Novel blue-emitting LaOBr:Eu(2+) and LaOI:Eu(2+) phosphors have been successfully synthesized and compared to LaOCl:Eu(2+). The emission spectra of LaOX:Eu(2+) (X = Cl, Br, and I) show that the peak maxima change somewhat to the red-shift region; 425 nm for LaOCl:Eu(2+), 427 nm for LaOBr:Eu(2+), and 431 nm for LaOI:Eu(2+), which is quite opposite to one based on spectrochemical series (I(-) < Br(-) < Cl(-)). From diffuse reflectance spectra, the band gap energies for LaOCl, LaOBr, and LaOI host lattice are estimated as 5.53 eV (44?594 cm(-1)), 5.35 eV (43?142 cm(-1)), and 4.82 eV (38?868 cm(-1)), respectively, using the Kubelka-Munk function. For LaOX host lattices, the band gap energies are gradually decreased going from Cl to I as the order of energy levels of np orbitals is Cl 3p < Br 4p < I 5p. A quantum wave function calculation from crystal field theory (CFT) indicates the same tendency with experimental data in the LaOX:Eu(2+) (X = Cl, Br, and I) phosphor materials. With considerations of the radial wave function shape, crystral structure differences and electronegativities among phosphor materials, the splitting energies of 5d orbitals are calculaed; ?ECl = 14?597 cm(-1), ?EBr = 14?864 cm(-1), ?EI = 15?001 cm(-1) for LaOX:Eu(2+) (X = Cl, Br, and I). It is noteworthy that the crystal field strength decreases when the interatomic distance decreases, which is probably dependent on the ionic radius of halide ions in the series of LaOX:Eu(2+) phosphor materials.
Strokes attributable to subcortical infarcts have been increasing recently in elderly patients. To gain insight how this lesion influences the motor outcome and responds to rehabilitative training, we used circumscribed photothrombotic capsular infarct models on 36 Sprague-Dawley rats (24 experimental and 12 sham-operated). We used 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]-fluoro-D-glucose-micro positron emission tomography (FDG-microPET) to assess longitudinal changes in resting-state brain activity (rs-BA) and daily single-pellet reaching task (SPRT) trainings to evaluate motor recovery. Longitudinal FDG-microPET results showed that capsular infarct resulted in a persistent decrease in rs-BA in bilateral sensory and auditory cortices, and ipsilesional motor cortex, thalamus, and inferior colliculus (P<0.0025, false discovery rate (FDR) q<0.05). The decreased rs-BA is compatible with diaschisis and contributes to manifest the malfunctions of lesion-specific functional connectivity. In contrast, capsular infarct resulted in increase of rs-BA in the ipsilesional internal capsule, and contralesional red nucleus and ventral hippocampus in recovery group (P<0.0025, FDR q<0.05), implying that remaining subcortical structures have an important role in conducting the recovery process in capsular infarct. The SPRT training facilitated motor recovery only in rats with an incomplete destruction of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) (Pearson's correlation, P<0.05). Alternative therapeutic interventions are required to enhance the potential for recovery in capsular infarct with complete destruction of PLIC.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 29 October 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.178.
We present a new method for inducing a circumscribed subcortical capsular infarct (SCI), which imposes a persistent motor impairment in rats. Photothrombotic destruction of the internal capsule (IC) was conducted in Sprague Dawley rats (male; n=38). The motor performance of all animals was assessed using forelimb placing, forelimb use asymmetry, and the single pellet reaching test. On the basis of the degree of motor recovery, rats were subdivided into either the poor recovery group (PRG) or the moderate recovery group (MRG). Imaging assessment of the impact of SCI on brain metabolism was performed using 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]-fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]-FDG) microPET (positron emission tomography). Photothrombotic lesioning using low light energy selectively disrupted circumscribed capsular fibers. The MRG showed recovery of motor performance after 1 week, but the PRG showed a persistent motor impairment for >3 weeks. Damage to the posterior limb of the IC (PLIC) is more effective for producing a severe motor deficit. Analysis of PET data revealed decreased regional glucose metabolism in the ipsilesional motor and bilateral sensory cortex and increased metabolism in the contralesional motor cortex and bilateral hippocampus during the early recovery period after SCI. Behavioral, histologic, and functional imaging findings support the usefulness of this novel SCI rat model for investigating motor recovery.
Subdural cortical stimulation (SuCS) is a method used to inject electrical current through electrodes beneath the dura mater, and is known to be useful in treating brain disorders. However, precisely how SuCS must be applied to yield the most effective results has rarely been investigated. For this purpose, we developed a three-dimensional computational model that represents an anatomically realistic brain model including an upper chest. With this computational model, we investigated the influence of stimulation amplitudes, electrode configurations (single or paddle-array), and white matter conductivities (isotropy or anisotropy). Further, the effects of stimulation were compared with two other computational models, including an anatomically realistic brain-only model and the simplified extruded slab model representing the precentral gyrus area. The results of voltage stimulation suggested that there was a synergistic effect with the paddle-array due to the use of multiple electrodes; however, a single electrode was more efficient with current stimulation. The conventional model (simplified extruded slab) far overestimated the effects of stimulation with both voltage and current by comparison to our proposed realistic upper body model. However, the realistic upper body and full brain-only models demonstrated similar stimulation effects. In our investigation of the influence of anisotropic conductivity, model with a fixed ratio (1?10) anisotropic conductivity yielded deeper penetration depths and larger extents of stimulation than others. However, isotropic and anisotropic models with fixed ratios (1?2, 1?5) yielded similar stimulation effects. Lastly, whether the reference electrode was located on the right or left chest had no substantial effects on stimulation.
Cortical stimulation (CS) is an appealing and emerging treatment for neurological disorders. CS is known to promote functional recovery effectively; however, its underlying mechanism and the optimal parameters for the effective treatment are not clearly understood. In this work, we developed a realistic three-dimensional full head and chest model for subdural CS. Our proposed model was compared at the neuron level with an existing simplified extruded slab partial head model depicting around precentral gyral cortex only. Each model was coupled with the pyramidal neuronal model in order to investigate an extent of neuronal excitation. We found that the crown of the cortex was the most excitable area in the unipolar stimulation, while in the bipolar stimulation, the lip and bank were excited more easily than other areas. Finally, it was evident that our proposed model was substantially different in excitation threshold from the existing simplified model, which is compelling to do computational CS study on more realistic head models.
Cortical stimulation (CS) has gained wide attention for its use in augmenting neurological recovery in various conditions. Noninvasive cortical stimulations using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are less invasive when delivering the electrical current to the patients brain, but have several limitations. Direct cortical stimulation (DCS) using an implantable stimulation system consisting of epidurally or subdurally placed electrodes and pulse generators, provides cortical stimulation and concurrent rehabilitative training in a stable fashion without limiting a patients activities. The effectiveness of these two types of DCS--epidural cortical stimulation (ECS) and subdural cortical stimulation (SCS)--has not been compared. In this work, a computer simulation study was conducted to predict the current density distributions (CDD) through cortical stimulations using subdurally or epidurally placed electrodes. The simulation study is based on the human motor cortex model with a three-dimensional finite element model (FEM). The change in CDD depending on the shape of the electrode (disc or ring) is discussed. The output current induced by SCS was about four times larger than that of ECS when voltage stimulations with the same magnitude were regulated. Thus, SCS showed substantially better penetration of the current into gray or white matter. Further, the ring electrode performed comparably or slightly inferior to the disc electrode in both cortical stimulations.
Cortical stimulation (CS) is an appealing method for treating stroke and other disorders by promoting functional recovery. It is necessary to study the effect of different cortical stimulation types through numerical simulations in order to understand the underlying mechanism. In this paper, we simulated four types of invasive CS - unipolar ECS (epidural CS), bipolar ECS, unipolar SCS (subdural CS), and bipolar SCS - to investigate and compare the effects of stimulation types. Current stimulation was considered to increase the observability of the comparison between ECS and SCS. The simulation results obtained from the 3D precentral gyrus model showed ECS and SCS had similar current density distributions with higher stimulated current. However, the differences between bipolar and unipolar stimulation are significant with higher stimulated current. As stimulated current increased, unipolar CS penetrated deeper and wider regions than bipolar CS, so it can be more effective for functional recovery.
We investigated the effect of electrode type and stimulation condition (voltage stimulation and current stimulation) in bi-polar subdural cortical stimulation (SCS). For this study, we developed a 3D realistic head model using MRI data with 1 mm(3) spatial resolution and simulated the model using the finite element method (FEM). For each study, we used three types of electrodes - disc, ring, and covered-disc - and three efficiency measures - effective depth of penetration, effective volume, and amount of CSF leakage current - to compare the effectiveness of the stimulation between two stimulation conditions. With voltage stimulation, there was no difference in effectiveness between the disc and ring electrodes. However, the amount of CSF leakage current for the covered-disc type was lower than that for the others. The effective depth of penetration and volume for the ring and disc type electrodes were higher than those for the covered-disc type. The current stimulation using the covered-disc electrode penetrated deeper than the other types of electrodes, and the CSF leakage current was still low. The result for voltage and current stimulation was quite different, as the substrate design manipulated the impedance and output current. In the current simulation, if the electrode was covered with the substrate, more current flowed to the cortex. On the other hand, with voltage stimulation, this substrate design makes the impedance between electrodes high, and the total current is reduced.
There exist many academic search solutions and most of them can be put on either ends of spectrum: general-purpose search and domain-specific "deep" search systems. The general-purpose search systems, such as PubMed, offer flexible query interface, but churn out a list of matching documents that users have to go through the results in order to find the answers to their queries. On the other hand, the "deep" search systems, such as PPI Finder and iHOP, return the precompiled results in a structured way. Their results, however, are often found only within some predefined contexts. In order to alleviate these problems, we introduce a new search engine, BOSS, Biomedical Object Search System.
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