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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Epidemiology of Viral-Associated Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection among Children <5 Years of Age in a High HIV Prevalence Setting, South Africa, 2009-2012.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Data on the epidemiology of viral-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) from high HIV prevalence settings are limited. We aimed to describe LRTI hospitalisations amongst South African children aged <5 years.
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Epidemiology of influenza virus types and subtypes in South Africa, 2009-2012.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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To determine clinical and epidemiologic differences between influenza caused by different virus types and subtypes, we identified patients and tested specimens. Patients were children and adults hospitalized with confirmed influenza and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) identified through active, prospective, hospital-based surveillance from 2009-2012 in South Africa. Respiratory specimens were tested, typed, and subtyped for influenza virus by PCR. Of 16,005 SARI patients tested, 1,239 (8%) were positive for influenza virus. Patient age and co-infections varied according to virus type and subtype, but disease severity did not. Case-patients with influenza B were more likely than patients with influenza A to be HIV infected. A higher proportion of case-patients infected during the first wave of the 2009 influenza pandemic were 5-24 years of age (19%) than were patients infected during the second wave (9%). Although clinical differences exist, treatment recommendations do not differ according to subtype; prevention through vaccination is recommended.
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High nasopharyngeal pneumococcal density, increased by viral coinfection, is associated with invasive pneumococcal pneumonia.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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We identified factors associated with pneumococcal colonization, high colonization density, and invasive pneumococcal pneumonia among patients hospitalized with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs).
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Genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of human rhinoviruses in South Africa.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Rhinoviruses (RV) are a well-established cause of respiratory illness. RV-C has been associated with more severe illness. We aimed to characterize and compare the clinical presentations and disease severity of different RV type circulating in South Africa.
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Incidence of TB and HIV in prospectively followed household contacts of TB index patients in South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To report the incidence rates of TB and HIV in household contacts of index patients diagnosed with TB.
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Severe influenza-associated respiratory infection in high HIV prevalence setting, South Africa, 2009-2011.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Data on influenza epidemiology in HIV-infected persons are limited, particularly for sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV infection is widespread. We tested respiratory and blood samples from patients with acute lower respiratory tract infections hospitalized in South Africa during 2009-2011 for viral and pneumococcal infections. Influenza was identified in 9% (1,056/11,925) of patients enrolled; among influenza case-patients, 358 (44%) of the 819 who were tested were infected with HIV. Influenza-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection incidence was 4-8 times greater for HIV-infected (186-228/100,000) than for HIV-uninfected persons (26-54/100,000). Furthermore, multivariable analysis showed HIV-infected patients were more likely to have pneumococcal co-infection; to be infected with influenza type B compared with type A; to be hospitalized for 2-7 days or >7 days; and to die from their illness. These findings indicate that HIV-infected persons are at greater risk for severe illnesses related to influenza and thus should be prioritized for influenza vaccination.
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HIV and Influenza Virus Infections Are Associated With Increased Blood Pneumococcal Load: A Prospective, Hospital-Based Observational Study in South Africa, 2009-2011.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Background.?Increased pneumococcal loads are associated with severe outcomes. We determined the prevalence of pneumococcal DNA in blood specimens from patients hospitalized with acute lower respiratory tract infection and identified factors associated with invasive pneumococcal pneumonia, bacterial loads, and death. Methods.?A total of 8523 patients were enrolled as part of prospective hospital-based surveillance. Blood was collected for quantitative pneumococcal (lytA) detection, and nasopharyngeal specimens were collected for detection of influenza virus and other respiratory viruses by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results.?Of 6396 cases (75%) with lytA results, 422 (7%) were positive for pneumococcal DNA. The prevalences of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza virus were 51% (2965/5855) and 8% (485/6358), respectively. On multivariable analysis, HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-3.6), influenza virus coinfection (aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-2.1), oxygen therapy during admission (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3) and in-hospital death (aOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.0) were significantly associated with increased pneumococcal load. Among lytA-positive patients, after adjustment for length of hospitalization, duration of symptoms, and oxygen therapy during admission, pneumococcal loads ?10,000 DNA copies/mL (aOR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.8-7.2) were associated with increased risk of death. Conclusions.?HIV and influenza virus infections were associated with elevated pneumococcal loads, which, in turn, were associated with increased risk of death.
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High prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis but low sensitivity of symptom screening among HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Symptom screening is a recommended component of intensified case-finding (ICF) for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected individuals. Symptomatic individuals are further investigated to either exclude or diagnose pulmonary TB, thus reducing the number of individuals requiring costly laboratory investigation. Those with laboratory evaluations negative for pulmonary TB or who lack symptoms may be eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and/or TB isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). A four-part symptom screen has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for identifying TB suspects and those unlikely to have TB. A meta-analysis of studies among HIV-infected individuals calculated a sensitivity of 90.1% for the four-part symptoms screen--of any of cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss--among patients in clinical care, making it an effective tool for identifying most patients with TB. An important population for intensified case-finding not included in that meta-analysis was HIV-infected pregnant women. We undertook a cross-sectional survey among HIV-infected pregnant women receiving prenatal care at community clinics in South Africa. We obtained a four-symptom review and sputum smear microscopy and mycobacterial culture on all participants. Among 1415 women, 226 (16%) had a positive symptom screen, and 35 (2.5%) were newly diagnosed with culture-positive TB. Twelve were on TB treatment at the time of screening, yielding 47 (3.3%) women with prevalent TB. Symptom screening among women without known TB had a sensitivity of 28% and specificity of 84%. The poor performance of symptom screening to identify women with TB suggests that other approaches may be needed for intensified case-finding to be effective for this population.
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Quantitative analysis of a urine-based assay for detection of lipoarabinomannan in patients with tuberculosis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2010
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Urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) detection is a promising approach for rapid diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB). In microbiologically confirmed TB patients, quantitative LAM detection results increased progressively with bacillary burden and immunosuppression. Patients with disseminated TB and/or advanced HIV are target populations for whom urine LAM detection may be particularly useful.
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Diagnostic accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in hospitalized patients in a High HIV prevalence setting.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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Effective tuberculosis (TB) control in HIV-prevalent settings is hindered by absence of accurate, rapid TB diagnostic tests. We evaluated the accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test for TB diagnosis in South Africa.
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Costs of inpatient treatment for multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
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In South Africa, patients with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are hospitalised from MDR-TB treatment initiation until culture conversion. Although MDR-TB accounts for <3% of incident TB in South Africa, 55% of the public sector TB budget is spent on MDR-TB. To inform new strategies for MDR-TB management, we estimated the per-patient cost (USD 2011) of inpatient MDR-TB treatment.
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Cost and resource use of patients on antiretroviral therapy in the urban and semiurban public sectors of South Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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South Africa has the worlds largest number of patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART). As coverage expands beyond urban environments, the cost of care is becoming increasingly important.
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Community-based targeted case finding for tuberculosis and HIV in household contacts of patients with tuberculosis in South Africa.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
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South Africa has a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV-coinfected adults in whom TB is often diagnosed late in the course of disease.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.