, resulting in an enhanced growth lifetime and suppressed diameter increase of growing SWCNTs. These effects were observed only for CH4, and not for C2H4 or C2H2. CH4-assisted CVD is an efficient and practical method that uses H2 containing CH4 that is available as a byproduct in chemical factories.
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Genomic organization, sequence characterization and expression analysis of Tenebrio molitor apolipophorin-III in response to an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) is a well-known hemolymph protein having a functional role in lipid transport and immune response of insects. We cloned full-length cDNA encoding putative apoLp-III from larvae of the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor (TmapoLp-III), by identification of clones corresponding to the partial sequence of TmapoLp-III, subsequently followed with full length sequencing by a clone-by-clone primer walking method. The complete cDNA consists of 890 nucleotides, including an ORF encoding 196 amino acid residues. Excluding a putative signal peptide of the first 20 amino acid residues, the 176-residue mature apoLp-III has a calculated molecular mass of 19,146Da. Genomic sequence analysis with respect to its cDNA showed that TmapoLp-III was organized into four exons interrupted by three introns. Several immune-related transcription factor binding sites were discovered in the putative 5-flanking region. BLAST and phylogenetic analyses reveal that TmapoLp-III has high sequence identity (88%) with Tribolium castaneum apoLp-III but shares little sequence homologies (<26%) with other apoLp-IIIs. Homology modeling of Tm apoLp-III shows a bundle of five amphipathic alpha helices, including a short helix 3. The helix-short helix-helix motif was predicted to be implicated in lipid binding interactions, through reversible conformational changes and accommodating the hydrophobic residues to the exterior for stability. Highest level of TmapoLp-III mRNA was detected at late pupal stages, albeit it is expressed in the larval and adult stages at lower levels. The tissue specific expression of the transcripts showed significantly higher numbers in larval fat body and adult integument. In addition, TmapoLp-III mRNA was found to be highly upregulated in late stages of L. monocytogenes or E. coli challenge. These results indicate that TmapoLp-III may play an important role in innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens in T. molitor.
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The relationship between muscle fatigue and balance in the elderly.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2013
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To investigate the effect of gastrocnemius muscle fatigue on postural control ability in elderly people.
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Apoptotic markers in a prostate cancer cell line: effect of ellagic acid.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Ellagic acid (EA) inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in cultured cells; however, the precise molecular mechanism involved in EA-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells is unknown. The aim of the present study was to delineate possible apoptotic pathway(s) involved in the EA-mediated chemotherapeutic effects in the LNCaP human prostatic cancer cell line. EA produced anti-proliferative effects through inhibition of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and a reduction in intracellular levels of ?-catenin. Moreover, we demonstrated that EA induced apoptosis via downregulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins, silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), human antigen R (HuR) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). EA modulated the expression of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) resulting in a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the activation of caspase-3. Finally, we demonstrated that EA reduced both transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. EA treatment resulted in the increased expression of the tumor suppressor protein p21 and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells. In conclusion, the results suggest that EA treatment represents a new and highly effective strategy in reducing prostate cancer carcinogenesis.
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Danggui-Jakyak-San ameliorates memory impairment and increase neurogenesis induced by transient forebrain ischemia in mice.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Danggui-Jakyak-San (DJS), a traditional herbal prescription, has been used to treat insufficient blood supplies. Recently, regenerative medication for the treatment of cerebral ischemia has drawn the attention of many researchers.
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A strategy for enhancing the engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells in NOD/SCID mice.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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To overcome the limitations of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), we conducted a study to identify a strategy for enhancing hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment during HSCT. Co-transplantation experiments with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adult human tissues including bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue (AT), and umbilical cord blood (CB) were conducted. We showed that AT-MSCs and CB-MSCs enhanced the engraftment of HSCs as effectively as BM-MSCs in NOD/SCID mice, suggesting that AT-MSCs and CB-MSCs can be used as alternative stem cell sources for enhancing the engraftment and homing of HSCs. CB-MSCs derived from different donors showed different degrees of efficacy in enhancing the engraftment of HSCs. The most effective CB-MSCs showed higher proliferation rates and secreted more MCP-1, RANTES, EGF, and VEGF. Our results suggest that AT-MSCs and CB-MSCs could be alternative stem cell sources for co-transplantation in HSCT. Furthermore, in terms of MSCs heterogeneity, characteristics of each population of MSCs are considerable factors for selecting MSCs suitable for co-transplantation with HSC.
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Increased HO-1 levels ameliorate fatty liver development through a reduction of heme and recruitment of FGF21.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Obese leptin deficient (ob/ob) mice are a model of adiposity that displays increased levels of fat, glucose, and liver lipids. Our hypothesis is that HO-1 overexpression ameliorates fatty liver development.
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Ethanolic Extract of the Seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment Induced by Cholinergic Blockade in Mice.
Biomol Ther (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (EEZS) on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. Male ICR mice were treated with EEZS. The behavioral tests were conducted using the passive avoidance, the Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks. EEZS (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in our present behavioral tasks without changes of locomotor activity. The ameliorating effect of EEZS on scopolamine-induced memory impairment was significantly reversed by a sub-effective dose of MK-801 (0.0125 mg/kg, s.c.). In addition, single administration of EEZS in normal naïve mouse enhanced latency time in the passive avoidance task. Western blot analysis was employed to confirm the mechanism of memory-ameliorating effect of EEZS. Administration of EEZS (200 mg/kg) increased the level of memory-related signaling molecules, including phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase or cAMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampal region. Also, the time-dependent expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by the administration of EEZS was markedly increased from 3 to 9 h. These results suggest that EEZS has memory-ameliorating effect on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment, which is mediated by the enhancement of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system, in part, via NMDA receptor signaling, and that EEZS would be useful agent against cognitive dysfunction such as Alzheimers disease.
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Thrombospondin-2 secreted by human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells promotes chondrogenic differentiation.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Increasing evidence indicates that the secretome of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has therapeutic potential for the treatment of various diseases, including cartilage disorders. However, the paracrine mechanisms underlying cartilage repair by MSCs are poorly understood. Here, we show that human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) promoted differentiation of chondroprogenitor cells by paracrine action. This paracrine effect of hUCB-MSCs on chondroprogenitor cells was increased by treatment with synovial fluid (SF) obtained from osteoarthritis (OA) patients but was decreased by SF of fracture patients, compared to that of an untreated group. To identify paracrine factors underlying the chondrogenic effect of hUCB-MSCs, the secretomes of hUCB-MSCs stimulated by OA SF or fracture SF were analyzed using a biotin label-based antibody array. Among the proteins increased in response to these two kinds of SF, thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) was specifically increased in only OA SF-treated hUCB-MSCs. In order to determine the role of TSP-2, exogenous TSP-2 was added to a micromass culture of chondroprogenitor cells. We found that TSP-2 had chondrogenic effects on chondroprogenitor cells via PKC?, ERK, p38/MAPK, and Notch signaling pathways. Knockdown of TSP-2 expression on hUCB-MSCs using small interfering RNA abolished the chondrogenic effects of hUCB-MSCs on chondroprogenitor cells. In parallel with in vitro analysis, the cartilage regenerating effect of hUCB-MSCs and TSP-2 was also demonstrated using a rabbit full-thickness osteochondral-defect model. Our findings suggested that hUCB-MSCs can stimulate the differentiation of locally presented endogenous chondroprogenitor cells by TSP-2, which finally leads to cartilage regeneration.
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Distinct roles of DKK1 and DKK2 in tumor angiogenesis.
Angiogenesis
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Tumor angiogenesis is essential for tumor invasive growth and metastasis, and generates abnormal vascular structures unlike developmental neovessel formation. To reduce tumor vascular abnormalities such as leakage and perivascular cell coverage deficiency that limit cancer therapy effectiveness, novel therapeutic approaches focus on vessel normalization. We have previously shown that Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), a Wnt antagonist, inhibits and its homolog DKK2 enhances, angiogenesis in normal tissues. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DKK1 and DKK2 on tumor growth and angiogenesis. Treatment of B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice with adenovirus expressing DKK1 significantly reduced tumor growth but DKK2 increased growth compared with controls. Similar pattern of tumor growth was observed in endothelial-specific DKK1 and DKK2 transgenic mice. Interestingly, tumor vascular density and perfusion were significantly decreased by DKK1 but increased by DKK2. Moreover, coverage of blood vessels by pericytes was reduced by DKK1, while DKK2 increased it. We further observed that DKK1 diminished retinal vessel density and increased avascular area in an in vivo murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, whereas DKK2 showed opposite results. These findings demonstrate that DKK1 and DKK2 have differential roles in normalization and functionality of tumor blood vessels, in addition to angiogenesis.
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The attitude toward xenocorneal transplantation in wait-listed subjects for corneal transplantation in Korea.
Xenotransplantation
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Shortage of donor cornea is a significant problem in Asia, and xenocorneal transplantation is being actively studied to alleviate this problem. However, the attitudes of subjects who await corneal transplants toward xenocorneal transplantation are not known at all. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the attitudes of subjects on the waiting lists for corneal transplants, toward corneal xenotransplantation. A telephone questionnaire survey comprising six items was conducted in 132 subjects among the wait-listed individuals (n = 590) who were awaiting corneal transplantation or had undergone corneal transplantation at Seoul National University Hospital from July, 2003 to August, 2012. Among six inquiries, four questions were used to analyze attitudes toward corneal xenotransplantation. Each question pertained to (1) the acceptance of xenocorneal transplantation, (2) willingness to participate in clinical trials, (3) worries in xenocorneal transplantation, and (4) the concern of self-identity or social life after xenocorneal transplantation. To analyze demographic factors influencing the question, the subjects were arbitrarily divided into two groups: the young (age < 60 yr, n = 58) and the elderly (age ? 60 yr, n = 74) or the less-educated (n = 53) and the well-educated with high school diploma, college graduation, or higher education (n = 79). Collected demographic data were analyzed as influencing factors on each question using a chi-square and logistic regression tests. In this study, 42.4% of the subjects (n = 56) expressed favorable views on xenocorneal transplantation using porcine corneas to cure visual loss from corneal blindness. Among those subjects expressing favorable views (n = 56), the willingness to participate in clinical trials, knowing they and their spouses must undergo long-term surveillance, was 62.5% (n = 35). There were 76.5% of subjects (n = 101) expressing worries regarding xenocorneal transplantation, while 28.8% of subjects (n = 38) expressed their concerns about self-identity or social life after xenotransplantation. Younger subjects expressed more worry about xenotransplantation than elderly subjects. The well-educated expressed less concern over self-identity and social life than the less-educated. This survey among subjects who are wait-listed for corneal transplant or who have received a corneal transplant demonstrates that there is an interest in xenocorneal transplantation as an alternate procedure, although there are worries about the procedure that should be further explored in educational campaigns and future studies of the general population.
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Neoadjuvant intra-arterial chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and surgery in patients with advanced maxillary sinus cancer.
Radiat Oncol J
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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The optimal treatment of advanced maxillary sinus cancer has been challenging for several decades. Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for head and neck cancer has been controversial. We have analyzed the long-term outcome of neoadjuvant IAC followed by radiation therapy (RT) and surgery.
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Effects of incrementally increasing tidal volume on the cross-sectional area of the right internal jugular vein.
Korean J Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Different tidal volume (TV) settings during mechanical ventilation alter intrathoracic blood volume, and these changes could alter central venous pressure and the cross sectional area (CSA) of the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The aim of this study was to determine the optimal TV for maximizing the CSA of the RIJV in the supine and Trendelenburg positions in anesthetized patients.
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Identification and expression analysis of a novel R-type lectin from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor.
J. Invertebr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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We have identified novel ricin-type (R-type) lectin by sequencing of random clones from cDNA library of the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNA sequence is comprised of 495 bp encoding a protein of 164 amino acid residues and shows 49% identity with galectin of Tribolium castaneum. Bioinformatics analysis shows that the amino acid residues from 35 to 162 belong to ricin-type beta-trefoil structure. The transcript was significantly upregulated after early hours of injection with peptidoglycans derived from Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria, beta-1, 3 glucan from fungi and an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes suggesting putative function in innate immunity.
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Extracting optical modes of organic light-emitting diodes using quasi-periodic WO3 nanoislands.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Quasi-periodic WO(3) nanoislands are introduced to extract two optical modes in organic light-emitting diodes. The nano-scaled and size-tunable WO(3) islands were fabricated by use of wet-etching with self-aggregated Ag mask. The improvement of light extraction efficiency originates to the recovery of light losses which are surface plasmon mode and waveguide mode. As a result, external quantum efficiency and power efficiency were increased. No changes in emission spectrum and CIE color coordinates with WO(3) nanoislands at various observation angles are desirable if this device is to be utilized in optical system. Furthermore, cost-effective fabrication makes it possible to adopt this system in large area fabrication.
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Aqueous dispersible graphene/Pt nanohybrids by green chemistry: application as cathodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Aqueous dispersible nanohybrids (NHBs) of graphene nanosheets (GNSs) and Pt nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) were synthesized through the one-pot reduction of their precursors using an environmentally benign chemical, vitamin C. The concurrent reduction of the precursors, which includes graphene oxide (GO) to GNS and H2PtCl6 to Pt(0), was facile and efficient to yield GNS/Pt-NHBs in which face-centered cubic (fcc) crystalline Pt-NPs with average diameters of ~5 nm were robustly attached on the surface of the GNSs. The conversion yield during Pt reduction was fairly high (?90%) and the Pt content within the NHBs was easily controllable. The resulting stable aqueous colloidal dispersion of GNS/Pt-NHBs was successfully fabricated as thin films without using any binder by the electro-spray method at room temperature, and the fabricated samples were used as counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The electrocatalytic activity of the NHBs for I(-)/I3(-) redox couples in conventional DSSCs was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. Doping of GNSs with small amounts of Pt-NPs (<10 wt %) could dramatically enhance the redox kinetics. The enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the GNS/Pt-NHBs was reflected in the performance of the DSSCs. The power conversion efficiency of optimized DSSCs using the NHB-CEs was 8.91% (VOC: 830 mV, JSC: 15.56 mAcm(-2), and FF: 69%), which is comparable to that of devices using the state-of-the-art Pt-based CEs (8.85%).
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Is It Possible to Predict the Iron Status from an Infants Diet History?
Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Iron deficiency remains a very common nutritional problem despite the improvement in nutrition and increased understanding of methods for its prevention. Thus, we try to create a new method for screening iron nutrition through infant nutrition history.
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Effect of propranolol on the treatment of infantile hemangiomas: a single tertiary center 3-year experience.
J Dermatolog Treat
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
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Background: Propranolol has recently become a successful first-line therapy in the treatment of infantile hemangiomas (IHs). Objective:To evaluate and analyze the authors experience of propranolol treatment for IHs. Methods: A retrospective, observational study was conducted. Medical records were reviewed. To evaluate the outcome of treatment, serial digital photographs using a visual analog scale were compared. Results:Eighty-three patients with a mean age of 5.35 ± 5.15 months had 107 IHs treated by oral propranolol at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day. The mean percent improvement in the size and extent were 14.3% at 1 week, 45.4% at 9 weeks, 69.1% at 21 weeks and 83.8% at 53 weeks after beginning propranolol treatment. Eight patients (9.6%) reported mild side effects including hypoglycemia (n = 4), hypotension without associated symptoms (n = 2), bradycardia (n = 1) and somnolence (n = 1). Regrowth of IH after cessation of propranolol was reported in 18 patients (21.7%). There is no significant predictor of response to treatment and regrowth after cessation of treatment. Conclusions: Propranolol was highly effective and safe in the treatment of IHs. Effect of propranolol treatment started rapidly within 1 week, and was very promising regardless of patients and lesions characteristics. Based on the authors observation, they suggest that treatment should be continued several months after the proliferative phase is considered to stop clinically.
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Dampening of expression oscillations by synchronous regulation of a microRNA and its target.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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The complexity of multicellular organisms requires precise spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression during development. We find that in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans approximately 2,000 transcripts undergo expression oscillations synchronized with larval transitions while thousands of genes are expressed in temporal gradients, similar to known timing regulators. By counting transcripts in individual worms, we show that pulsatile expression of the microRNA (miRNA) lin-4 maintains the temporal gradient of its target lin-14 by dampening its expression oscillations. Our results demonstrate that this insulation is optimal when pulsatile expression of the miRNA and its target is synchronous. We propose that such a miRNA-mediated incoherent feed-forward loop is a potent filter that prevents the propagation of potentially deleterious fluctuations in gene expression during the development of an organism.
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CBF? stabilizes HIV Vif to counteract APOBEC3 at the expense of RUNX1 target gene expression.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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The HIV-1 accessory protein Vif hijacks a cellular Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase, CRL5, to promote degradation of the APOBEC3 (A3) family of restriction factors. Recently, the cellular transcription cofactor CBF? was shown to form a complex with CRL5-Vif and to be essential for A3 degradation and viral infectivity. We now demonstrate that CBF? is required for assembling a well-ordered CRL5-Vif complex by inhibiting Vif oligomerization and by activating CRL5-Vif via direct interaction. The CRL5-Vif-CBF? holoenzyme forms a well-defined heterohexamer, indicating that Vif simultaneously hijacks CRL5 and CBF?. Heterodimers of CBF? and RUNX transcription factors contribute toward the regulation of genes, including those with immune system functions. We show that binding of Vif to CBF? is mutually exclusive with RUNX heterodimerization and impacts the expression of genes whose regulatory domains are associated with RUNX1. Our results provide a mechanism by which a pathogen with limited coding capacity uses one factor to hijack multiple host pathways.
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Epileptic nystagmus and vertigo associated with bilateral temporal and frontal lobe epilepsy.
Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Epileptic nystagmus is defined as a quick, repetitive jerky movement of the eyeball associated with seizure activity. In cases of epileptic nystagmus associated with ictal discharge from multiple brain areas, localization of the exact epileptogenic zone could be extremely difficult. In a nine-year-old patient with epileptic nystagmus and vertigo associated with bilateral temporal and frontal lobe epilepsy, we could infer the epileptic focus by interpreting the patients clinical picture, characteristics of nystagmus, and findings of electroencephalography.
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A new rat model for investigation of subglottic stenosis.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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This study attempted to develop a new rat model of subglottic stenosis (SGS), resulting from subglottic mucosal injury administered by electrocauterization. Despite failure of the posterior SGS model, the anterior SGS model was considered feasible.
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Two replication fork maintenance pathways fuse inverted repeats to rearrange chromosomes.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Replication fork maintenance pathways preserve chromosomes, but their faulty application at nonallelic repeats could generate rearrangements causing cancer, genomic disorders and speciation. Potential causal mechanisms are homologous recombination and error-free postreplication repair (EF-PRR). Homologous recombination repairs damage-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-ended DSBs within replication. To facilitate homologous recombination, the recombinase RAD51 and mediator BRCA2 form a filament on the 3 DNA strand at a break to enable annealing to the complementary sister chromatid while the RecQ helicase, BLM (Bloom syndrome mutated) suppresses crossing over to prevent recombination. Homologous recombination also stabilizes and restarts replication forks without a DSB. EF-PRR bypasses DNA incongruities that impede replication by ubiquitinating PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) using the RAD6-RAD18 and UBC13-MMS2-RAD5 ubiquitin ligase complexes. Some components are common to both homologous recombination and EF-PRR such as RAD51 and RAD18. Here we delineate two pathways that spontaneously fuse inverted repeats to generate unstable chromosomal rearrangements in wild-type mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Gamma-radiation induced a BLM-regulated pathway that selectively fused identical, but not mismatched, repeats. By contrast, ultraviolet light induced a RAD18-dependent pathway that efficiently fused mismatched repeats. Furthermore, TREX2 (a 3?5 exonuclease) suppressed identical repeat fusion but enhanced mismatched repeat fusion, clearly separating these pathways. TREX2 associated with UBC13 and enhanced PCNA ubiquitination in response to ultraviolet light, consistent with it being a novel member of EF-PRR. RAD18 and TREX2 also suppressed replication fork stalling in response to nucleotide depletion. Interestingly, replication fork stalling induced fusion for identical and mismatched repeats, implicating faulty replication as a causal mechanism for both pathways.
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Comparative sequence analysis of nitrogen fixation-related genes in six legumes.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Legumes play an important role as food and forage crops in international agriculture especially in developing countries. Legumes have a unique biological process called nitrogen fixation (NF) by which they convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Although legume genomes have undergone polyploidization, duplication and divergence, NF-related genes, because of their essential functional role for legumes, might have remained conserved. To understand the relationship of divergence and evolutionary processes in legumes, this study analyzes orthologs and paralogs for selected 20 NF-related genes by using comparative genomic approaches in six legumes i.e., Medicago truncatula (Mt), Cicer arietinum, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan (Cc), Phaseolus vulgaris (Pv), and Glycine max (Gm). Subsequently, sequence distances, numbers of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks) and non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site (Ka) between orthologs and paralogs were calculated and compared across legumes. These analyses suggest the closest relationship between Gm and Cc and the highest distance between Mt and Pv in six legumes. Ks proportional plots clearly showed ancient genome duplication in all legumes, whole genome duplication event in Gm and also speciation pattern in different legumes. This study also reports some interesting observations e.g., no peak at Ks 0.4 in Gm-Gm, location of two independent genes next to each other in Mt and low Ks values for outparalogs for three genes as compared to other 12 genes. In summary, this study underlines the importance of NF-related genes and provides important insights in genome organization and evolutionary aspects of six legume species analyzed.
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Hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling has a role in passive avoidance memory retrieval induced by GABAA Receptor modulation in mice.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Available evidence strongly suggests that the ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor has a crucial role in memory retrieval. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying the role of GABA(A) receptor modulation in memory retrieval are unclear. We conducted one-trial passive avoidance task with pre-retention trial drug administration in the hippocampus to test the effects of GABA(A) receptor modulation on memory retrieval. We further tested the co-involvement of signaling molecules: extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB). First, we observed that the phosphorylation of hippocampal ERK was required for memory retrieval during the task. Accordingly, to investigate whether GABA(A) receptor activation or inhibition induces ERK phosphorylation during memory retrieval, drugs that target the GABA(A) receptor were administered into the hippocampus before the retention trial. Muscimol, a GABA(A) receptor agonist, and diazepam, an agonist to benzodiazepine-binding site of GABA(A) receptor, blocked retention trial-induced ERK phosphorylation and impaired memory retrieval. Furthermore, co-treatment with sub-effective dose of U0126, a mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, blocked the upregulation of ERK phosphorylation and impaired memory retrieval, and bicuculline methiodide (BMI), a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, increased ERK phosphorylation induced by the retention trial and facilitated memory retrieval. Finally, the effects of BMI were blocked by the co-application of a sub-effective dose of U0126. These results suggest that GABA(A) receptor-mediated memory retrieval is closely related to ERK activity.
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Different characteristics of reactive oxygen species production by human keratinocyte cell line cells in response to allergens and irritants.
Exp. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2011
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Keratinocytes mount immune responses through the secretion of a variety of inflammatory cytokines, soluble proteins and reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the role of ROS in keratinocytes in response to allergens and irritants has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the (i) ROS production; (ii) potential sites of ROS production; (iii) expression of cell surface molecules; (iv) secretion of cytokines; and (v) ROS-dependent protein carbonylation in chemical-treated human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) cells. Treatment of HaCaT cells with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and benzalkonium chloride (BKC) increased ROS levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner, as determined with dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CM-H(2) DCFDA), without reducing cell viability. Potential sources of ROS production were evaluated with pretreatment of diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase; rotenone, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex or allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. The DNCB-induced ROS was related to both NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex. Conversely, BKC-induced ROS was related to NADPH oxidase only. Western blotting using an anti-DNP antibody revealed ROS-dependent protein carbonylation in response to DNCB but not BKC. Both DNCB and BKC increased the secretion of IL-1? from HaCaT cells; however, ROS production as well as other changes, except DNCB-induced secretion of IL-1?, was not inhibited by antioxidants. Although the role of ROS in keratinocytes in response to chemicals was inconclusive, our results suggest that the characteristics of ROS produced by keratinocytes in response to chemicals might differ.
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Highly selective CO2 capture on N-doped carbon produced by chemical activation of polypyrrole functionalized graphene sheets.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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N-doped porous carbon produced via chemical activation of polypyrrole functionalized graphene sheets shows selective adsorption of CO(2) (4.3 mmol g(-1)) over N(2) (0.27 mmol g(-1)) at 298 K. The potential for large scale production and facile regeneration makes this material useful for industrial applications.
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Robotic central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy (transgastric approach) in a solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
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Function preserving minimal invasive pancreatectomy is thought to be ideal approach for benign and borderline malignant tumors of the pancreas because these tumors can be expected for longterm survival. Pancreatic tumor in the neck of the pancreas is a challenging issue. Pancreaticoduodenectomy and distal pancreatectomy with/without splenectomy are the usual modes of surgery for them. Central pancreatectomy is a rare surgical procedure, even in open surgery. With the development of laparoscopic experiences, a few cases of laparoscopic central pancreatectomy have begun to be reported, but they are believed to be still demanding tremendous laparoscopic skills and experiences. However, advancements in technology have encouraged surgeons to overcome the limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery. Herein, we report a case of robot-assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy (transgastric approach). Wrist-like movements of effector instruments and stable 3-D visualization provided by the robot surgical system are believed to enhance the precise and safe laparoscopic performance. More experiences need to be accumulated in order to evaluate the real value of robot pancreatic surgery.
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Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of Yukatan minipig brains for neurotherapy applications.
Lab Anim Res
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of six Yukatan minipig brains was performed. The animals were placed in stereotaxic conditions currently used in experiments. To allow for correctpositioning of the animal in the MRI instrument, landmarks were previously traced on the snout of the pig. To avoid movements, animal were anesthetized. The animals were placed in a prone position in a Siemens Magnetom Avanto 1.5 System with a head coil. Axial T2-weighted and sagittal T1-weighted MRI images were obtained from each pig. Afterwards, the brains of the pigs were fixed and cut into axial sections. Histologic and MR images were compared. The usefulness of this technique is discussed.
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Immunotherapy of malignant melanoma with tumor lysate-pulsed autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
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Dendritic cell (DC) vaccination for melanoma was introduced because melanoma carries distinct tumor-associated antigens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of DC vaccination for melanoma in Korea.
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Artificial external glottic device for passive lung insufflation.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
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For patients with neuromuscular disease, air stacking, which inflates the lungs to deep volumes, is important for many reasons. However, neuromuscular patients with severe glottic dysfunction or indwelling tracheostomy tubes cannot air stack effectively. For these patients, we developed a device that permits deep lung insufflations substituting for glottic function.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.